Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited is the sixth studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on August 30, 1965 by Columbia Records. Having until recorded acoustic music, Dylan used rock musicians as his backing band on every track of the album, except for the closing track, the 11-minute ballad "Desolation Row". Critics have focused on the innovative way Dylan combined driving, blues-based music with the subtlety of poetry to create songs that captured the political and cultural chaos of contemporary America. Author Michael Gray has argued. Leading with the hit single "Like a Rolling Stone", the album features songs that Dylan has continued to perform live over his long career, including "Ballad of a Thin Man" and the title track, he named the album after the major American highway which connected his birthplace of Duluth, Minnesota, to southern cities famed for their musical heritage, including St. Louis, New Orleans, the Delta blues area of Mississippi. Highway 61 Revisited peaked at No. 4 in the United Kingdom.
The album was ranked No. 4 on Rolling Stone's "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". "Like a Rolling Stone" was a top-10 hit in several countries, was listed at No. 1 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list. Two other songs, "Desolation Row" and "Highway 61 Revisited", were listed at No. 187 and No. 373 respectively. In his memoir Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan described the kinship he felt with the route that supplied the title of his sixth album: "Highway 61, the main thoroughfare of the country blues, begins about where I began. I always felt like I'd started on it, always had been on it and could go anywhere down in to the deep Delta country, it was the same road, full of the same contradictions, the same one-horse towns, the same spiritual ancestors... It was my place in the universe, always felt like it was in my blood."When he was growing up in the 1950s, Highway 61 stretched from Thunder Bay – north of the Canada–US border), through Duluth, where Dylan was born, from St. Paul, all the way down to New Orleans.
Along the way, the route passed near the birthplaces and homes of influential musicians such as Muddy Waters, Son House, Elvis Presley and Charley Patton. The "empress of the blues", Bessie Smith, died after sustaining serious injuries in an automobile accident on Highway 61. Critic Mark Polizzotti points out that blues legend Robert Johnson is alleged to have sold his soul to the devil at the highway's crossroads with Route 49; the highway had been the subject of several blues recordings, notably Roosevelt Sykes' "Highway 61 Blues" and Mississippi Fred McDowell's "61 Highway". Dylan has stated that he had to overcome considerable resistance at Columbia Records to give the album its title, he told biographer Robert Shelton: "I wanted to call that album Highway 61 Revisited. Nobody understood it. I had to go up the fucking ladder until the word came down and said:'Let him call it what he wants to call it'." Michael Gray has suggested that the title of the album represents Dylan's insistence that his songs are rooted in the traditions of the blues: "Indeed the album title Highway 61 Revisited announces that we are in for a long revisit, since it is such a long, blues-travelled highway.
Many bluesmen had been there before, all recording versions of a blues called'Highway 61'." In May 1965, Dylan returned from his tour of England feeling exhausted and dissatisfied with his material. He told journalist Nat Hentoff: "I was going to quit singing. I was drained." The singer added, "It's tiring having other people tell you how much they dig you if you yourself don't dig you."As a consequence of his dissatisfaction, Dylan wrote 20 pages of verse he described as a "long piece of vomit". He reduced this to a song with four verses and a chorus—"Like a Rolling Stone", he told Hentoff that writing and recording the song washed away his dissatisfaction, restored his enthusiasm for creating music. Describing the experience to Robert Hilburn in 2004, nearly 40 years Dylan said: "It's like a ghost is writing a song like that... You don't know what it means except the ghost picked me to write the song."Highway 61 Revisited was recorded in two blocks of recording sessions that took place in Studio A of Columbia Records, located in Midtown Manhattan.
The first block, June 15 and June 16, was produced by Tom Wilson and resulted in the single "Like a Rolling Stone". On July 25, Dylan performed his controversial electric set at the Newport Folk Festival, where some of the crowd booed his performance. Four days after Newport, Dylan returned to the recording studio. From July 29 to August 4, he and his band completed recording Highway 61 Revisited, but under the supervision of a new producer, Bob Johnston. Tom Wilson produced the initial recording sessions for Highway 61 Revisited on June 15–16, 1965. Dylan was backed by Bobby Gregg on drums, Joe Macho, Jr. on bass, Paul Griffin on piano, Frank Owens on guitar. For lead guitar, the singer recruited Michael Bloomfield of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band; the musicians began the June 15 session by recording a fast version of "It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry" and the song "Sitting on a Barbed Wire Fence", omitted from the Highway 61 album. Dylan and his band next attempted to record "Like a Rolling Stone".
