A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t
University of Liverpool
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is known to be one of the six original'red brick' civic universities, it comprises three faculties organised into schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited. Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects, its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the world's first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories. In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world's first Sino-British university.
For 2017-18, Liverpool had a turnover of £543.9 million, including £95.6 million from research grants and contracts. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in England. Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution; the university has a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online. The partnership provides the technical infrastructure to deliver courses worldwide; the university was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. In 1894 Oliver Lodge, a professor at the university, made the world's first public radio transmission and two years took the first surgical X-ray in the United Kingdom; the Liverpool University Press was founded in 1899, making it the third oldest university press in England. Students in this period were awarded external degrees by the University of London.
Following a royal charter and act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university with the right to confer its own degrees called the University of Liverpool. The next few years saw major developments at the university, including Sir Charles Sherrington's discovery of the synapse and William Blair-Bell's work on chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In the 1930s to 1940s Sir James Chadwick and Sir Joseph Rotblat made major contributions to the development of the atomic bomb. From 1943 to 1966 Allan Downie, Professor of Bacteriology, was involved in the eradication of smallpox. In 1994 the university was a founding member of the Russell Group, a collaboration of twenty leading research-intensive universities, as well as a founding member of the N8 Group in 2004. In the 21st century physicists and technicians from the University of Liverpool were involved in the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, working on two of the four detectors in the LHC. In 2004, Sylvan Learning known as Laureate International Universities, became the worldwide partner for University of Liverpool online.
The university has produced ten Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Charles Barkla, physicist Martin Lewis Perl, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, chemist Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Rodney Porter, economist Ronald Coase and physicist Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was the first British Nobel laureate in 1902; the University is associated with Professors Ronald Finn and Sir Cyril Clarke who jointly won the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1980 and Sir David Weatherall who won the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in 2010. These Lasker Awards are popularly known as America's Nobels. Over the 2013/2014 academic year, members of staff took part in numerous strikes after staff were offered a pay rise of 1% which unions equated to a 13% pay cut since 2008; the strikes were supported by both the university's Guild of Students and the National Union of Students.
Some students at the university supported the strike. The university is based around a single urban campus five minutes walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant. Occupying 100 acres, it contains 192 non-residential buildings that house 69 lecture theatres, 114 teaching areas and research facilities; the main site is divided into three faculties: Life Sciences. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was a marine biology research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006. Fifty-one residential buildings, on or near the campus, provide 3,385 rooms for students, on a catered or self-catering basis; the centrepiece of the campus remains the University's original red brick building, the Victoria Building. Opened in 1892, it has been restored as the Victoria Gallery and Museum, complete with cafe and activities for school visits Victoria Gallery and Museum, University of Liverpool.
In 2011 the university made a commitment to invest £660m into the'Student Experience', £250m of which will be spent on Student Accommodation. Announced so far have been two large On-Campus halls of residences (the first of which, Vine Court, opened September 2012, new Veterinary Science facilities, a £10m refurbishment of the Liverpool Guild of Students. New Central Teaching Laboratories for physics, earth sciences, chemistry an
Scholars are people who devote themselves to study to an area in which they have developed expertise. A scholar may be an academic, a person who works as a teacher or researcher at a university or other higher education institution. An academic holds an advanced degree; the term scholar is sometimes used with equivalent meaning to that of academic and describes in general those who attain mastery in a research discipline. However, it has wider application, with it being used to describe those whose occupation was researched prior to organized higher education. In 1847, minister Emanuel Vogel Gerhart delivered an extensive address on the role of the scholar in society, writing: Who is a scholar? the first reply that must be given is: He is a scholar whose whole inward intellectual and moral being has been symmetrically unfolded and strengthened under the influence of truth. The different mental activities will always be exercised rightly when the proper equilibrium is preserved. No one faculty should be drawn out to the neglect of others.
