Gaberoun is an oasis with a large lake in the Idehan Ubari desert region of the Libyan Sahara. Administratively it is located Wadi al Hayaa District and Sabha District of the Fezzan region in southwestern Libya. A rudimentary tourist camp is located on the northeastern shore, including an open patio, sleeping huts, a souvenir shop in the winter; the lake is salty. Mosquitoes are abundant in the summer. October to May is considered the best time to visit. A small tribe inhabited the oasis, it is said that one of their sources of subsistence were the worm-like crustaceans they fished from the salty lake. They were moved in the 1980s to a new location outside the sand dunes, in the Wadi Bashir, south of the erg, a settlement of concrete apartments built for the resettlement of this tribe; the old Bedouin settlement by the western shore of the lake has been abandoned, now lies in ruins. The oasis is accessible from the Sabha-Ubari road, by a 36 km 4WD ride through the dunes of the Ubari sand sea. Other nearby attractions are the El Mandara oasis, the Un Almaa oasis, Mafo Lake in the same sand erg and the museum in Germa.
The second mission from the game Sniper Elite III takes place on the Gaberoun oasis. Phoenix dactylifera - native oasis date palm Gaberoun, El Mandara and Un Almaa oasis seen in GoogleLocal German Travel Network LTI Tours - tours including visit of the Gaberoun oasis Libya photo album - with photos of the Gaberoun oasis
The Sahara is a desert located on the African continent. It is the largest hot desert in the world, the third largest desert overall after Antarctica and the Arctic, its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The name'Sahara' is derived from a dialectal Arabic word for ṣaḥra; the desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the Niger River valley and the Sudan Region of Sub-Saharan Africa; the Sahara can be divided into several regions including: the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré desert, the Libyan Desert.
For several hundred thousand years, the Sahara has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 41,000 year cycle caused by the precession of the Earth's axis as it rotates around the Sun, which changes the location of the North African Monsoon. The area is next expected to become green in about 15,000 years. There is a suggestion that the last time that the Sahara was converted from savanna to desert it was due to overgrazing by the cattle of the local population; the Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Western Sahara and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres, it is one of three distinct physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is rocky hamada. Wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, salt flats.
Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania. Several dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, the Red Sea Hills; the highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation; the northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert, the Nubian Desert and others; these arid areas receive no rain for years. To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters.
According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. The northern limit corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west; the southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha, or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. Important cities located in the Sahara include the capital of Mauritania; the Sahara is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. It is located in the horse latitudes under the subtropical ridge, a significant belt of semi-permanent subtropical warm-core high pressure where the air from upper levels of the troposphere tends to sink towards the ground.
This steady descending airflow causes a drying effect in the upper troposphere. The sinking air prevents evaporating water from rising, therefore prevents adiabatic cooling, which makes cloud formation difficult to nearly impossible; the permanent dissolution of clouds allows thermal radiation. The stability of the atmosphere above the desert prevents any convective overturning, thus making rainfall non-existent; as a consequence, the weather tends to be sunny and stable with a minimal chance of rainfall. Subsiding, dry air masses associated with subtropical high-pressure systems are unfavorable for the development of convectional showers; the subtropical ridge is the predominant factor that explains the hot desert climate (Köppen climate classifica
Fezzan or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya. It is desert, but broken by mountains and dry river valleys in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert; the term applied to the land beyond the coastal strip of Africa proconsularis, including the Nafusa and extending west of modern Libya over Ouargla and Illizi. As these Berber areas came to be associated with the regions of Tripoli, Cirta or Algiers, the name was applied to the arid areas south of Tripolitania. Fezzan is Libya’s poorest region. In Berber languages, Fezzan means "rough rocks". Fezzan could be a derivation from the region's Latin name Phasania or Phazania, which may mean "the country of the pheasants". In Turkish Fizan brings to mind distance. For example, speaking about civil servants, Fizan'a sürmek means to exile someone to the farthest place. Fizan kadar uzak means as far as Fezzan. Fezzan is crossed in the north in the west by the Wadi Irawan.