"Barbed Wire Fence", the fast version of "It Takes a Lot to Laugh", an early take of "Like a Rolling Stone" were released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 1961–1991. The musicians returned to Studio A the following day, when they devoted the entire session to
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U. S. folk rock emerged from the folk music revival and the influence that the Beatles and other British Invasion bands had on members of that movement. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their preexisting folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way discouraged in the U. S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was used in the U. S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music. The commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and their debut album of the same name, along with Dylan's own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde —encouraged other folk acts, such as Simon & Garfunkel, to use electric backing on their records and new groups, such as Buffalo Springfield, to form.
Dylan's controversial appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, where he was backed by an electric band, was a pivotal moment in the development of the genre. During the late 1960s in Britain and Europe, a distinct, eclectic British folk rock style was created by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North American style of folk rock, British folk rock bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire, leading to other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of the Albion Band and Celtic rock. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term "folk rock" refers to the blending of elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the U. S. and UK in the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation, in a style influenced by the Beatles and other British Invasion bands; the term "folk rock" was coined by the U.
S. music press to describe the Byrds' music in June 1965, the month in which the band's debut album was issued. Dylan contributed to the creation of the genre, with his recordings utilizing rock instrumentation on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde. In a broader sense, folk rock encompasses inspired musical genres and movements in different regions of the world. Folk rock may lean more towards either folk or rock in instrumentation and vocal style, choice of material. While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences; the term is not associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots. There are some exceptions; the American folk-music revival began during the 1940s. In 1948, Seeger formed the Weavers, whose mainstream popularity set the stage for the folk revival of the 1950s and early 1960s and served to bridge the gap between folk, popular music, topical song.
The Weavers' sound and repertoire of traditional folk material and topical songs directly inspired the Kingston Trio, a three-piece folk group who came to prominence in 1958 with their hit recording of "Tom Dooley". The Kingston Trio provided the template for a flood of "collegiate folk" groups between 1958 and 1962. At the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Brownie McGhee, Josh White came to the fore. Many of these urban revivalists were influenced by recordings of traditional American music from the 1920s and 1930s, reissued by Folkways Records. While this urban folk revival flourished in many cities, New York City, with its burgeoning Greenwich Village coffeehouse scene and population of topical folk singers, was regarded as the centre of the movement. Out of this fertile environment came such folk-protest luminaries as Bob Dylan, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Peter and Mary, many of whom would transition into folk rock performers as the 1960s progressed.
The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material. The influence of this folk-protest movement would manifest itself in the sociopolitical lyrics and mildly anti-establishment sentiments of many folk rock songs, including hit singles such as "Eve of Destruction", "Like a Rolling Stone", "For What It's Worth", "Let's Live for Today". During the 1950s and early 1960s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival, was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Both viewed British folk music as a vehicle for leftist political concepts and an antidote to the American-dominated popular music of the time. However, it wasn't until 1956 and the advent of the skiffle craze that the British folk revival crossed over into the mainstream and connected with British youth culture. Skiffle renewed popularity of folk music forms in Britain and led directly to the progressive folk movement and the attendant B
Joe Boyd is an American record producer and writer. He owned Witchseason production company and Hannibal Records. Boyd has worked on recordings of Pink Floyd, Fairport Convention, Sandy Denny, Richard Thompson, Nick Drake, The Incredible String Band, R. E. M. Vashti Bunyan and Beverley Martyn, Maria Muldaur, Kate & Anna McGarrigle, Billy Bragg, 10,000 Maniacs and Muzsikás. Boyd was born in Boston and raised in Princeton, New Jersey, he attended Pomfret School in Connecticut. He first became involved in music promoting blues artists while a student at Harvard University. After graduating, Boyd worked as a production and tour manager for music impresario George Wein, which took Boyd to Europe to organise concerts with Muddy Waters, Coleman Hawkins, Stan Getz and Sister Rosetta Tharpe. Boyd was responsible for the sound at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival, when Bob Dylan played a controversial set backed by electric musicians. In 1964, Boyd paid his first visit to Britain, returning the following year to establish an overseas office of Elektra Records.
In 1966, Boyd and John "Hoppy" Hopkins opened the UFO Club, a famous but short-lived UK Underground club in London's Tottenham Court Road. He worked with UFO regulars Pink Floyd, produced their first single, "Arnold Layne" and recordings by Soft Machine. Boyd worked extensively with audio engineer John Wood at Sound Techniques studio in Chelsea. In this studio and Wood made a succession of celebrated albums with British folk and folk rock artists, including the Incredible String Band, Martin Carthy, Nick Drake, John Martyn, Fairport Convention and Richard Thompson; some of these were produced by Witchseason. Boyd returned to the United States at the end of 1970 to work as a music producer for Warner Bros. with special input into films, where he collaborated with Stanley Kubrick on the sound track release of A Clockwork Orange. Boyd contributed to the soundtrack of Deliverance, directed by John Boorman, where he supervised the recording of "Dueling Banjos", which became a hit single for Eric Weissberg.
Boyd produced and co-directed the film documentary Jimi Hendrix. In the States, Boyd produced albums by Kate & Anna McGarrigle. Boyd subsequently founded the Hannibal Records label in 1980, which released albums by Richard Thompson and many recordings of world music, including Hungarian band Muzsikás. Boyd produced R. E. M.'s third album Fables of records by Billy Bragg and 10,000 Maniacs. Boyd was executive producer for the 1988 feature film Scandal, starring John Hurt and Bridget Fonda about the Profumo Affair in UK politics in 1963. Boyd left Hannibal/Ryko in 2001 and his autobiography, White Bicycles - Making Music in the 1960s, was published in 2006 by Serpent's Tail in the UK. In 2008, Boyd was a judge for the 7th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists. 1966The Incredible String Band Lord of the Dance Alasdair Clayre What's Shakin' – 3 tracks by Eric Clapton and the Powerhouse A Cold Wind Blows Various artists: Cyril Tawney, Matt McGinn, Johnny Handle and Alasdair Clayre1967The Power of the True Love Knot The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion Rags Reels and Airs "Arnold Layne" / "Candy and a Currant Bun" "Granny Takes a Trip" "She's Gone", "I Should've Known" recordings for projected single by Soft Machine, Sound Techniques, London released on Triple Echo, 1977, Turns On Volume 1 1968Tonite Let's All Make Love in London Very Urgent "If I Had a Ribbon Bow" / "If" "If" / "Chelsea Morning" Fairport Convention The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter Wee Tam and the Big Huge Kalpana – instrumental and dance music of India 1969What We Did On Our Holidays "Si Tu Dois Partir" / "Genesis Hall" Unhalfbricking Five Leaves Left Liege & Lief Kip of the Serenes "Big Ted" / "All Writ Down" Changing Horses 1970Desertshore Just Another Diamond Day Stormbringer!
U Full House Fotheringay I Looked Up Be Glad for the Song Has No Ending Pottery Pie Brotherhood of Breath 1971Bryter Layter Smiling Men with Bad Reputations Call Me Diamond / Lady Wonder The Road to Ruin Heavy Petting 1973Maria Muldaur Midnight at the Oasis b/w Any Old Time Dueling Banjos b/w Reuben's Train Jimi Hendrix – soundtrack 1974Waitress in a Donut Shop Muleskinner 1975Kate & Anna McGarrigle Geoff Muldaur Is Having a Wonderful Time 1976Junco Partner Live at the L. A. Troubadour Sweet Harmony Reggae Got Soul 1977Dancer with Bruised Knees 1978Rise Up Like the Sun Julie Covington (
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties. Recording studios may be used to record singers, instrumental musicians, voice-over artists for advertisements or dialogue replacement in film, television, or animation, foley, or to record their accompanying musical soundtracks; the typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio" or "live room" equipped with microphones and mic stands, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform. The engineers and producers listen to the live music and the recorded "tracks" on high-quality monitor speakers or headphones.
There will be smaller rooms called "isolation booths" to accommodate loud instruments such as drums or electric guitar amplifiers and speakers, to keep these sounds from being audible to the microphones that are capturing the sounds from other instruments or voices, or to provide "drier" rooms for recording vocals or quieter acoustic instruments such as an acoustic guitar a or fiddle. Major recording studios have a range of large and hard-to-transport instruments and music equipment in the studio, such as a grand piano, Hammond organ, electric piano. Recording studios consist of three or more rooms: The "live room" of the studio where the vocalists sing and instrumentalists play their instruments, with their singing and playing picked up by microphones and, for electric and electronic instruments, by connecting the instruments' outputs or DI unit outputs to the mixing board. Isolation booths are small sound-insulated rooms with doors, designed for instrumentalists. Vocal booths are designed rooms for singers.
