A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros. and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world. In 2004, these music assets were divested by their owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group; this independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.
Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company. Notable artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Kylie Minogue, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Lil Pump, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen and Sara, Dua Lipa, Linkin Park, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, Van Halen. At the end of the silent movie period, Warner Bros. Pictures decided to expand into publishing and recording so that it could access low-cost music content for its films. In 1928, the studio acquired several smaller music publishing firms which included M. Witmark & Sons, Harms Inc. and a partial interest in New World Music Corp. and merged them to form the Music Publishers Holding Company. This new group controlled valuable copyrights on standards by George and Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern and the new division was soon earning solid profits of up to US$2 million every year.
In 1930, MPHC paid US$28 million to acquire Brunswick Records, whose roster included Duke Ellington, Red Nichols, Nick Lucas, Al Jolson, Earl Burtnett, Ethel Waters, Abe Lyman, Leroy Carr, Tampa Red and Memphis Minnie, soon after the sale to Warner Bros. the label signed rising radio and recording stars Bing Crosby, Mills Brothers, Boswell Sisters. For Warner Bros. the dual impact of the Great Depression and the introduction of broadcast radio harmed the recording industry—sales crashed, dropping by around 90% from more than 100 million records in 1927 to fewer than 10 million by 1932 and major companies were forced to halve the price of records from 75c to 35c. In December 1931, Warner Bros. offloaded Brunswick to the American Record Corporation for a fraction of its former value, in a lease arrangement which did not include Brunswick's pressing plants. Technically, Warner maintained actual ownership of Brunswick, which with the sale of ARC to CBS in 1939 and their decision to discontinue Brunswick in favor of reviving the Columbia label, reverted to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. sold Brunswick a second time, this time along with the old Brunswick pressing plants Warner owned, to Decca Records in exchange for a financial interest in Decca. The studio stayed out of the record business for more than 25 years, during this period it licensed its film music to other companies for release as soundtrack albums. Warner Bros. returned to the record business in 1958 with the establishment of its own recording division, Warner Bros. Records. By this time, the established Hollywood studios were reeling from multiple challenges to their former dominance—the most notable being the introduction of television in the late 1940s. Legal changes had a major impact on their business—lawsuits brought by major stars had overthrown the old studio contract system by the late 1940s. Pictures sold off much of its film library in 1948 and, beginning in 1949, anti-trust suits brought by the US government forced the five major studios to divest their cinema chains. In 1956, Harry Warner and Albert Warner sold their interest in the studio and the board was joined by new members who favoured a renewed expansion into the music business—Charles Allen of the investment bank Charles Allen & Company, Serge Semenenko of the First National Bank of Boston and investor David Baird.
Semenenko in particular had a strong professional interest in the entertainment business and he began to push Jack Warner on the issue of setting up an'in-house' record label. With the record business booming - sales had topped US$500 million by 1958 - Semnenko argued that it was foolish for Warner Bros. to make deals with other companies to release its soundtracks when, for less than the cost of one motion picture, they could establish their own label, creating a new income stream that could continue indefinitely and provide an additional means of exploiting and promoting its contract actors. Another impetus for the label's creation was the brief music career of Warner Bros. actor Tab Hunter. Although Hunter was signed to an exclusive acting contract with the studio, it did not prevent him from signing a recording contract, which he did with Dot Records, owned at the time by Paramount Pictures. Hunter scored several hits for Dot, including the US #1 single, "Young Love", to Warner Bros.' chagrin, reporters were asking about the hit record, rather than
Deric J. Ruttan is a Grammy-nominated songwriter, country music artist, record producer from Bracebridge, Ontario. A Nashville, Tennessee resident, he has released four studio albums and has written or co-written more than 60 songs that have been recorded by other recording artists. Deric moved to Nashville in 1994 to pursue his music career, spending his days writing songs and his nights scouring the city getting ideas and learning from local singer/songwriters, he got his break in 1999 when producer Steve Bogard liked it. Steve signed Deric to a songwriting deal and began recording his first demos. After Doug Howard at Lyric Street Records heard his demo and Deric played five songs live for Randy Goodman, Deric entered a record deal with the label. In 2003, he released Deric Ruttan. In 2003, just as his first single "When You Come Around," was released, he celebrated his first No. 1 as a songwriter when friend and collaborator Dierks Bentley took the Ruttan/Bentley/Brett Beavers co-write "What Was I Thinkin'" to the top of the charts in the US.
