Karen Matheson OBE is a Scottish folk singer who sings in Gaelic. She is the lead singer of the group Capercaillie and was a member of Dan Ar Braz's group L'Héritage des Celtes, with whom she sang lead vocals, either alone or with Elaine Morgan, she and Morgan sang together on the Breton language song "Diwanit Bugale", the French entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1996. She made a cameo appearance in the 1995 movie Rob Roy singing the song "Ailein duinn", she grew up in the small village of Taynuilt in the region of Argyll, western Scotland. She was appointed an OBE in the 2006 New Year's honours list. Matheson appeared as a guest musician on Spirit of the West's 1997 album Weights and Measures. Matheson performed a solo in Secret Garden's song "Prayer" in the 1999 album Dawn of a New Century, she is married to fellow Capercaillie member Donald Shaw, they have a son named Hector and a daughter named Kate. On 16 October 2015, Karen Matheson released Urram, on Vertical Records. In support of the new album, Karen Matheson planned 7 shows in Scotland in December 2015 and January 2016, one show in January in Dublin, Ireland and 5 shows in the UK in February 2016.
On her official web site, Karen Matheson announced in March 2016 that she would embark on an 11-date Spring 2016 UK tour, visiting Scotland, starting on 15 April 2016 in Perth and ending on 18 June 2016 in Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom. Karen Matheson announced on 1 July 2016 that she would perform one show on 19 July 2016 at Ionad Cois Locha, Dún Lúiche, together with long-time friends and music partners Donald Shaw and Manus Lunny, during the Trad Trathnona, County Donegal's Summer of traditional Sessions. After performing two shows on 26 & 28 August 2016 at the Shrewsbury Folk Festival, Karen Matheson would embark on a 9-date Autumn 2016 UK tour due to start on 15 September at the Beacon Arts Centre in Greenock, UK and to end on 29 September at the Bush Hall in London, UK; the Dreaming Sea Time to Fall Downriver Urram Karen Matheson's website BBC report of 2006 honours list, including Matheson's OBE
Kabylie, or Kabylia, is a cultural region, natural region, historical region in northern Algeria. It is part of the Tell Atlas mountain range, is located at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Kabylia covers several provinces of Algeria: the whole of Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia, most of Bouira and parts of the wilayas of Boumerdes, Jijel and Bordj Bou Arreridj. Gouraya National Park and Djurdjura National Park are located in Kabylie. Kabylia was a part of the Kingdom of Numidia, it was never taken over by the Roman Empire. The Kabyle country remained as unconquerable, they established a few coastal military settlements and some in valleys, where they enforced the rule of the Islamic Ottoman Empire. The mountainous core land, remained independent. Islam was adopted through peaceful means, namely the Marabout movement; some scholars argue. During the Regency of Algiers, most of Kabylia was independent. Kabylia was split into two main kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kuku in modern Tizi Ouzou, the Kingdom of Ait Abbas in modern Béjaïa.
Though the region was the last stronghold against French colonization, the area was taken over by the French after 1830, despite vigorous local resistance by the local population led by leaders such as Faḍma n Sumer, until the battle of Icheriden in 1857 marked a decisive French victory, with sporadic outbursts of violence continuing as late as Mokrani's rebellion in 1871. Much land was confiscated in this period from the more recalcitrant tribes and given to French pieds-noirs. Many arrests and deportations were carried out by the French in response to uprisings to New Caledonia Colonization resulted in an acceleration of the emigration into other areas of the country and outside of it. Algerian migrant workers in France organized the first party promoting independence in the 1920s. Messali Hadj, Imache Amar, Si Djilani, Belkacem Radjef built a strong following throughout France and Algeria in the 1930s and trained militants who became key players during the struggle for independence and in building an independent Algerian state.
During the War of Independence, the FLN and ALN's reorganisation of the country created, for the first time, a unified Kabyle administrative territory, wilaya III, being as it was at the centre of the anti-colonial struggle. As such, along with the Aurès, it was one of the most affected areas because of the importance of the maquis and the high levels of support and collaboration of its inhabitants for the nationalist cause. Several historic leaders of the FLN came from this region, including Hocine Aït Ahmed, Abane Ramdane, Krim Belkacem, it was in Kabylia that the Soummam conference took place in 1956, the first of the FLN. The flipside of being such a critical region for the independence movement was being one of the major target of French counter-insurgency operations, not least the devastation of agricultural lands, destruction of villages, population displacement, the creation of forbidden zones, etc. From the moment of independence, tensions had developed between Kabyle leaders and the central government, with the Socialist Forces Front party of Hocine Aït Ahmed, strong in wilayas III and IV, opposing the FLN's Political Bureau centred around the person of Ahmed Ben Bella, who in turn relied upon the forces of the border army group within the ALN commanded by Houari Boumediene.