The whole inner man should be unfolded harmoniously. Gerhart argued that a scholar can not be focused on a single discipline, contending that knowledge of multiple disciplines is necessary to put each into context and to inform the development of each: o be a scholar involves more than mere learning, he may know much about many things and yet know little or nothing right. Knowledge without system or order is of no more service than useless lumber. A genuine scholar possesses something more: he penetrates and understands the principle and laws of the particular department of human knowledge with which he professes acquaintance, he imbibes the life of Science. To know only one thing as it ought to be known constitutes a man more of a scholar than to know many things by rote; the man of one idea may be an object of ridicule, yet if his one idea is apprehended in its proper life and power, he is of far more account than if he had collected a number of notions, all jumbled together in his mind confusedly.
The knowledge of a scholar becomes a part of himself. Yielding himself to the plastic power of truth, as such, his mind is transfused and moulded by its energy and spirit. A more recent examination outlined the following attributes accorded to scholars as "described by many writers, with some slight variations in the definition": The common themes are that a scholar is a person who has a high intellectual ability, is an independent thinker and an independent actor, has ideas that stand apart from others, is persistent in her quest for developing knowledge, is systematic, has unconditional integrity, has intellectual honesty, has some convictions, stands alone to support these convictions. Scholars may rely on the scholarly method or scholarship, a body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, to make them known to the scholarly public, it is the methods that systemically advance the teaching and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry.
Scholarship is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. Scholars have been upheld as creditable figures engaged in work important to the advance of society. In Imperial China, in the period from 206 BC until AD 1912, the intellectuals were the Scholar-officials, who were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform the tasks of daily governance; such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, were skilled calligraphers, knew Confucian philosophy. Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that: Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one, it was good enough to be imitated in 18th century Europe. It has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse. In Joseon Korea, the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, had been designated, as the chungin, in accordance with the Confucian system.
They constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty. In his 1847 address, Gerhart asserted that scholars have an obligation to continue their studies so as to remain aware of new knowledge being generated, to contribute their own insights to the body of knowledge available to all: The progress of science involves momentous interests, it merits the attention of all sincere lovers of truth. Every one professing to be a scholar is under obligations to contribute towards the ever-progressive unfolding of its riches and power. Not content with what is well known in reference to a great variety of subjects —not content with the imperfect views that have been acquired of many others, all genuine scholars, availing themselves of previous efforts, should combine their energies to bring to view what has eluded the keen vision of those men of noble intellectual stature who have lived and died before them. Many scholars are professors engaged in the teaching of others.
In a number of countries, the title "research professor" refers to a professor, or engaged in research, who has few or no teaching obligations. For example, the title is used in this sense in the United Kingdom (where it is known as research professor at some universities and professorial research fellow at some other institutions
Bangor University is a university in Bangor, Wales. It received its Royal Charter in 1885 and was one of the founding institutions of the federal University of Wales. Known as University College of North Wales, University of Wales, Bangor, in 2007 it became Bangor University, independent from the University of Wales; the university was founded as the University College of North Wales on 18 October 1884, with an inaugural address by the Earl of Powis, the College's first President, in Penrhyn Hall. There was a procession to the college including 3,000 quarrymen; the foundation was the result of a campaign for better provision of higher education in Wales that had involved some rivalry among towns in North Wales over, to be the location of the new college. The college was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1885, its students received degrees from the University of London until 1893, when UCNW became a founding constituent institution of the federal University of Wales. During the Second World War paintings from national art galleries were stored in the Prichard-Jones Hall at UCNW to protect them from enemy bombing.
They were moved to slate mines at Blaenau Ffestiniog. Students from University College, were evacuated to continue their studies in a safer environment at Bangor. During the 1960s the university shared in the general expansion of higher education in the UK following the Robbins Report, with a number of new departments and new buildings. On 22 November 1965, during construction of an extension to the Department of Electronic Engineering in Dean Street, a crane collapsed on the building; the three-ton counterweight hit the second-floor lecture theatre in the original building about thirty minutes before it would have been occupied by about 80 first-year students. The counterweight went through to the ground floor. In 1967 the Bangor Normal College, now part of the university, was the venue for lectures on Transcendental Meditation by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at which The Beatles heard of the death of their manager, Brian Epstein. Student protests at UCNW in the 1970s focused on calls to expand the role of the Welsh language.
