Abraham Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God; the narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of land. Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land given to Canaan but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward. Abraham purchases a tomb at Hebron to be Sarah's grave. Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons; the Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, it is agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history. A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses and the Exodus tradition.
Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram and Haran. The entire family, including grandchildren, lived in Ur of the Chaldees. In his youth, Abram worked in Terah's idol shop. Haran was the father of Lot, thus Lot was Abram's nephew. Haran died in Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, barren. Terah, with Abram and Lot departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, curse them who may curse him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, the substance and souls that they had acquired, traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.
When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong. Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Sarai leave; when they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen; the conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abram's nephew, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces.
The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies. Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target. One person who escaped capture told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were worn down from the Battle of Siddim; when they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus, they freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, recovered all of the goods from Sodom, taken. Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Melchizedek king of Salem, a priest of God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God.
Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled; the voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ce
Rachel was a Biblical figure, the favorite of Jacob's two wives, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, two of the twelve progenitors of the tribes of Israel. Rachel's father was Laban, her older sister was Jacob's first wife. Her aunt Rebekah was Jacob's mother. Rachel is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 29 when Jacob happens upon her as she is about to water her father's flock, she was the second daughter of Rebekah's brother, making Jacob her first cousin. Jacob had traveled a great distance to find Laban. Rebekah had sent him there to be safe from Esau. During Jacob's stay, he fell in love with Rachel and agreed to work seven years for Laban in return for her hand in marriage. On the night of the wedding, the bride was veiled and Jacob did not notice that Leah, Rachel's older sister, had been substituted for Rachel. Whereas "Rachel was lovely in form and beautiful", "Leah had tender eyes". Jacob confronted Laban, who excused his own deception by insisting that the older sister should marry first.
He assured Jacob that after his wedding week was finished, he could take Rachel as a wife as well, work another seven years as payment for her. When God "saw that Leah was unloved, he opened her womb", she gave birth to four sons. Rachel, like Rebecca, remained unable to conceive. According to Tikva Frymer-Kensky, "The infertility of the matriarchs has two effects: it heightens the drama of the birth of the eventual son, marking Isaac and Joseph as special. Bilhah gave birth to two sons that Rachel raised. Leah responds by offering her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob, names and raises the two sons that Zilpah bears. According to some commentaries and Zilpah are half-sisters of Leah and Rachel. After Leah conceived again, Rachel was blessed with a son, who would become Jacob's favorite child. Rachel's son Joseph was destined to be the leader of Israel's tribes between nationhood; this role is exemplified in the Biblical story of Joseph, who prepared the way in Egypt for his family's exile there. After Joseph's birth, Jacob decided to return to the land of Canaan with his family.
Fearing that Laban would deter him, he fled with his two wives and Rachel, twelve children without informing his father-in-law. Laban accused him of stealing his idols. Indeed, Rachel had taken her father's idols, hidden them inside her camel's seat cushion, sat upon them. Laban had neglected to give his daughters their inheritance. Not knowing that the idols were in his wife's possession, Jacob pronounced a curse on whoever had them: "With whoever you will find your gods, he will not live". Laban proceeded to search the tents of Jacob and his wives, but when he came to Rachel's tent, she told her father, "Let not my lord be angered that I cannot rise up before you, for the way of women is upon me". Laban left her alone. Near Ephrath, Rachel went into a difficult labor with Benjamin; the midwife told her in the middle of the birth. Before she died, Rachel named her son Ben Oni. Rashi explains that Ben Yamin either means "son of the right", since Benjamin was the only one of Jacob's sons born in Canaan, to the south of Paddan Aram.
Rachel was buried on the road to Efrat, just outside Bethlehem, not in the ancestral tomb at Machpelah. Today a site claimed to be Rachel's Tomb, located between Bethlehem and the Israeli settlement of Gilo, is visited by tens of thousands of visitors each year.. The Rachel's tomb is told to be in the ancient city of Zelzah in the land of the Tribe of Benjamin. Mordecai, the hero of the Book of Esther, Queen Esther herself, were descendants of Rachel through her son Benjamin; the Book of Esther details Mordecai's lineage as "Mordecai the son of Yair, the son of Shimi, the son of Kish, a man of the right". The designation of ish yemini refers to his membership in the Tribe of Benjamin; the rabbis comment that Esther's ability to remain silent in the palace of Ahasuerus, resisting the king's pressure to reveal her ancestry, was inherited from her ancestor Rachel, who remained silent when Laban brought out Leah to marry Jacob. After the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin were exiled by the Assyrians, Rachel was remembered as the classic mother who mourns and intercedes for her children.