As early as 1963 the FFS called into question the authority of the single-party system, which resulted in two years of armed confrontation in the region, leaving more than four hundred dead, most of the FLN leaders from Kabylia and the eastern provinces either executed or forced into exile. In April 1980, following the banning of a conference by writer Mouloud Mammeri on traditional Kabyle poetry and strikes broke out in Tizi Ouzou, followed by several months of demonstrations on university campuses in Kabylia and Algiers, known as the Berber Spring, demanding the officialisation and recognition of the Tamazight language; these resulted in the extrajudicial imprisonment of thousands of Kabylie intellectuals, along with other clashes in Tizi-Ouzou and Algiers in 1984 and 1985. With the opening up and establishment of the multi-party system in 1989, the RCD party was created by Saïd Sadi, at the same time as identity politics and the cultural awakening of the Kabylians were intensifying in reaction to the hard-line Arabization.
In the midst of the civil war, there was an act of massive civil disobedience beginning in September 1994 and lasting the entire school year until mid 1995 where the ten-million strong population of Kabylia conducted a total school boycott, known as the "schoolbag strike". In June and July 1998 the region flared up again after the assassination of protest singer and political activist Lounès Matoub at the same time that a law requiring the use of Arabic in all fields of education entered into force, further worsening tensions. Following the death in April 2001 of Massinissa Guermah, a young high school student, in police custody, major riots took place, known as the Black Spring, in which 123 people died and some two thousand were wounded as a result of the authorities' violent crackdown; the government was compelled to negotiate with the Arouch, a confederation of ancestral local councils over the situation, alongside wider issues such as social justice and the economy, deemed by the
Khaled Hadj Ibrahim, better known by his mononym Khaled, is an Algerian musician and songwriter born in Oran, Algeria. He began recording in his early teens under the name Cheb Khaled, has become the most internationally famous Algerian singer in the Arab world and across many continents, his popularity has earned him the unofficial title "King of Raï". His most famous songs are "Didi", "Aïcha" and "C'est la vie" as well as "Alech Taadi", prominently featured in the film The Fifth Element. Khaled Hadj Brahim was born in 1960 in Algeria. At the age of 14, he founded the Cinq Étoiles band and started performing in nightclubs and at weddings. In the 1980s, Khaled started singing songs in the Raï genre, he moved to France in 1986. On 12 January 1995, Khaled married 27, with whom he has four daughters and one son. In 1998, the documentary Khaled: Derrière le sourire was produced, recounting his life, he was awarded Moroccan citizenship in August 2013, which he didn't ask for but accepted because he felt he could not refuse.
Khaled's signature song, the 1993 hit "Didi", became popular in the Arabic-speaking countries and in several other continents, including Europe, where it entered top charts in France and Spain, in Asia, including India and Pakistan. The song was used in a Bollywood films Shreeman Aashiq and Airlift and a Mollywood film titled Highway. Khaled and producer Don Was appeared on The Tonight Show on 4 February 1993; the latter track, which saw heavy rotation on MTV Europe, climbed to fourth on the charts in Germany. Known as the "King of Rai", Khaled is a winner of numerous awards, has sold over 80.5 million albums worldwide including 10 diamond and gold albums. In 2010 he performed Didi at the opening ceremony of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, making him one of the best selling Arabic language artists in history. Khaled's music experienced great popularity in Brazil, on the late 90's and early 00's due to the usage of some of his songs in TV shows. In 2012 Khaled's album C’est la vie sold more than one million copies in the European market alone after only two months and sold 2.2 million copies in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as 200,000 in the United States, for an estimated 4.6 million worldwide sales.
With a record million downloads of the hit single "C'est la vie" on European and Canadian iTunes, the album reached number 5 on the Billboard top France Songs. The album contains a message of tolerance and peace. Khaled tried to convey what Algerian immigrants suffer in Europe through the album and believes this is the reason behind the album's huge commercial success. C’est la vie was Khaled's first album after a five-year break from recording during 2011 presidential elections in France and the Arab Spring; this discography does not include a number of albums released on cassette in Algeria early in his career, several bootleg/unofficial albums. SoloCollaboration 1988: Ya Taleb 1991: Le Meilleur de Cheb Khaled 1993: S'hab El Baroud 1994: Le Meilleur de Cheb Khaled 2 1994: Kaisse Wa Laila 2005: Forever King 2005: Spirit of Rai 2005: Les Années Rai 2006: Salou Ala Nabi 2006: Maghreb Soul - Cheb Khaled Story 1986–1990 2006: Anajit Anajit 2007: Best of Khaled 2009: Rebel of Raï - The Early Years 2010: Cheb Khaled - Double Best Featured 1997 100% Arabica 2003 Art'n Acte Production Below is a chronological list of awards won by Khaled 1985 The first prize of rai music Oran 1989 best song in France 1989 top 100 best album in 20th century 1992 top 50 Mtv AMERICA 1992 World Music Awards 1992 Mtv India Awards 1993 Venice Film Festival 50th - 1994 César Award - best movie soundtrack 1995 Victoires de la Musique 1997 World Music Awards 1997 Victoires de la Musique 1997 African Grammys best North African singerKora Awards 1998 le Prix européen MTV Europe Music Awards 1999 World Music Awards shared with Rachid Taha and Faudel 2004 Grammy jam Awards 2005 R3 Awards BBC Awards for World Music - 2005 Montreal