Around this time consideration began of mergers with two colleges of education in Bangor: St Mary's College, a college for women studying to become schoolteachers, the larger and older Normal College/Coleg Normal. The merger of St Mary's into UCNW was concluded in 1977, but the merger with Coleg Normal fell through in the 1970s and was not completed until 1996; the change of name to Bangor University, or Prifysgol Bangor in Welsh, was instigated by the university following the decision of the University of Wales to change from a federal university to a confederal non-membership organisation, the granting of degree-awarding powers to Bangor University itself. As a result, every student starting after 2009 gained a degree from Bangor University, while any student who started before 2009 had the option to have either Bangor University or University of Wales Bangor on their degree certificate. Under John Hughes's leadership as Vice-Chancellor, there have been a number of new developments including the opening of the new St Mary's Student Village, the first collaboration between Wales and China to establish a new College, which involved Bangor University and the Central South University of Forestry and Technology.
In 2014, Hughes attracted £45m of financing from the European Investment Bank, to assist the university in developing its estates strategy. In 2016, the university opened Marine Centre Wales, a £5.5m building on the site of the university's Ocean Sciences campus in Menai Bridge, financed as part of the £25 million SEACAMS project, part funded through the European Regional Development Fund. During this period the university has encountered a number of challenges and criticisms. In May 2017 Bangor became the fourth Welsh university to review its cost base with a view to making savings of £8.5m. The university responded and introduced a number of cost saving measures including the introduction of a voluntary severance scheme, the numbers of jobs at risk was reduced from the initial estimate of 170. In addressing its financial challenges, Bangor University reorganised some subject areas in 2017, which involved introducing new ways of co-ordinating and delivering adult education and part-time degree programmes, continuing to teach archaeology, but discontinuing the single honours course, working with Grwp Llandrillo Menai to validate the BA Fine Art degree.
Other issues which attracted adverse media comment included the cost overrun and delayed opening of the Pontio Arts and Innovation Centre in 2016, the appointment of Hughes's wife to a newly created senior management position, the purchase and refurbishment of a house for the vice-chancellor by the university, the expenses of some senior staff, the discrepancy between senior management salaries and remuneration for staff working on zero hour contracts. In 2016, Hughes received a 7.5% pay rise and the university confirmed that this was the first increase that the vice-chancellor had received from the university's remuneration committee since his appointment in 2010, although he would still have received an annual pay rise. From Hughes's takeover in 2010, when Bangor University made a £4.2 million profit, to 2017, the university's nominal income had risen by 12 per cent, but their expenditures by 19 per cent with the university's interests and finance costs soaring by 747 per cent. In early 2019
Bethesda is a town and community on the River Ogwen and the A5 road on the edge of Snowdonia, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is the 5th largest Community in Gwynedd. In 1823, the Bethesda Chapel was built and the town subsequently grew around it; the chapel has now been converted into flats and is known as Arafa Don. The town grew around the slate quarrying industries. At its peak, the town exported purple slate all over the world. Penrhyn Quarry suffered a three-year strike led by the North Wales Quarrymen's Union between 1900 and 1903; this led to the creation of the nearby village of Tregarth, built by the quarry owners, which housed the families of those workers who had not struck. The A5 road runs through Bethesda and marked the border between Lord Penrhyn's land, the freehold land. Most of the town is to the east and north east of the road, with housing packed onto the hillside in irregular rows, built on the commons. On the current high street, all the public houses are found on the north side of the road.