Jeremiah 31:15, speaks of'Rachel weeping for her children'. This is interpreted in Judaism as Rachel crying for an end to her descendants' sufferings and exiles following the destruction by the Babylonians of the First Temple in ancient Jerusalem. According to the Midrash, Rachel spoke before God: "If I, a mere mortal, was prepared not to humiliate my sister and was willing to take a rival into my home, how could You, the eternal, compassionate God, be jealous of idols, which have no true existence, that were brought into Your home? Will You cause my children to be exiled on this account?" God accepted her plea and promised that the exile would end and the Jews would return to their land. In the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, this reference from Jeremiah is interpreted as a prediction of the Massacre of the Innocen
Solomon called Jedidiah, according to the Hebrew Bible, Old Testament and Hadiths, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE given in alignment with the dates of David's reign, he is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, Muslims refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David; the Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he and his father had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to the God of Israel, he is portrayed as great in wisdom and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but as a king who sinned.
His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and turning away from Yahweh, they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In years, in non-biblical circles, Solomon came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name; the life of Solomon is described in the second Book of Samuel, by 1 Chronicles and 1 Kings. His two names mean "peaceful" and "friend of God", both appropriate to the story of his rule; the conventional dates of Solomon's reign are derived from biblical chronology and are set from c. 970 to 931 BCE. Regarding the Davidic dynasty, to which King Solomon belongs, its chronology can be checked against datable Babylonian and Assyrian records at a few points, these correspondences have allowed archaeologists to date its kings in a modern framework.
According to the most used chronology, based on that by Old Testament professor Edwin R. Thiele, the death of Solomon and the division of his kingdom would have occurred in the spring of 931 BCE. Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite; the first child, a son conceived adulterously during Uriah's lifetime, had died as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by David's order. Solomon had three named full brothers born to Bathsheba: Nathan and Shobab, besides six known older half-brothers born of as many mothers; the biblical narrative shows that Solomon served as a peace offering between God and David, due to his adulterous relationship with Bathsheba. In an effort to hide this sin, for example, he sent the woman's husband to battle, hoping that he would be killed there. After he died, David was able to marry his wife; as punishment, the first child, conceived during the adulterous relationship, died. Solomon was born.
It is this reason. Some historians cited that Nathan the Prophet brought up Solomon as his father was busy governing the realm; this could be attributed to the notion that the prophet held great influence over David because he knew of his adultery, considered a grievous offense under the Mosaic Law. It was only during Absalom's rebellion. According to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, "he could not get warm". "So they sought a beautiful young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, found Abishag the Shunamite, brought her to the king. The young woman was beautiful, she was of service to the king and attended to him, but the king knew her not."While David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. David's heir apparent, acted to have himself declared king, but was outmaneuvered by Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, who convinced David to proclaim Solomon king according to his earlier promise, despite Solomon being younger than his brothers. Solomon, as instructed by David, began his reign with an extensive purge, including his father's chief general, among others, further consolidated his position by appointing friends throughout the administration, including in religious positions as well as in civic and military posts.
It is said. Solomon expanded his military strength the cavalry and chariot arms, he founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as military outposts. Trade relationships were a focus of his administration. In particular he continued his father's profitable relationship with the Phoenician king Hiram I of Tyre. Solomon is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible. Solomon was the biblical king most famous for his wisdom. In 1 Kings he sacrificed to God, God appeared to him in a dream asking what Solomon wanted from God. Solomon asked for wisdom. Pleased, God answered Solomon's prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did
According to the Book of Judges, Deborah was a prophetess of the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, the wife of Lapidoth. Deborah told Barak that God commanded him to lead an attack against the forces of Jabin king of Canaan and his military commander Sisera. Judges chapter 5 gives the same story in poetic form; this passage called The Song of Deborah, may date to as early as the twelfth century BC, is the earliest sample of Hebrew poetry. In the Book of Judges, it is stated that Deborah was a prophet, a judge of Israel and the wife of Lapidoth, she rendered her judgments beneath a date palm tree between Ramah in Benjamin and Bethel in the land of Ephraim. The people of Israel had been oppressed by Jabin, the king of Canaan, whose capital was Hazor, for twenty years. Stirred by the wretched condition of Israel she sends a message to Barak, the son of Abinoam, at Kedesh of Naphtali, tells him that the Lord God had commanded him to muster ten thousand troops of Naphtali and Zebulun and concentrate them upon Mount Tabor, the mountain at the northern angle of the great plain of Esdraelon.
At the same time she states that the Lord God of Israel will draw Sisera, commander of Jabin's army, to the River Kishon. Barak declines to go without the prophet. Deborah declares that the glory of the victory will therefore belong to a woman; as soon as the news of the rebellion reaches Sisera he collects nine hundred chariots of iron and a host of people. Deborah said, according to Judges 4:14: "Go! This is the day. Has not the Lord gone ahead of you?" So Barak went down Mount Tabor, with ten thousand men following him. As Deborah prophesied, a battle is fought, Sisera is defeated, he himself escapes on foot, while his army is pursued as far as Harosheth of the Gentiles and destroyed. Sisera comes to the tent of Jael, he asks for a drink. The Biblical account of Deborah ends with the statement that after the battle, there was peace in the land for 40 years; the Song of Deborah is found in Judges 5:2–31 and is a victory hymn, sung by Deborah and Barak, about the defeat of Canaanite adversaries by some of the tribes of Israel.
Biblical scholars have identified the Song as one of the oldest parts of the Bible, dating somewhere in the 12th century BC, based on its grammar and context. However, some scholars have argued that the song's language and content indicate that it was written no earlier than the 7th century BC; the song itself differs from the events described in Judges 4. The song mentions six participating tribes as opposed to the two tribes in Judges 4:6 and does not mention the role of Jabin. Though it is not uncommon to read a victory hymn in the Hebrew Bible, the Song of Deborah stands out as unique in that it is a hymn that celebrates a military victory helped by two women: Deborah and Jael. Michael Coogan writes that Jael being a woman "is a further sign that Yahweh is responsible for the victory: the mighty Canaanite general Sisera will be'sold' by the Lord'into the hand of a woman'". Traditional Jewish chronology places Deborah's 40 years of judging Israel from 1107 BC until her death in 1067 BC; the Dictionary of World Biography: The Ancient World claims that she might have lived in the period between 1200 BC to 1124 BC.
Based on archaeological findings, different biblical scholars have argued that Deborah's war with Sisera best fits the context of either the second half of the 12th century BC or the second half of the 11th century BC. Battle of Mount Tabor The Deborah number Handel's Deborah Book of Judges article, Jewish Encyclopedia Debbora, Catholic Encyclopedia Biblical Hebrew Poetry - Reconstructing the Original Oral and Visual Experience Song of Deborah Reconstructed
Titus Flavius Josephus, born Yosef ben Matityahu, was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian, born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius. Flavius Josephus defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship, he became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city's destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple soon followed.
Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish Antiquities of the Jews; the Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation. Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Greek and Roman audience; these works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity.. Born into one of Jerusalem's elite families, Josephus introduces himself in Greek as Iōsēpos, son of Matthias, an ethnic Jewish priest, he was the second-born son of Matthias. His older full-blooded brother was called Matthias, their mother was an aristocratic woman who descended from the royal and ruling Hasmonean dynasty. Josephus's paternal grandparents were Josephus and his wife—an unnamed Hebrew noblewoman, distant relatives of each other and direct descendants of Simon Psellus. Josephus's family was wealthy.
He descended through his father from the priestly order of the Jehoiarib, the first of the 24 orders of priests in the Temple in Jerusalem. Josephus was a descendant of the high priest Jonathon, he was educated alongside his brother. In his early twenties, he traveled to negotiate with Emperor Nero for the release of 12 Jewish priests. Upon his return to Jerusalem, at the outbreak of the First Jewish–Roman War, Josephus was appointed the military governor of Galilee, but he strove with John of Gischala over the control of Galilee, who like Josephus, had amassed to himself a large band of supporters from Gischala and Gabara, including the support of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. Josephus fortified several towns and villages in Galilee, among which were Tiberias, Bersabe and Tarichaea, in anticipation of a Roman onslaught, resisted the Roman army in its siege of Yodfat until it fell to the Roman army in the lunar month of Tammuz, in the thirteenth year of Nero's reign. After the Jewish garrison of Yodfat fell under siege, the Romans invaded.
According to Josephus, he was trapped in a cave with 40 of his companions in July 67 CE. The Romans asked the group to surrender. Josephus suggested a method of collective suicide. Two men were left, who became prisoners. In 69 CE, Josephus was released. According to his account, he acted as a negotiator with the defenders during the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE, in which his parents and first wife died. While being confined at Yodfat, Josephus claimed to have experienced a divine revelation that led to his speech predicting Vespasian would become emperor. After the prediction came true, he was released by Vespasian, who considered his gift of prophecy to be divine. Josephus wrote that his revelation had taught him three things: that God, the creator of the Jewish people, had decided to "punish" them. To many Jews, such claims were self-serving. In 71 CE, he went to Rome in the entourage of Titus, becoming a Roman citizen and client of the ruling Flavian dynasty. In addition to Roman citizenship, he was granted accommodation in a pension.
While in Rome and under Flavian patronage, Josephus wrote all of his known works. Although he uses "Josephus", he appears to have taken the Roman praenomen Titus and nomen Flavius from his patrons. Vespasian arranged for Josephus to marry a captured Jewish woman, whom he divorced. About 71 CE, Josephus married an Alexandrian Jewish woman as his third wife, they had three sons. Josephus divorced his third wife. Around 75 CE, he married his fourth wife, a Greek Jewish woman from Crete, a member of a distinguished family, they had two sons, Flavius Justus and Flavius Simonides Agrippa. Josephus's life story remains ambiguous, he was described by Harris in 1985 as a law-observant Jew who believed in the com
Josiah or Yoshiyahu was a seventh-century BCE king of Judah who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms. Josiah is credited by most biblical scholars with having established or compiled important Hebrew Scriptures during the "Deuteronomic reform" which occurred during his rule. Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE. Josiah is known only from biblical texts. Most scholars believe he existed and that the absence of documents is due to few documents of any sort surviving from this early period, to Jerusalem having been occupied and rebuilt for thousands of years; the Bible describes him as a righteous king, a king who "walked in all the way of David his father, turned not aside to the right hand or to the left". He is one of the kings mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew's gospel, one of the two divergent genealogies of Jesus in the New Testament.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Josiah was the son of King Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. His grandfather Manasseh was one of the kings blamed for turning away from the worship of Yahweh. Manasseh adapted the Temple for idolatrous worship. Josiah's great-grandfather was a noted reformer. Josiah had four sons: Johanan, Eliakim, whose mother was Zebidah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. Eliakim had his name changed by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt to Jehoiakim, his youngest son Shallum succeeded Josiah under the name Jehoahaz. Shallum was succeeded by Eliakim, under the name Jehoiakim, succeeded by his own son Jeconiah. Zedekiah was the last king of Judah before the kingdom was conquered by Babylon and the people exiled. According to the Hebrew Bible, in the eighteenth year of his rule, Josiah ordered the High Priest Hilkiah to use the tax money, collected over the years to renovate the temple, it was during this time. While Hilkiah was clearing the treasure room of the Temple he discovered a scroll described as "the book of the Law" or as "the book of the law of Yahweh by the hand of Moses".
The phrase "the book of the Torah" in 2 Kings 22:8 is identical to the phrase used in Joshua 1:8 and 8:34 to describe the sacred writings that Joshua had received from Moses. The book is not identified in the text as the Torah and many scholars believe this was either a copy of the Book of Deuteronomy or a text that became a part of Deuteronomy; however it has been noted that the story of the repairs to the Temple is based on those ordered by an earlier Judean king, Joash in 2 Kings 12. Hilkiah brought this scroll to Josiah's attention. Josiah consulted the prophetess Huldah, who assured him that the evil foretold in the document for nonobservance of its instructions, would come, but not in his day. An assembly of the elders of Judah and Jerusalem and of all the people was called, Josiah encouraged the exclusive worship of Yahweh, forbidding all other forms of worship; the instruments and emblems of the worship of Baal and "the host of heaven" were removed from the Jerusalem Temple. Local sanctuaries, or High Places, were destroyed, from Beer-sheba in the south to Beth-el and the cities of Samaria in the north.
Josiah had pagan priests executed and had the bones of the dead priests of Bethel exhumed from their graves and burned on their altars. Josiah reinstituted the Passover celebrations. According to 1 Kings 13:1–3 an unnamed "man of God" had prophesied to King Jeroboam of the northern Kingdom of Israel three hundred years earlier, that "a son named Josiah will be born to the house of David" and that he would destroy the altar at Bethel, and the only exception to this destruction was for the grave of an unnamed prophet he found in Bethel, who had foretold that these religious sites Jeroboam erected would one day be destroyed. Josiah ordered the double grave of the "man of God" and of the Bethel prophet to be let alone as these prophecies had come true. Josiah's reforms are described in two biblical accounts, 2 Kings 22–23, 2 Chronicles 34–35, they began with the ending of ancient Israelite religious practices, the astral cults that had become popular in the 8th Century, led to centralisation of worship in Jerusalem, the destruction of the temple at Bethel.
According to the account in 2 Chronicles, Josiah destroyed altars and images of pagan deities in cities of the tribes of Manasseh, Ephraim, "and Simeon, as far as Naphtali", which were outside of his kingdom and returned the Ark of the Covenant to the Temple. When Josiah became king of Judah in about 641/640 BCE, the international situation was in flux; the Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the Neo-Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, Egypt to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Jerusalem was able to govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention. In the spring of 609 BCE, Pharaoh Necho II led a sizable army up to the Euphrates River to