These two areas, along with portions of the Tibesti Mountains crossing the Chadian border and a sprinkling of remote oases and border posts, are the only parts of the Fezzan able to support settled populations. The large dune seas known as ergs of the Idehan Ubari and the Idehan Murzuq cover much of the remaining land of Fezzan. From the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE, Fezzan was home to the Garamantes, who operated the Trans-Saharan trade routes successively between Carthage and the Roman Empire in North Africa and Sahelian states of west and central Africa; the Roman generals Septimus Flaccus in 19 BCE and Suetonius Paulinus in 50 CE led small-scale military expeditions into the northern reaches of the Sahara, the Roman explorer Julius Maternus traveled there in early 1st century CE. Paulinus went further south. For two to three centuries after this invasion, Fezzan, as part of the Garamantes State, was a client state of the Roman Empire and benefited from Roman civilization. With the end of the Roman Empire and the following commercial crisis, Fezzan began to lose importance.
The population was reduced due to the desertification process of the Sahara during the early Middle Ages. During the 13th and 14th centuries, portions of Fezzan were part of the Kanem Empire. Wars against the Kanem–Bornu Empire in the early sixteenth century led to the founding of the Awlad Muhammad dynasty, with Murzuk becoming the capital of Fezzan. Around 1565 it was ruled by Muhammad ibn al-Muntasir; the Ottoman rulers of North Africa asserted their control over the region in the 17th century. In the reign of Abdulhamid II Fezzan was used as a place of political exile for Young Turks because it was the most remote province from Istanbul. Beginning in 1911, Fezzan was occupied by Italy. However, Italy's control of the region was precarious until at least 1923, with the rise of the Benito Mussolini; the Italians were resisted in their early attempts at conquest by tribal Arab adherents to the militant Sanusiya Sufi religious order. The Tuareg clans of the region were only pacified by European expansion shortly before the Second World War, some of them collaborated with the Italian Army in the North African Campaign.
Free French troops occupied Murzuk, a chief town of Fezzan, on 16 January 1943, proceeded to administer Fezzan with a staff stationed in Sabha, forming the Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. French administration was exercised through Fezzan notables of the family of Sayf Al Nasr. Disquieting to the tribes in western Fezzan was the administrative attachment of Ghat, its surrounding area, to French-ruled Algeria. However, when the French military control ceased in 1951, all of Fezzan became part of the Kingdom of Libya. Fezzan was a stronghold for Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi through much of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, though starting in July, anti-Gaddafi forces began to gain ground, taking control of the region's largest city of Sabha in mid-to-late September; the LF country code was reserved "on behalf" of Libya Fezzan by the International Organization for Standardization. There are oil wells in Fezzan capable of 400,000 barrels per day, but oil companies fly in staff from northern Libya.
The local tribes are not getting any money from the oil trade, so have turned to smuggling migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, feeding the European migrant crisis and is a $1 billion per year industry. Fezzan was a province under the Ottoman Turks and Italy, a province or governorate of independent Libya until 1963. With the introduction of the new administrative division of Libya in 1963, Fezzan was abolished as an independent administrative unit and was divided into the muhafazat of Awbari and Sabha. In 1983, these administrative divisions were abolished in favour of baladiyah; the Baladiyat-system was replaced in 1995 by the Sha ` biyat-system. The former Fezzan province contains the districts of Wadi al Shatii, Wadi al Hayaa, Ghadames, Murzuq and Ghat; the historic capital, largest city and administrative centre is Sabha. The region's inhabitants include the Dawada, the nomadic Tuareg in the southwest, the Toubou in the southeast; these pastoralist populations cross the borders of Algeria and Niger freely.