The narrow gauge Penrhyn Quarry Railway opened in 1801 to serve Penrhyn Quarry. It connected the quarry with Port Penrhyn on the coast and operated until 1962. In 1884, a branch of the London and North Western Railway's network from Bangor was opened; the line closed to passengers in 1951 and to freight in 1963. The trackbed of the Penrhyn Quarry Railway towards Porth Penrhyn is taken over by the Lôn Las Ogwen cycle path; the peak population of Bethesda was 10,000. Current opportunities for employment in the town are limited: there are a few manufacturing businesses. For employment with higher earning potential, residents tend to commute to towns along the North Wales coast. Bangor is the most popular destination. Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen is a bilingual comprehensive school, with 374 pupils, established in 1951. Zip World Velocity in Penrhyn Quarry is the longest zipline in Europe, at just over 1,600 metres long, brings the town hundreds of visitors; the architecture and layout of the town is utilitarian.
Most of the buildings are constructed of stone with slate roofs. Some are constructed wholly of slate blocks, although such buildings tend to suffer from damp and structural slippage because the flat and smooth surfaces of slate do not bind well to mortar; the town has 40 Grade II listed buildings, including three pubs, in addition to the substantial and imposing Grade I listed Nonconformist Jerusalem ChapelThe upper parts of Carneddi and Tan y Foel owe more to stone quarrying on the nearby hills rather than slate quarrying that supported the lower end of the town. At the eastern limits, the town is bounded by the rising land of the Carneddau mountains which form some of the more remote landscapes of Snowdonia. Much of Bethesda once consisted of discrete villages such as Gerlan, Tregarth and Braichmelyn. Bethesda is noted for both the number of chapels in the town; the town was named after the Bethesda Chapel, converted into residential flats. Llanllechid, on the outskirts of Bethesda, is the home of the Popty Bakery, the origins of which date back to the bakery opened by O. J. Williams in the early 1900s.
The product range focuses on traditional Welsh cakes and Bara Brith and these lines are retailed throughout Wales and parts of England through outlets including Aldi, Asda, Co-Op, Morrisons and Tesco. There are ten pubs not including Tregarth; the Douglas Arms, on the High Street, was named after the family which owned the nearby Penrhyn Quarry. Other pubs include the Bull, The Kings Head, Y Sior, The Victoria Arms, the Llangollen; the village has its own micro brewery known as Cwrw Ogwen. It manufactures one beer named Cwrw Caradog, named after the writer Caradog Prichard; the dominant language of the town is Welsh, can be seen written and heard spoken in most settings. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 77.0% of the residents are Welsh-speaking, higher than the average for both Gwynedd and Wales as a whole. The S4C series Amdani! was based on a fictitious women's rugby team in Bethesda, many of the location shots were filmed in the area. The series was based by Bethan Gwanas, who lived in the town.
In June 2012 Tabernacl Cyf. A non-profit co-operative based in the town, was awarded a grant of around £1 million to renovate Neuadd Ogwen, a performance venue on the High Street, it was due to reopen as a community arts centre in June 2013. In the 1970s and 1980s Bethesda developed a reputation as a hub of musical creativity. Jam sessions and small home studios abounded alongside a burgeoning pub rock scene; as well as the now well-established'Pesda Roc' festival, Bethesda has nurtured the Welsh language bands Maffia Mr Huws and experimentalists Y Jeycsyn Ffeif. In more recent years it continues to spring up bands from the local community such as Radio Rhydd. Bobby Atherton - footballer Ellis William Davies - politician Idris Foster - Jesus Professor of Celtic Studies at the University of Oxford David Ffrangcon-Davies - a Welsh operatic baritone Bethan Gwanas - the author lived and worked in Bethesda. Esyllt Harker - singer and storyteller. Mikael Madeg - Breton language writer, French language assistant at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen 1971–72 Frederick Llewellyn-Jones - politician Leila Megane - singer Gwenlyn Parry - writer William John Parry - first
Culhwch and Olwen
Culhwch and Olwen is a Welsh tale that survives in only two manuscripts about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. 1400, a fragmented version in the White Book of Rhydderch, ca. 1325. It is the longest of the surviving Welsh prose tales; the prevailing view among scholars was that the present version of the text was composed by the 11th century, making it the earliest Arthurian tale and one of Wales' earliest extant prose texts, but a 2005 reassessment by linguist Simon Rodway dates it to the latter half of the 12th century. The title is a invention and does not occur in early manuscripts. Lady Charlotte Guest included this tale among those. Besides the quality of its storytelling it contains several remarkable passages: the description of Culhwch riding on his horse is mentioned for its vividness, the fight against the terrible boar Twrch Trwyth has antecedents in Celtic tradition, the list of King Arthur's retainers recited by the hero is a rhetorical flourish that preserves snippets of Welsh tradition that otherwise would be lost.