The song helped set Bentley on the path to country stardom. In 2004 Ruttan's "My Way", recorded by Aaron Pritchett, was the most-played Canadian country song of that year. Capitol Nashville's Eric Church had an American Billboard hit with his and Ruttan's "Guys Like Me" in 2007, cuts on other acts followed, on artists like Gary Allan, Paul Brandt, Doc Walker, Jason Blaine, The Higgins. In September 2007, Ruttan was awarded his first Canadian Country Music Award for Songwriter Of The Year, for "Hold My Beer", recorded by Pritchett, he won the CCMA for songwriter of the year once again in 2014 for "Mine Would Be You," recorded by Blake Shelton. Ruttan has written and co-written songs for prominent country musicians including Dierks Bentley, Aaron Pritchett, Jason Aldean, Eric Church, Blake Shelton. Since 2011, Deric has written for Nashville-based publishing company THiS Music, he renewed his deal with THiS Music in 2016. It took over four years for Ruttan to follow up his 2003 self-titled release.
In 2008 he released his second album, aptly titled First Time In A Long Time, which yielded four hit radio singles at Canadian country radio: the title track, "Lovin' You Is Killin' Me", "California Plates", "Good Time", a duet with Bentley.."It wasn't just that writing songs for other artists was taking time away from me writing my next record", says Ruttan. "It was that I was known as a guy who'd written radio hits for other acts – the bar had been raised for me, because of that. I felt the next record I made needed to be really good."At the 2008 Canadian Country Music Awards, Ruttan earned a total of four nominations – "Male Artist", "Songwriter", "Record Producer", "Best Album," and closed the show performing alongside The Guess Who/Bachman Turner Overdrive guitar legend Randy Bachman. By the following year, "First Time In A Long Time" had garnered so much radio airplay that it earned Ruttan and co-writer Jimmy Rankin a SOCAN Country Music Award at the 2009 SOCAN Awards in Toronto. In January 2010, with "Sunshine," Deric began releasing albums on his own independent label, Black T Records.
He captured live audio on Sunshine's supporting tour to create 2011's live album, "Up All Night – Deric Ruttan Live." He released his most recent album, "Take the Week Off," in October 2013. He has found success as an artist on Canadian country radio, he continues to balance touring to support his albums with songwriting at home. "I’ve never been happier with the balance in my career," he says. "I tour about as much as I’d want to. Jason Blaine, Chad Brownlee and I did 25 shows across Canada in the Your Town Throwdown tour, I played festivals in the summer; that lets me get my performance ya-yas out, I’m in Nashville writing the rest of the time. Considering I haven’t lived there in 20 years, I feel embraced by Canada." Official website
The Oak Ridge Boys
The Oak Ridge Boys are an American country and gospel vocal quartet. The group was founded in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Quartet, they became popular in southern gospel during the 1950s. Their name was changed to the Oak Ridge Boys in the early 1960s, they remained a gospel group until the mid-1970s, when they changed their image and concentrated on country music; the lineup which produced their most well-known country and crossover hits (such as "Elvira", "Bobbie Sue", "American Made" consists of Duane Allen, Joe Bonsall, William Lee Golden, Richard Sterban. Golden and Allen joined the group in the mid-1960s, Sterban and Bonsall joined in the early 1970s. Aside from an eight-year gap when Golden left the group and was replaced, this lineup has been together since 1973 and continues to tour and record; the core group that would lead to the Oak Ridge Boys was a country group called Wally Fowler and the Georgia Clodhoppers, formed in 1943 in Knoxville, Tennessee. They were requested to perform to staff members and their families restricted during World War II at the nuclear research plant in nearby Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
They were asked to sing there so that they changed their name to the Oak Ridge Quartet. And because their most popular songs were gospel, Fowler decided to focus on southern gospel music. At the time, the quartet was made up of Wally Fowler, Lon "Deacon" Freeman, Curly Kinsey, Johnny New; this group began recording in 1947. Wally Fowler And The Oak Ridge Quartet were members of the Grand Ole Opry in the 1940s. In 1949, the other three men split from Fowler to form a new group, Curley Kinsey and the Tennessee Ridge Runners, so Fowler hired an existing group, the Calvary Quartet, to re-form the Oak Ridge Quartet. In 1957, Fowler sold the rights to the "Oak Ridge Quartet" name to group member Smitty Gatlin in exchange for forgiveness of a debt; as a result of more personnel changes, the group lost its tenor, so they lowered their arrangements and had Gatlin sing tenor while the pianist, Tommy Fairchild, sang lead. They recorded an album for Cadence Records in 1958 they hired Willie Wynn to sing the tenor part, Fairchild moved back to the piano.
At this point the group consisted of Fairchild at the piano, Gatlin, baritone Ron Page, bass Herman Harper. They recorded an album on the Checker Records label, one on Starday, three on Skylite. In 1961, Gatlin changed the group's name to "the Oak Ridge Boys" because their producer, Bud Praeger, thought "Oak Ridge Quartet" sounded too old-fashioned for their contemporary sound. In 1962, Ron Page left, the group hired Gary McSpadden as baritone with the understanding from Jake Hess that when he was ready to start a group, he would recruit McSpadden, they recorded another album on Skylite, two groundbreaking albums on Warner Brothers. When Hess followed through on that promise, McSpadden quit to join a new group Hess was forming, the Imperials. Jim Hammill was chosen to be his replacement, they made one album for Festival Records, one for Stateswood, two more for Skylite. Hammill did not get along with the rest of the group, William Lee Golden, a newcomer to the music industry, felt that Hamill was hurting the group and asked the group if he could be Hammil's replacement.
After Hamill's retirement from the group in 1964, Golden joined as baritone. The group recorded another album for Starday and another on Skylite in 1965. In 1966, Gatlin left the group to become a minister of music and, on Golden's recommendation, Duane Allen of the Southernairs Quartet, was hired to replace him. With Willie Wynn still singing tenor and Herman Harper as bass, the group made another album for Skylite, one for United Artists, began recording on the Heart Warming label. Between 1966 and 1973 they made 12 albums with Heart Warming, the company released several compilation albums on which they were included during those years; the group had an album on Vista that included unreleased songs from previous sessions. Harper left the group in 1968 to join the Don Light Talent Agency, before starting his own company, The Harper Agency, which remains one of the most highly-reputable booking agencies in gospel music. Noel Fox of the Tennesseans and the Harvesters, took over the bass part. In 1970, the Oak Ridge Boys earned their first Grammy award for "Talk About the Good Times".
In late October 1972, Richard Sterban, the bass with J. D. Sumner and the Stamps Quartet joined the Oak Ridge Boys; this followed what was the Stamps Quartet's most famous moment, backing Elvis Presley in his 10 June 1972 concert at Madison Square Garden. The quartet that appeared on "Hee Haw" in 1972 consisted of Willie Wynn, Duane Allen, William Lee Golden, Richard Sterban. Joe Bonsall, a Philadelphia native, a member of the Keystone Quartet and recording on Duane Allen's Superior label, joined in October 1973; that same year the Oak Ridge Boys recorded a single with Johnny Cash and the Carter Family, "Praise the Lord and Pass the Soup", that put them on the country charts for the first time. The group's lineup would remain consistent for the next 15 years. After opening a series of shows for Roy Clark, the Oak Ridge Boys moved in 1973 to the Columbia label, for whom they made three albums and several singles. In early 1976, they toured Russia for three weeks with Ro
Knoxville News Sentinel
The Knoxville News Sentinel is a daily newspaper in Knoxville, United States, owned by the Gannett Company. The newspaper was formed in 1926 from the merger of two competing newspapers: The Knoxville News and The Knoxville Sentinel. John Trevis Hearn began publishing The Sentinel in December 1886, while The News was started in 1921 by Robert P. Scripps and Roy W. Howard; the two merged in 1926, with the first edition of The Knoxville News-Sentinel appearing on November 21 of that year. The editor from 1921 to 1931, Edward J. Meeman was sent to Memphis to edit the since defunct Memphis Press-Scimitar. In 1986, the News-Sentinel became a morning paper, with the other paper in Knoxville, the Knoxville Journal, becoming an evening paper; the Journal ceased publication as a daily in 1991, when the joint operating agreement between the two papers expired. In 2002, the paper dropped the hyphen from its name to become the Knoxville News Sentinel; as of April 3, 2017, the News Sentinel's president is Frank E Rosamond Sr.