In the north, Arab and settled Tuareg and Toubou mix
An erg is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover. The term takes its name from the Arabic word ʿarq, meaning "dune field". Speaking, an erg is defined as a desert area that contains more than 125 km2 of aeolian or wind-blown sand and where sand covers more than 20% of the surface. Smaller areas are known as "dune fields"; the largest hot desert in the world, the Sahara, covers 9 million square kilometres and contains several ergs, such as the Chech Erg and the Issaouane Erg in Algeria. 85% of all the Earth's mobile sand is found in ergs that are greater than 32,000 km2. Ergs are found on other celestial bodies, such as Venus and Saturn's moon Titan. Ergs are concentrated in two broad belts between 20° to 40°N and 20° to 40°S latitudes, which include regions crossed by the dry, subsiding air of the trade winds. Active ergs are limited to regions that receive, on average, no more than 150 mm of annual precipitation; the largest are in northern and southern Africa and western Asia, Central Australia.
In South America, ergs are limited by the Andes Mountains, but they do contain large dunes in coastal Peru and northwestern Argentina. They are found in several parts of the northeast coast of Brazil; the only active erg in North America is in the Gran Desierto de Altar that extends from the Sonoran Desert in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora to the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones Dunes of southeastern California. An erg, fixed by vegetation forms the Nebraska Sandhills. Sand seas and dune fields occur in regions downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand, such as dry riverbeds and deltas, glacial outwash plains, dry lakes, beaches. All major ergs are located downwind from river beds in areas that are too dry to support extensive vegetative cover and are thus subject to long-continued wind erosion. Sand from these abundant sources migrates downwind and builds up into large dunes where its movement is halted or slowed by topographic barriers to windflow or by convergence of windflow.
Entire ergs and dune fields tend to migrate downwind as far as hundreds of kilometers from their sources of sand. Such accumulation requires long periods of time. At least one million years are required to build ergs with large dunes, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa, in central Asia. Sand seas that have accumulated in subsiding structural and topographic basins, such as the Murzuk Sand Sea of Libya, may attain great thicknesses but others, such as the ergs of linear dunes in the Simpson Desert and Great Sandy Desert of Australia, may be no thicker than the individual dunes superposed on the alluvial plain. Within sand seas in a given area, the dunes tend to be of a single type. For example, there are ergs or fields of linear dunes, of crescentic dunes, of star dunes, of parabolic dunes, these dune arrays tend to have consistent orientations and sizes. By nature, ergs are active. Smaller dunes migrate along the flanks of the larger dunes and sand ridges. Occasional precipitation fills basins formed by the dunes.
Individual dunes in ergs have widths, lengths, or both dimensions greater than 500 m. Both the regional extent of their sand cover and the complexity and great size of their dunes distinguish ergs from dune fields; the depth of sand in ergs varies around the world, ranging from only a few centimeters deep in the Selima Sand Sheet of Southern Egypt, to 1 m in the Simpson Desert, 21–43 m in the Sahara. This is far shallower. Evidence in the geological record indicates that some Mesozoic and Paleozoic ergs reached a mean depth of several hundred meters. Ergs are a geological feature that can be found on planets where an atmosphere capable of significant wind erosion acts on the surface for a significant period of time, creating sand and allowing it to accumulate. Today at least three bodies, apart from Earth, are known in the solar system to feature ergs on their surface: Venus and Titan. At least two ergs have been recognized by the Magellan probe on Venus: the Aglaonice dune field, which covers 1,290 km2, the Meshkenet dune field.
These seem to be transverse dune fields. Mars shows large ergs next to the polar caps, where dunes can reach a considerable size. Ergs on Mars can exhibit strange shapes and patterns, due to complex interaction with the underlying surface and wind direction. Radar images captured by the Cassini spacecraft as it flew by Titan in October 2005 show sand dunes at Titan's equator much like those in deserts of Earth. One erg was observed to be more than 930 miles long. Dunes are a dominant landform on Titan. 15-20% of the surface is covered by ergs with an estimated total area of 12–18 million km2 making it the largest dune field coverage in the solar system identified to date. The sand dunes are believed to be formed by wind generated as a result of tidal forces from Saturn on Titan's atmosphere; the images are evidence that these dunes were built from winds that blow in one direction before switching to another and back to the first direction and so on, c
The Tuareg people are a large Berber ethnic confederation. They principally inhabit the Sahara in a vast area stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger and Burkina Faso. Traditionally nomadic pastoralists, small groups of Tuareg are found in northern Nigeria; the Tuareg speak the Tuareg languages. The Tuaregs have been called the "blue people" for the indigo-dye coloured clothes they traditionally wear and which stains their skin. A semi-nomadic Muslim people, they are believed to be descendants of the Berber natives of North Africa; the Tuaregs have been one of the ethnic groups that have been influential in the spread of Islam and its legacy in North Africa and the adjacent Sahel region. Tuareg society has traditionally featured clan membership, social status and caste hierarchies within each political confederation; the Tuareg have controlled several trans-Saharan trade routes and have been an important party to the conflicts in the Saharan region during the colonial and post-colonial era.