Culhwch's father, King Cilydd son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth. When he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden Pencawr. Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur; the young man sets off to seek his kinsman. He finds him at his court in Celliwig in Cornwall. Arthur agrees to help, sends six of his finest warriors to join Culhwch in his search for Olwen; the group meets some relatives of Culhwch's that agree to arrange a meeting. Olwen is receptive to Culhwch's attraction, but she cannot marry him unless her father agrees, he, unable to survive past his daughter's wedding, will not consent until Culhwch completes a series of about forty impossible-sounding tasks.
The completion of only a few of these tasks is recorded and the giant is killed, leaving Olwen free to marry her lover. The story is on one level a typical folktale, in which a young hero sets out to wed a giant's daughter, many of the accompanying motifs reinforce this. However, for most of the narrative the title characters go unmentioned, their story serving as a frame for other events. Culhwch and Olwen is much more than a simple folktale. In fact, the majority of the writing is taken up by two long lists and the adventures of King Arthur and his men; the first of these occurs when Arthur welcomes his young kinsman to his court and offers to give him whatever he wishes. Culhwch, of course, asks that Arthur help him get Olwen, invokes some two hundred of the greatest men, dogs and swords in Arthur's kingdom to underscore his request. Included in the list are names taken from Irish legend and sometimes actual history; the second list includes the tasks Culhwch must complete before Ysbaddaden will allow him to marry Olwen.
Only a fraction are recounted. A version of the longest episode, the hunt for the boar Twrch Trwyth, is referenced in Historia Brittonum and it may be related to the boar hunt in the Irish stories of Diarmuid Ua Duibhne; the rescue of Mabon ap Modron from his watery prison has numerous parallels in Celtic legend, the quest for the cauldron of Diwrnach the Irishman may well be related to the tales of Bran the Blessed in the second branch of the Mabinogion and the poem The Spoils of Annwn in the Book of Taliesin linking it to the Grail Quest. Writers and Tolkien scholars, Tom Shippey and David Day have pointed out the similarities between The Tale of Beren and Lúthien, one of the main cycles of J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Culhwch and Olwen; the British painter/poet David Jones wrote a poem called "The Hunt" based on the tale of Culwhch ac Olwen. A fragment of a larger work, "The Hunt" takes place during the pursuit of the boar Twrch Trwyth by Arthur and the various war-bands of Celtic Britain and France.
In 1988 Gwyn Thomas released a retelling of the story, Culhwch ac Olwen, illustrated by Margaret Jones. Culhwch ac Olwen won the annual Tir na n-Og Award for Welsh language nonfiction in 1989. A shadow play adaptation of Culhwch and Olwen toured schools in Ceredigion during 2003; the show was supported by Theatr Felinfach. The tale of Culhwch and Olwen was adapted by Derek Webb in Welsh and English as a dramatic recreation for the reopening of Narberth Castle in Pembrokeshire in 2005; the Ballad of Sir Dinadan, the fifth book of Gerold Morris's The Squire's Tales series, features an adaptation of Culhwch's quest. Bromwich. Rachel and Evans, D. Simon Culhwch and Olwen: An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale University of Wales Press, 1992. ISBN 0-7083-1127-X. Patrick K. Ford and Olwen, from The