As of May 2017, its editor is Jack McElroy of the Rocky Mountain News Knoxnews.com has won many national awards, including winning three 2008 Digital Edge Awards from the Newspaper Association of America for best overall news website, most innovative user-participation and best site design. The News Sentinel has sponsored four winners of the Scripps National Spelling Bee: 1940: Laura Kuykendall – "therapy" 1960: Henry Feldman – "eudaemonic" 1963: Glen Van Slyke III – "equipage" 1994: Ned Andrews – "antediluvian" List of newspapers in Tennessee "2007 Top 100 Daily Newspapers in the U. S. by Circulation". BurrellesLuce. March 31, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2007. Lester, Connie L. "Knoxville News-Sentinel". Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved November 8, 2006. "Scripps Newspapers: Knoxville News Sentinel". The E. W. Scripps Company. Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006. Mooney, Jack. A History of Tennessee Newspapers. Official website Other internet properties owned by the Knoxville News Sentinel Knoxville Information Guide Knoxville Book of Lists University of Tennessee sports news coverage From Papers to Pixels - an effort by the Knox County Public Library system to create a digital archive of the News Sentinel spanning the years 1922 to 1990
A Guy with a Girl
"A Guy with a Girl" is a song recorded by American country music artist Blake Shelton for his tenth studio album, If I'm Honest. Released to radio as the album's fourth single on September 26, 2016, the track was written by Ashley Gorley and Bryan Simpson, while production was handled by Scott Hendricks. "A Guy with a Girl" was written by Ashley Gorley and Bryan Simpson, while production was handled by Scott Hendricks. Containing influences from 80s country music, the single is comparable to the recordings on his previous studio albums Startin' Fires. In the track's lyrics, the singer describes his girlfriend receiving a ton of attention. Shelton sings: "When I walk into a party with you, girl / I'm just a guy with a girl everybody wants to know", questions: "Wondering how I got your little hand in mine / Looking over at you like'ain't she beautiful'?". "A Guy with a Girl" was well received by music critics. Raphael Chestang from Entertainment Tonight declared it "one of the most touching tracks from If I'm Honest".
Lauren Cowling from One Country praised its sound for being soulful and flirty, concluded with " a Shelton classic". Chuck Dauphin, a columnist for Sounds Like Nashville, claimed that "A Guy with a Girl", in addition to album tracks "Every Goodbye" and "She's Got a Way with Words", would make veteran country musicians proud; the song has sold 200,000 copies in the US as of March 2017
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, where it is the primary newspaper. It is the largest newspaper in the state of Wisconsin, where it is distributed widely, it is owned by the Gannett Company. The Journal Sentinel was first printed on Sunday, April 2, 1995, following the consolidation of operations between the afternoon The Milwaukee Journal and the morning Milwaukee Sentinel, owned by the same company, Journal Communications, for more than 30 years; the new Journal Sentinel became a seven-day morning paper. In early 2003, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel began printing operations at its new printing facility in West Milwaukee. In September 2006, the Journal Sentinel announced it had "signed a five-year agreement to print the national edition of USA Today for distribution in the northern and western suburbs of Chicago and the eastern half of Wisconsin"; the legacies of both papers are acknowledged on the editorial pages today, with the names of the Sentinel's Solomon Juneau and the Journal's Lucius Nieman and Harry J. Grant listed below their respective newspaper's flags.
The merged paper's volume and edition numbers follow those of the Journal. The Milwaukee Sentinel was founded in response to disparaging statements made about the east side of town by Byron Kilbourn's westside partisan newspaper, the Milwaukee Advertiser, during the city's "bridge wars", a period when the two sides of town fought for dominance; the founder of Milwaukee, Solomon Juneau, provided the starting funds for editor John O'Rourke, a former office assistant at the Advertiser, to start the paper. It was first published as a four-page weekly on June 27, 1837. A deathly ill O'Rourke struggled to help the paper to find its feet before he died six months of tuberculosis at the age of 24. On Juneau's request, O'Rourke's associate, Harrison Reed, remained to take over the Sentinel's operations, he continued the struggle to keep the paper ahead of its debts printing pleas to his advertisers and subscribers to pay their bills any way they could. Meanwhile, the establishment of the Whig party in the territory thrust the Sentinel into partisan politics.
In 1840 Reed was assaulted by individuals whom the Sentinel charged were hired by Democratic Governor Henry Dodge. That year the paper abandoned its independence and proclaimed itself a Whig paper with its endorsement of William Henry Harrison for president in 1840. In financial straits, Reed lost control of the paper in 1841 when Democrats foreclosed on the Sentinel's mortgaged debt and took over its editorial page. Only after the Democrats' successful election of Dodge for Congress was Reed able to regain control of the paper; the next year he sold the Sentinel to Elisha Starr, an editor who had founded a new Whig paper in response to the Sentinel's Democratic lapse. Reed became a "carpetbag" governor of Florida during Reconstruction. Starr guarded the Sentinel's position as the sole Whig organ in Milwaukee. In debt, he secured the partnership of David M. Keeler, who paid off the paper's creditors. Keeler took on partner John S. Fillmore and succeeded in ousting Starr, who kept publishing his own version of the Sentinel.
Keeler and Fillmore trumped his efforts by turning their Sentinel into a daily on December 9, 1844, while still publishing a weekly edition. The paper began to prosper and establish itself as a major political force in the nascent state of Wisconsin. Having accomplished his goal of establishing the first daily paper in the territory, Keeler retired two months but not before opening a public reading room of the nation's newspapers, the origin of Milwaukee's public library system. Fillmore employed a succession of editors, including Jason Downer a Wisconsin Supreme Court justice, Increase A. Lapham, a Midwestern naturalist who helped establish the National Weather Service. After running through six editors in eight years, Fillmore sought a more stable editorial foundation and went east to confer with Thurlow Weed, editor of the Albany Evening Journal and powerful Whig political boss of New York. Weed recommended protégé, Rufus King. King was a native of New York City, a graduate of West Point, a brevet lieutenant, the son of the president of Columbia College and the grandson of U.
S. Constitution signer Rufus King. In June 1845 King became the Sentinel's editor three months later. King was lionized by the community, it was his suggestion that made the Sentinel the first paper in the Midwest to employ newsboys to boost street sales. Due to King's connections to the East, the quality of the Sentinel improved, he declared the Sentinel an antislavery paper and supported temperance legislation. King invested his own money in the paper. Two years the first telegraph message wired to Wisconsin was received in the Sentinel office; the paper provided thorough coverage of Wisconsin's constitutional convention, held in Madison in 1846. When the adopted constitution fell short of Whig expectations, the Sentinel was instrumental in encouraging its rejection by territorial voters on April 6, 1847; the Sentinel launched a German paper, Der Volksfreund, to bring the city's large population of German immigrants to the Whig cause. Gen. King himself was a delegate to Wisconsin's second constitutional convention.
He was appointed head of the Milwaukee militia and sat on the University of Wisconsin's board of regents, as well as being the first superintendent of Milwaukee public schools. In the wake of the Panic of 1857 King sold the paper to T. D. Jermain and H. H. Brightman, but remained editor, covering the state legislative sessions of 1859–1861 himself. After