The origin and the meaning of the name Tuareg have long been debated, with various etymologies hypothesized. It would appear that Twārəg is derived from the broken plural of Tārgi, a name whose former meaning was "inhabitant of Targa", the Tuareg name of the Libyan region known as Fezzan. Targa in Berber means " channel". Another theory is that Tuareg is derived from the plural of the Arabic exonym Tariqi; the term for a Tuareg man is the term for a woman Tamajaq. Spellings of the appellation vary by Tuareg dialect. However, they all reflect the same linguistic root, expressing the notion of "freemen"; as such, the endonym refers only to the Tuareg nobility, not the artisanal client castes and the slaves. Two other Tuareg self-designations are Kel Tamasheq, meaning "speakers of Tamasheq", Kel Tagelmust, meaning "veiled people" in allusion to the tagelmust garment, traditionally worn by Tuareg men; the English exonym "Blue People" is derived from the indigo color of the tagelmust veils and other clothing, which sometimes stains the skin underneath.
Another term for the Tuareg is Imuhagh or Imushagh, a cognate to the northern Berber self-name Imazighen. The Tuareg today inhabit a vast area in the Sahara, stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger and Burkina Faso, their combined population in these territories exceeds 2.5 million, with an estimated population in Niger of around 2 million and in Mali of another 0.5 million (3% of inhabitants. The Tuareg are the majority ethnic group in the Kidal Region of northeastern Mali; the Tuareg traditionally speak the Tuareg languages known as Tamasheq, Tamashekin and Kidal. These tongues belong to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. According to Ethnologue, there are an estimated 1.2 million Tuareg speakers. Around half this number consists of speakers of the Eastern dialect; the exact number of Tuareg speakers per territory is uncertain. The CIA estimates that the Tuareg population in Mali constitutes 0.9% of the national population, whereas about 3.5% of local inhabitants speak Tuareg as a primary language.
In contrast, Imperato estimates. In antiquity, the Tuareg moved southward from the Tafilalt region into the Sahel under the Tuareg founding queen Tin Hinan, believed to have lived between the 4th and 5th century; the matriarch's 1,500 year old monumental Tin Hinan tomb is located in the Sahara at Abalessa in the Hoggar Mountains of southern Algeria. Vestiges of an inscription in Tifinagh, the Tuareg's traditional Libyco-Berber writing script, have been found on one of the ancient sepulchre's walls. External accounts of interaction with the Tuareg are available from at least the 10th century. Ibn Hawkal, El-Bekri, Ibn Batutah, Leo Africanus, all documented the Tuareg in some form as Mulatthamin or “the veiled ones.” Of the early historians, fourteenth century Arab scholar, Ibn Khaldûn has some of the most detailed commentary on the life and people of the Sahara, though he never met them. Some studies have linked the Tuareg to early ancient Egyptian civilization. At the turn of the 19th century, the Tuareg territory was organised into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief, along with a counsel of elders from each tribe.