International Jazz Festival 2005 ImagineNations and DC Internationals 2006 The Mediterranean Prize for Creativity 2008 Award Dutch Virsti - German Academy of Music 2008 MTV Europe Music Awards creativity 2009 NME Awards 2009 avec Magic System 2009 MGM Awards 2010 Big Apple Music Awards 2009 European Hot 100 Singles 2009 2012 France Digital Songs 2012 African Grammys best North African singer Kora Awards 2013 Victoires de la Musique 2013 World Music Awards 2013 Murex D'Or 2013 - Best International Song & Best International Singer - Cheb Khaled - 2013 Rabab d’or prix d'honneur - Maroc Festival International Al Ansra de M’diq 2013 Festival international de la musique kabyle à Tanger festival Touiza MAROC 2013 XLII Universal Music Award- vienna 2016 best song Official website Article on Khaled by Paul Tingen FAO Goodwill Ambassador website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Zebda is a French music group from Toulouse known for its political activism and its wide variety of musical styles. The group, formed in 1985, consisted of seven musicians of diverse nationalities, the themes of much of their music involved political and social justice, the status of immigrants and minorities in France, the inhabitants of the French banlieues, or suburbs. Zebda earned widespread recognition, as well as several awards, for its 1998 single "Tomber la chemise". In 2001, the band spearheaded an independent political party that won over 12% of the first-round vote in Toulouse's municipal elections; the group disbanded in 2003 but reformed in 2011. Zebda was first formed in 1985 when Magyd Cherfi, a community organizer at the time, organized a small group of his musician friends to shoot a video for a community organization for which he was working. More members joined the group later—several of the members met one another through involvement in community projects geared towards supporting arts and music involvement among Toulouse youth.
The group began performing together in 1988. The band gained widespread recognition when they performed at the Printemps de Bourges music festival in 1990 and performed on an international tour which included venues in France and the United Kingdom; the group released its first album, L'arène des rumeurs, in 1992, under the label of Barclay Records. As the band toured and performed, the members continued to be active in community work, Zebda became known for its politicized lyrics, its 1995 album, Le bruit et l'odeur took its name from a gaffe made by then-president Jacques Chirac in reference to the conditions in the French banlieues, many of which have large immigrant populations. The record itself had a strong critical and commercial reception and has been said to have "cause a major stir" in France. In 2003, Zebda released La Tawa, after which the band split up; the group reformed in toured France. A new album, Second tour, was released in January 2012. Zebda, the Arabic word for butter, is a play on the word beur, a French slang word referring to French citizens of Arab origin—several of the group's members are of North African and other immigrant descent.
As Zebda was formed for a community organization and many of the members met through social initiatives and activism, the band remained political throughout its existence. Much of the group's music and lyrics have centered on issues of political and social justice among the immigrant community and inhabitants of the banlieues. In fact, Bangor University's Jonathan Ervine, in a deconstructive analysis of Zebda's music and identity, states that "Zebda's music invokes both the virtues of multiculturalism and the problems that exist within French society regarding the treatment of immigrants, ethnic minorities, young people from France's banlieues. Difference and exclusion are themes that feature in J'y suis, j'y reste." The themes of Zebda's music were known for dealing in issues of intolerance. In 1997, three members of Zebda formed a group called "Tactikollectif,", involved in fund-raising and advocacy for immigrant groups in the banlieues. In the 2001 municipal elections, Zebda sponsored and spearheaded a list of independent candidates, Les Motivé-e-s, who ran for office on the platform that the current local government was not representative of all demographic groups in the city.
The group of candidates, two of whom were Zebda band members, won 12.38% of the vote in the first-round elections, advanced to the second round, where they were narrowly defeated. After the band's breakup in 2003, the individual members continued to be active in local politics and other activities for social advocacy. Zebda's music is influenced by these band members' multicultural as well as music from all over the world. While the content and themes of their music are politically serious detailing racism and discrimination, the group has been said to have a positive and "upbeat" sound that represents the ideal of peaceful coexistence and cultural diversity; the group is best known for its single "Tomber la chemise", from the 1998 platinum album Essence ordinaire. In addition to being a commercial success, the song went on to be named the best French song of 2000 at both the Victoires de la musique awards and the NRJ Music Awards. Victoires de la musique: Best group Best song, for "Tomber la chemise" NRJ Music Awards: Francophone song of the year, for "Tomber la chemise" Francophone group of the year Live albums 1999: "Tomber la chemise" 1999: "Y'a pas d'arrangement" 2000: "Oualalaradime" 2002: "L'erreur est humaine" Marx-Scouras, Danielle.
La France de Zebda 1981–2004: Faire de la musique un acte politique. Autrement. ISBN 978-2-7467-0661-3. Zebda's official homepage Zebda article by Don Snow of Allmusic "Tomber la Chemise" music video on Youtube La Beurgeoisie The French website for successful "Beurs". Mortaigne, Veronique. "Les identités bariolées de la musique beur". Retrieved 18 December 2008. Mortaigne, Veronique. "Zeb
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers