Amy Louise Sedaris is an American actress and writer known for voicing the character Princess Carolyn in the Netflix animated series BoJack Horseman. She collaborates with her older brother David, a humorist and author. Sedaris played Jerri Blank in the Comedy Central television series Strangers with Candy. Sedaris was born in Endicott, New York, the daughter of Sharon Elizabeth and Louis Harry "Lou" Sedaris, grew up in Raleigh, North Carolina, with her siblings, David, Gretchen and Paul, her father is of Greek descent and her mother was an Anglo-American. Her father is Greek Orthodox, her mother was a Protestant, she was raised in her father's Orthodox faith. At age 16, Sedaris worked at her local Winn-Dixie supermarket, she would make fake announcements over the loudspeaker, prompting the head cashier to confiscate the microphone and threaten to fire her. After work, she egged the cashier's car in protest; as a cocktail waitress at Zanies Comedy Club in Chicago, she was fired for being five minutes late.
She took her revenge on her boss: "I took his keys, I threw them in the snow. I heard he found them in the spring." According to David Sedaris' book Me Talk Pretty One Day, Amy was a dramatic child and would assume characters to play pranks on her family. A former member of Chicago-based Second City and Annoyance Theatre comedy troupes, Sedaris' first major foray into television began in 1995 on the Comedy Central sketch show, Exit 57, which starred Stephen Colbert and Paul Dinello; the show ran for one season. Beginning in 1999, Sedaris portrayed Jerri Blank in the Comedy Central series Strangers with Candy; the show, which she co-wrote with Dinello and Colbert, was based on Sedaris's impression of 1970s-era motivational speaker Florrie Fisher. The show ran for three seasons and would inspire a full-length movie. Sedaris has made numerous guest appearances on a number of different TV programs, including Rescue Me, Wonder Showzen, Just Shoot Me!, Sex and the City, My Name Is Earl, The Closer, The Middle, The New Adventures of Old Christine, Raising Hope, Sesame Street.
Sedaris hosted the series Film Fanatic on Trio. Sedaris has appeared on many talk shows, including the Late Show with David Letterman, The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson, The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, Late Night With Jimmy Fallon, WTF with Marc Maron. In 2008, Sedaris appeared on Chelsea Lately during which she gave host Chelsea Handler a presentation concerning vaginal hygiene with the aid of a plush vagina created by fashion designer Todd Oldham. In 2007, Sedaris was featured in Dolly Parton's first mainstream country music video in 14 years, "Better Get to Livin'", it was announced in October 2008. However, this never came to fruition. In late 2008, Sedaris did voiceovers in several commercials for the discount hair salon SuperCuts. In January 2009, Sedaris narrated the PBS special Make'Em Laugh: The Funny Business of America, a six-hour documentary on comedians and comedy in American history. In early 2010, she appeared as a supporting character in the Canadian comedy series The Drunk and On Drugs Happy Fun Time Hour.
From September 2010 to February 2011, she voiced the WordGirl character Miss Davis, the Woodview School's debate club teacher in the season 2 episode "Cleanup on Aisle Eleven" and where she was the schoolteacher of Becky, Violet and Victoria in "Cherish is the Word" in season 3. In December 2010, Sedaris appeared with Paul Dinello in the "Mummified Hand" episode of the Discovery/Science Channel show Oddities. In 2011, she appeared in a series of commercials for a fabric softener product; the ad was designed by Grey with the aim of "kicking the old'mom' image with spots featuring'laundry expert' Amy Sedaris". In 2013, she replaced Kristen Schaal as the sex-crazed sister Hurshe Heartshe, in the Adult Swim surreal nightmarish comedy series The Heart, She Holler. In 2013, Sedaris appeared in eight episodes of Amazon's Alpha House, a political comedy series written by Doonesbury creator Garry Trudeau. Sedaris played Louise Laffer, the Mormon wife of Utah Senator Louis Laffer, who lives with three other Republican senators in a town house on Capitol Hill.
Since 2014, she has provided the voice for Princess Carolyn on the Netflix original show BoJack Horseman, a role which some critics consider to be her best work. She had voiced the Bandit Princess in Adventure Time. Since 2015, she has portrayed Mimi Kanasis on Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt. In April 2016, Sedaris appeared on "Horace and Pete: Episode 10", she played a character named looking for a job at Horace and Pete's. In October, 2017, Sedaris began At Home with Amy Sedaris, an American television series appearing on truTV, showcasing her playing various characters; the show focuses on her love of crafts. On December 31, 2017, she appeared on CNN's New Year's Eve with Anderson Cooper and Andy Cohen with 5 second cynical weathercasts advising how cold it was. Sedaris has had small roles in a number of films, including Elf, School of Rock, Maid in Manhattan, Snow Angels, Full Grown Men, Old Dogs, Shrek the Third, Chicken Little, she starred in the 2006 film adaptation of Strangers with Candy. Sedaris had a large role in the comedy The Best and the Brightest.
She reprised her role in Shrek Forever After. In 2008, Sedaris starred as principal Abby Hofman in Nickelodeon TV's Gym Teacher: The Movie, directed by her Strangers with Candy co-star Paul Din
Thomas John "Tom" Dowd was an American recording engineer and producer for Atlantic Records. He was credited with innovating the multitrack recording method. Dowd worked on a veritable "who's who" of recordings that encompassed blues, pop and soul records. Born in Manhattan, Dowd grew up playing piano, tuba and string bass, his mother was an opera singer and his father was a concertmaster. Dowd graduated from Stuyvesant High School in June 1942 at the age of 16, he continued his musical education at City College of New York. Dowd played in a band at New York's Columbia University, where he became a conductor, he was employed at the physics laboratory of Columbia University. At age 18, Dowd was drafted into the military with the rank of sergeant, he continued his work in physics at Columbia University. He worked on the Manhattan Project; the purpose of the work was unclear until 1945. Dowd planned to obtain a degree in nuclear physics when he completed his work on the Manhattan Project. However, because his work was top secret, the university did not recognize it, Dowd decided not to continue, since the university's curriculum would not have been able to further his physics education.
His research for the military was more advanced than academic courses at that time. Dowd took a job at a classical music recording studio until he obtained employment at Atlantic Records, his first hit was Eileen Barton's "If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked a Cake". He soon became a top recording engineer there and recorded popular artists such as Ray Charles, the Drifters, the Coasters, the Spinners, Ruth Brown and Bobby Darin, including Darin's famous rendition of Kurt Weill/Bertolt Brecht's "Mack the Knife", he captured jazz masterpieces by Ornette Coleman, Thelonious Monk and Charlie Parker. It was Dowd's idea to cut Ray Charles' recording of "What'd I Say" into two parts and release them as the A-side and B-side of the same single record. Dowd worked as an producer from the 1940s until the beginning of the 21st century. While working for Atlantic Records, he lived in Westwood, NJ with his wife Jackie and his sons and Todd, he recorded albums by many artists including Bee Gees, Eric Clapton, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Black Oak Arkansas and the Dominos, Rod Stewart, Wishbone Ash, New Model Army, Lulu, the Allman Brothers Band, Joe Bonamassa, the J. Geils Band, Meat Loaf, Sonny & Cher, the Rascals, the Spinners, Willie Nelson, Diana Ross, the Four Seasons, Kenny Loggins, James Gang, Dusty Springfield, Eddie Harris, Charles Mingus, Herbie Mann, Booker T. & the M.
G.'s, Aretha Franklin, Joe Castro and Primal Scream. He was an employee of Apex Studios in the 1950s. Dowd received a Grammy Trustees Award for his lifetime achievements in February 2002, he died of emphysema on October 27, 2002, in Florida, where he had been living and working at Criteria Studios for many years, a week after his 77th birthday. Tom Dowd helped to shape the artists that he worked with, because he worked with an array of great artists on some of the world's greatest recordings, Dowd was influential in creating the sound of the second half of the 20th Century, it was he who encouraged Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records to install an Ampex eight-track recorder, enabling Atlantic to be the first recording company to record using multiple tracks. Dowd is credited as the engineer who popularized the eight-track recording system for commercial music and popularized the use of stereophonic sound, he pioneered the use of linear channel faders as opposed to rotary controls on audio mixers.
He devised various methods for altering sound after the initial recording. In 2003 director Mark Moormann premiered an award-winning documentary about his life entitled Tom Dowd and the Language of Music. In the 2004 biopic Ray, Tom Dowd was portrayed by actor Rick Gomez. Tom Dowd was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012; the ceremony took place on April 14, 2012, Robbie Robertson gave the induction speech. Tom Dowd and the Language of Music "Tom Dowd". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Discography Tom Dowd at Find a Grave
Geisha, geiko, or geigi are Japanese women who entertain through performing the ancient traditions of art and singing, are distinctively characterized by traditional kimonos and makeup. Contrary to popular belief, geisha are not the Eastern equivalent of a prostitute; the word geisha consists of two kanji, 芸 meaning "art" and 者 meaning "person" or "doer". The most literal translation of geisha into English would be "artist", "performing artist", or "artisan". Another name for geisha is Geiko, which translates as "Woman of Art"; this term is used to refer to geisha from Western Japan, which includes Kanazawa. Apprentice geisha are called Maiko "Woman of Dance", or Hangyoku, "Half-Jewel", or by the more generic term o-shaku "one who pours"; the white make-up and elaborate kimono and hair of a maiko is the popular image held of geisha. A woman entering the geisha community does not have to begin as a maiko, having the opportunity to begin her career as a full geisha. Either way, however a year's training is involved before debuting either as a maiko or as a geisha.
A woman above 21 is considered too old to be a maiko and becomes a full geisha upon her initiation into the geisha community. On average, Tokyo apprentices are older than their Kyoto counterparts. Geisha began the earliest stages of their training at a young age, sometimes as early as 6 years old; the early Shikomi and Minarai stages of geisha training lasted for years and months, longer than in contemporary times. A girl is a shikomi for up to a year while the modern minarai period is one month, it is still said that geisha inhabit a separate world which they call the Karyūkai or "The Flower and Willow World". Before they disappeared, the courtesans were the colourful "flowers" and the geisha the "willows" because of their subtlety and grace. In the early stages of Japanese history, there were female entertainers: Saburuko were wandering girls whose families were displaced from struggles in the late 600s; some of these saburuko girls sold sexual services, while others with a better education made a living by entertaining at high-class social gatherings.
After the imperial court moved the capital to Heian-kyō in 794 the conditions that would form geisha culture began to emerge, as it became the home of a beauty-obsessed elite. Skilled female performers, such as Shirabyōshi dancers, thrived. Traditional Japan embraced sexual delights and men were not constrained to be faithful to their wives; the ideal wife was a modest manager of the home. For sexual enjoyment and romantic attachment, men did not go to courtesans. Walled-in pleasure quarters known as yūkaku were built in the 16th century, in 1617 the shogunate designated "pleasure quarters", outside of which prostitution would be illegal, within which yūjo would be classified and licensed; the highest yūjo class was the geisha's predecessor, called tayuu, a combination of actress and prostitute playing on stages set in the dry Kamo riverbed in Kyoto. They performed erotic dances and skits, this new art was dubbed kabuku, meaning "to be wild and outrageous"; the dances were called "kabuki", this was the beginning of kabuki theater.
These pleasure quarters became glamorous entertainment centers, offering more than sex. The accomplished courtesans of these districts entertained their clients by dancing and playing music; some were renowned calligraphers. They all became specialized and the new profession, purely of entertainment, arose, it was near the turn of the eighteenth century that the first entertainers of the pleasure quarters, called geisha, appeared. The first geishas were men, entertaining customers waiting to see the most popular and gifted courtesans; the forerunners of the female geisha were the teenage odoriko: expensively trained as chaste dancers-for-hire. In the 1680s, they were popular paid entertainers in the private homes of upper-class samurai, though many had turned to prostitution by the early 18th century; those who were no longer teenagers adopted other names—one being "geisha", after the male entertainers. The first woman known to have called herself geisha was a Fukagawa prostitute, in about 1750.
She was a skilled singer and shamisen player named Kikuya, an immediate success, making female geisha popular in 1750s Fukagawa. As they became more widespread throughout the 1760s and 1770s, many began working only as entertainers in the same establishments as male geisha; the geisha who worked within the pleasure quarters were imprisoned and forbidden to sell sex in order to protect the business of the oiran. While licensed courtesans existed to meet men's sexual needs, machi geisha carved out a separate niche as artists and erudite female companions. By 1800, being a geisha was considered a female occupation; the gaudy Oiran began to fall out of fashion, becoming less popular than the chic and modern geisha. By the 1830s, the evolving geisha style was emula
A Matter of Loaf and Death
A Matter of Loaf and Death is a 2008 British stop-motion animated film created by Nick Park, the fourth of his shorts to star his characters Wallace and Gromit. It is the first Wallace and Gromit short since A Close Shave in 1995. A Matter of Loaf and Death is a murder mystery, with Wallace and Gromit starting a new bakery business. With an unknown assailant murdering bakers, Gromit tries to solve the case before Wallace ends up a victim himself, it was the last Wallace and Gromit film before the retirement and death of Wallace's voice actor Peter Sallis in 2010 and 2017, respectively. A serial killer has murdered twelve bakers. While on a delivery for their bakery business and Gromit save Piella Bakewell, a former pin-up girl for the Bake-o-Lite bread company, her nervous poodle Fluffles when the brakes on her bicycle fail. Gromit finds there is no problem with the brakes, he and Piella begin a whirlwind romance, Gromit is angered when she redecorates their house. Fluffles and Gromit share a sensitive moment when she returns Gromit's possessions, discarded by Piella.
Wallace sends Gromit to return Piella's forgotten purse. At Piella's mansion, Gromit discovers numbered mannequins representing each of the murdered bakers, a book of photos; when he shows Wallace the evidence, Wallace is too distracted with his engagement to Piella to listen. Gromit installs security measures including a metal detecting security screener. After Piella tricks Wallace into thinking that Gromit bit her, Wallace muzzles Gromit, chains him up, has him clean dishes as a punishment. Gromit watches helplessly. After an angry outburst about bakers, she leaves, but drops by the next day to apologise with a cake. Gromit, follows her home, where Piella throws him into a storeroom with Fluffles. Escaping in Piella's old Bake-O-Lite hot air balloon and Fluffles arrive at Wallace's house as he lights the candle. After a struggle, the cake falls. Wallace and Gromit are attacked by Piella, who reveals she detests bakers after her weight gain ended her career as the Bake-O-Lite girl, she is attacked by Fluffles in a forklift.
In the chaos, the bomb ends up in Wallace's trousers. However, her weight drags the balloon into the crocodile enclosure in the zoo, where Piella is eaten alive by the crocodile offscreen. Dejected and Gromit decide to take their mind off things with a delivery. Outside, they find Fluffles and she joins them on a delivery. Peter Sallis as Wallace Sally Lindsay as Piella Bakewell Melissa Collier as Fluffles Sarah Laborde as Bake-O-Lite singer Ben Whitehead as Baker Bob Geraldine McEwan as Miss Thripp In October 2007, it was announced that Wallace and Gromit were to return to television after an absence of ten years. Filming began in January 2008. A Matter of Loaf and Death was the first Aardman film to be made using the software Stop Motion Pro. Five models were created for Gromit alone, with scenes being shot on thirteen sets. Commenting on the fact that the short would be made directly for a British audience, Nick Park said: "I don't feel like I'm making a film for a kid in some suburb of America — and being told they're not going to understand a joke, or a northern saying."
Regardless, Park changed the title from Trouble at Mill, as he thought it was too obscure a Northern England colloquialism. As well as a final title that references A Matter of Life and Death, the film references Batman and Ghost. Park said in an interview with the Radio Times, "The BBC hardly gave a single note or instruction on the whole thing", Park goes on to remark how it was better than his previous work with DreamWorks, Curse of the Were-Rabbit, where they kept on receiving calls to change critical things. Park cast Sally Lindsay after hearing her on the Radcliffe and Maconie Show on BBC Radio 2 whilst driving from Preston. Although unfamiliar with her role as Shelly Unwin in Coronation Street, Park said "Sally has a lot of fun in her voice, flamboyant and I was looking for someone who could be quite charming too, but with a posh northern accent. Piella needed to at times sound well to do, at others sound quite gritty"; the short had its world premiere in Australia, on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's ABC1 on 3 December 2008, was repeated again the following day on ABC2.
In the United Kingdom, it aired on Christmas Day at 20:30 on BBC One, although it had been available on The Pirate Bay since 3 December 2008. On 19 December 2008, Aardman Animations revealed they had "no idea" of how clips were leaked onto YouTube, ahead of its screening in the United Kingdom. In the United States, it was released on DVD on 22 September 2009 by Lionsgate Home Entertainment and HiT Entertainment. In France, A Matter of Loaf and Death was shown – dubbed into French – on Christmas Eve 2008, on M6. In Germany, one version, entitled Auf Leben und Brot was broadcast on the Super RTL network, the title is a play on Auf Leben und Tod meaning a matter of life and death. In a similar style to A Close Shave and Gromit became the theme for BBC One's Christmas presentation for 2008, to promote the showing of A Matter of Loaf and Death; the programme was watched by the most viewers of any p
Leslie Townes Hope, known professionally as Bob Hope, was an American stand-up comedian, actor, dancer and author. With a career that spanned nearly 80 years, Hope appeared in more than 70 short and feature films, with 54 feature films with Hope as star, including a series of seven "Road" musical comedy movies with Bing Crosby as Hope's top-billed partner. In addition to hosting the Academy Awards show 19 times, more than any other host, he appeared in many stage productions and television roles, was the author of 14 books; the song "Thanks for the Memory" was his signature tune. Hope was born in the Eltham district of southeast London, UK, arrived in the United States with his family at the age of four, grew up in the Cleveland, area. After a brief career as a boxer in the late 1910s, he began his career in show business in the early 1920s as a comedian and dancer on the vaudeville circuit, before acting on Broadway. Hope began appearing on radio and in films starting in 1934, he was praised for his comedic timing, specializing in one-liners and rapid-fire delivery of jokes which were self-deprecating.
He helped establish modern American stand-up comedy. Celebrated for his long career performing in United Service Organizations shows to entertain active duty American military personnel, making 57 tours for the USO between 1941 and 1991, Hope was declared an honorary veteran of the U. S. Armed Forces in 1997 by an act of the United States Congress, he appeared in numerous specials for NBC television starting in 1950, was one of the first users of cue cards. Hope participated in the sports of golf and boxing and owned a small stake in his hometown baseball team, the Cleveland Indians. Hope retired in 1997, died at the age of 100 in 2003, at his home in the Toluca Lake neighborhood of Los Angeles. Hope, the fifth of seven sons, was born in Eltham, County of London, in a terraced house on Craigton Road in Well Hall where there is now a blue plaque in his memory, his English father, William Henry Hope, was a stonemason from Weston-super-Mare and his Welsh mother, was a light opera singer from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, who worked as a cleaner.
William and Avis married in April 1891 and lived at 12 Greenwood Street in Barry before moving to Whitehall, to St George, Bristol. In 1908, the family emigrated to the United States, they passed through Ellis Island, New York before moving on to Cleveland, Ohio. From age 12, Hope earned pocket money by busking—public performing to solicit contributions, singing and performing comedy, he entered numerous dancing and amateur talent contests as Lester Hope, won a prize in 1915 for his impersonation of Charlie Chaplin. For a time, he attended the Boys' Industrial School in Lancaster, as an adult donated sizable sums of money to the institution. Hope had a brief career as a boxer in 1919, he had three wins and one loss, he participated in a few staged charity bouts in life. Hope worked as a lineman in his teens and early 20s, he had a brief stint at Chandler Motor Car Company. In 1921, while assisting his brother Jim in clearing trees for a power company, he was sitting atop a tree that crashed to the ground, crushing his face.
Deciding on a show business career and his girlfriend at the time signed up for dancing lessons. Encouraged after they performed in a three-day engagement at a club, Hope formed a partnership with Lloyd Durbin, a friend from the dancing school. Silent film comedian Fatty Arbuckle saw them perform in 1925 and found them work with a touring troupe called Hurley's Jolly Follies. Within a year, Hope had formed an act called the Dancemedians with George Byrne and the Hilton Sisters, conjoined twins who performed a tap dancing routine in the vaudeville circuit. Hope and Byrne had an act as Siamese twins as well, danced and sang while wearing blackface until friends advised Hope he was funnier as himself. In 1929, Hope informally changed his first name to "Bob." In one version of the story, he named himself after race car driver Bob Burman. In another, he said he chose the name because he wanted a name with a "friendly'Hiya, fellas!' Sound" to it. In a 1942 legal document, his legal name is given as Lester Townes Hope.
After five years on the vaudeville circuit, Hope was "surprised and humbled" when he failed a 1930 screen test for the French film production company Pathé at Culver City, California. In the early days, Hope's career included appearances on stage in vaudeville shows and Broadway productions, he began performing on the radio in 1934 with NBC radio, switched to television when that medium became popular in the 1950s. He began doing regular TV specials in 1954, hosted the Academy Awards nineteen times from 1939 through 1977. Overlapping with this was his movie career, spanning 1934 to 1972, his USO tours, which he conducted from 1941 to 1991. Hope signed a contract with Educational Pictures of New York for six short films; the first was a comedy. He was not happy with it, told newspaper gossip columnist Walter Winchell, "When they catch Dillinger, they're going to make him sit through it twice." Although Educational Pictures dropped his contract, he soon signed with Warner Brothers, making movies during the day and performing in Broadway shows in the evenings.
Hope moved to
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the