These confederations are sometimes called "Drum Groups" after the Amenokal's symbol of authority, a drum. Clan elders, called Imegharan, are chosen to assist the chief of the confederation. There have been seven major confederations: Kel Ajjer or Azjar: centre is the oasis of Aghat. Kel Ahaggar, in Ahaggar mountains. Kel Adagh, or Kel Assuk: Kidal, Tin Buktu Iwillimmidan Kel Ataram, or Western Iwillimmidan: Ménaka, Azawagh region Iwillimmidan Kel Denneg, or Eastern Iwillimmidan: Tchin-Tabaraden, Teliya Azawagh. Kel Ayr: Assodé, Agadez, In Gal and Ifrwan. Kel Gres: Zinder and Tanut and south into northern Nigeria. Kel Owey: Aïr Massif, seasonally south to Tessaoua In the late 19th century, the Tuareg resisted the French colonial invasion of their Central Saharan homelands and annihilated a French expedition led by Paul Flatters in 1881. However, in the long run Tuareg broadswords were no match for the more advanced weapons of French
Geography of Libya
Libya is fourth in size among the countries of Africa and seventeenth among the countries of the world. It is on the Mediterranean between Egypt and Tunisia, with Niger and Chad to the south and Sudan to the southeast. Although the oil discoveries of the 1960s have brought immense wealth, at the time of its independence it was an poor desert state whose only important physical asset appeared to be its strategic location at the midpoint of Africa's northern rim. Libya lay within easy reach of the major European nations and linked the Arab countries of North Africa with those of the Middle East, facts that throughout history had made its urban centres bustling crossroads rather than isolated backwaters without external social influences. An immense social gap developed between the cities and peopled by foreigners, the desert hinterland, where tribal chieftains ruled in isolation and where social change was minimal; the Mediterranean coast and the Sahara Desert are the country's most prominent natural features.
There are several highlands but no true mountain ranges except in the empty southern desert near the Chadian border, where the Tibesti Massif rises to over 2,200 metres. A narrow coastal strip and highland steppes south of it are the most productive agricultural regions. Still farther south a pastoral zone of sparse grassland gives way to the vast Sahara Desert, a barren wasteland of rocky plateaus and sand, it supports minimal human habitation, agriculture is possible only in a few scattered oases. The Sahara desert is connected to the Gulf of Sidra on the coast by a barren zone, known as the Sirtica, which has great historical significance. To its west, the area known as Tripolitania has characteristics and a history similar to those of nearby Tunisia and Morocco, it is considered with these states to constitute a supranational region called the Maghreb. To the east, the area known as Cyrenaica has been associated with the Arab states of the Middle East. In this sense, the Sirtica marks the dividing point between the Mashriq.
Along the shore of Tripolitania for more than 300 km, coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons. Inland from these lies the Jifarah Plain, a triangular area of some 15,000 square km. About 120 km inland the plain terminates in an escarpment that rises to form the Nafusa Mountains, with elevations of up to 1,000 metres, the northern edge of the Tripolitanian Plateau. In Cyrenaica there are fewer coastal oases, the Marj Plain – the lowland area corresponding to the Jifarah Plain of Tripolitania – covers a much smaller area; the lowlands form a crescent about 210 km long between Benghazi and Derna and extend inland a maximum of 50 km. Elsewhere along the Cyrenaican coast, the precipice of an arid plateau reaches to the sea. Behind the Marj Plain, the terrain rises abruptly to form Jabal al Akhdar, so called because of its leafy cover of pine, juniper and wild olive, it is a limestone plateau with maximum altitudes of about 900 metres. From Jabal al Akhdar, Cyrenaica extends southward across a barren grazing belt that gives way to the Sahara Desert, which extends still farther southwest across the Chadian frontier.
Unlike Cyrenaica, Tripolitania does not extend southward into the desert. The southwestern desert region, known as Fezzan, was administered separately during both the Italian regime and the federal period of the Libyan monarchy; the large dune seas known as ergs of the Idehan Ubari and the Idehan Murzuq cover much of the land of Fezzan. In 1969 the revolutionary government changed the regional designation of Tripolitania to Western Libya, of Cyrenaica to Eastern Libya, of Fezzan to Southern Libya. Cyrenaica comprises 51%, Fezzan 33%, Tripolitania 16% of the country's area. Before Libya achieved independence, its name was used other than as a somewhat imprecise geographical expression; the people preferred to be referred to as natives of one of the three constituent regions. The separateness of the regions is much more than geographical and political, for they have evolved as different socioeconomic entities – each with a culture, social structure, values different from the others. Cyrenaica became Arabized at a somewhat earlier date than Tripolitania, Beduin tribes dominated it.
The residual strain of the indigenous Berber inhabitants, still remains in Tripolitania. Fezzan has remained a kind of North African outback, its oases peopled by minority ethnic groups; the border between Tripolitania and Tunisia is subject to countless crossings by legal and illegal migrants. No natural frontier marks the border, the ethnic composition, value systems, traditions of the two peoples are nearly identical; the Cyrenaica region is contiguous with Egypt, here, the border is not defined. In contrast, Fezzan's borders with Algeria and Chad are crossed because of the total emptiness of the desert countryside. Other factors, such as the traditional forms of land tenure, have varied in the different regions. In the 1980s their degrees of separation were still sufficiently pronounced to represent a significant obstacle to efforts toward achieving a unified Libya. Area: total: 1 759 540 km² land: 1 759 540 km² water: 0 km² Area - comparative: Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, seven times the size of the United Kingdom, larger than Alaska.
Land boundaries: total: 4 348 km border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km
In geography, an oasis is the combination of a human settlement and a cultivated area in a desert or semi-desert environment. Oases provide habitat for animals and spontaneous plants; the word oasis came into English via Latin: oasis from Ancient Greek: ὄασις óasis, which in turn is a direct borrowing from Demotic Egyptian. The word for oasis in the attested Coptic language is wahe or ouahe which means a "dwelling place". Oases are made fertile when sources of freshwater, such as underground rivers or aquifers, irrigate the surface or via man-made wells; the presence of water on the surface or underground is necessary and the local or regional management of this essential resource is strategic, but not sufficient to create such areas: continuous human work and know-how are essential to maintain such ecosystems.. Rain showers provide subterranean water to sustain natural oases, such as the Tuat. Substrata of impermeable rock and stone can trap water and retain it in pockets, or on long faulting subsurface ridges or volcanic dikes water can collect and percolate to the surface.
Any incidence of water is used by migrating birds, which pass seeds with their droppings which will grow at the water's edge forming an oasis. It can be used to plant crops; the location of oases has been of critical importance for trade and transportation routes in desert areas. Thus, political or military control of an oasis has in many cases meant control of trade on a particular route. For example, the oases of Awjila and Kufra, situated in modern-day Libya, have at various times been vital to both North-South and East-West trade in the Sahara Desert; the Silk Road across Central Asia incorporated several oases. In North American history, oases have been less prominent since the desert regions are smaller, but in the USA they have allowed colonisation of the western desert regions around the Rockies. Las Vegas is an example of such a settlement. People who live in an oasis must manage water use carefully; the most important plant in an oasis is the date palm. These palm trees provide shade for smaller trees like peach trees.
By growing plants in different layers, the farmers make best use of the water. Many vegetables are grown and some cereals, such as barley and wheat, are grown where there is more moisture. In summary, an oasis palm grove is a anthropized and irrigated area that supports a traditionally intensive and polyculture-based agriculture; the oasis is integrated into its desert environment through an close association with nomadic transhumant livestock farming. However, the oasis is emancipated from the desert by a particular social and ecosystem structure. Responding to environmental constraints, it is an integrated agriculture, conducted with the superposition of two or three strata creating what is called the "oasis effect ": the first and highest stratum is made up of date palms and maintains freshness. Great Man-Made River – the world's largest irrigation project. Guelta Mirage Oasification Qanat – Water management system using underground channels Wadi – River valley a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain Water supply – Provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations or others Battesti, Vincent.
Jardins au désert, Évolution des pratiques et savoirs oasiens, Jérid tunisien. Paris: IRD Éditions. P. 440. ISBN 9782709915649; the dictionary definition of oasis at Wiktionary