In both types of rooms, there are windows so the performers can see other band members and the audio engineer/record producer, as singers and musicians give or receive visual cues. This equipment may make noise. Recording studios are designed around the principles of room acoustics to create a set of spaces with the acoustical properties required for recording sound with precision and accuracy; this will consist of both room treatment and soundproofing to prevent sound from leaving the property. A recording studio has to be soundproofed on its outer shell as well, to prevent noises from the surrounding streets and roads from being picked up by microphones. A recording studio may include additional rooms, such as a vocal booth—a small room designed for voice recording, as well as one or more extra isolation booths for loud guitar stacks and extra control rooms. Though sound isolation is a key goal, the musicians, audio engineers and record producers still need to be able to see each other, to see cue gestures and conducting by a bandleader.
As such, the "live room", isolation booths, vocal booths and control room have windows. Equipment found in a recording studio includes: A large professional-grade mixing console Additional small mixing consoles with 4, 8 or 16 channels, for adding more channels A large number of preamplifiers for microphones, such as the Neve 1272 and Neve 3104 Multitrack recorder Computers A wide selection of microphones. Studios have Neuman Tube mics, AKG tube mics, RCA ribbon mics, a number of Shure SM 57 and SM 58 mics. A large number of DI unit boxes Two or more record players Syncs A wide variety of microphone stands (boom stands, straigh
Fairport Convention are a British folk rock band, formed in 1967 by Richard Thompson, Simon Nicol, Ashley Hutchings, Shaun Frater, with Frater replaced by Martin Lamble after their first gig. They started out influenced by American folk rock and singer-songwriter material, with a setlist dominated by covers of Bob Dylan and Joni Mitchell songs and a sound that earned them the nickname “the British Jefferson Airplane.” Vocalists Judy Dyble and Iain Matthews joined them before the recording of their self-titled debut in 1968. Denny began steering the group towards traditional British music for their next two albums, What We Did on Our Holidays and Unhalfbricking the latter featured fiddler Dave "Swarb" Swarbrick, most notably on the song A Sailor's Life, which laid the groundwork for British folk rock by being the first time a traditional British song was combined with a rock beat. However, shortly before the album's release, a crash on the M1 killed Lamble and Thompson's then-girlfriend, Jeannie Franklyn.
For this album Swarb joined full-time alongside Dave Mattacks on drums. Both Denny and Hutchings left before the year's end; the 1970s saw numerous lineup changes around the core of Swarb and Pegg, with Nicol absent for the middle of the decade, declining fortunes as folk music fell out of mainstream favour. Denny, whose partner Trevor Lucas had been a guitarist in the group since 1972, returned for the pop-orientated Rising for the Moon in 1975 in a final bid to crack America, they played a farewell concert in the village of Cropredy, where they’d held small concerts since 1976, this marked the beginning of the Cropredy Festival which has become the largest folk festival in Britain, with annual attendance of 20,000. The band was reformed by Nicol and Mattacks in 1985, joined by Maartin Allcock and Ric Sanders and they have remained active since. Allcock was replaced by Chris Leslie in 1996, Gerry Conway replaced Mattacks in 1998, with this lineup remaining unchanged since and marking the longest-lasting of the group's history.
Their 28th studio album, 50:50@50, released to mark their 50th anniversary, was released in 2017, they continue to headline Cropredy each year. Despite little mainstream success – with their only top 40 single being Si Tu Dois Partir, a French-language cover of the Dylan song If You Gotta Go, Go Now from Unhalfbricking – Fairport Convention remain influential in British folk rock and British folk in general. Liege & Lief was named the "Most Influential Folk Album of All Time" at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards in 2006, Pegg's playing style, which incorporates jigs and reels into his basslines, has been imitated by many in the folk rock and folk punk genres. Additionally, many former members went on to form other notable groups in the genre, including Fotheringay, Steeleye Span, the Albion Band. Hers ended with her death in 1978, though she is now regarded as Britain's finest female singer-songwriter, her song Who Knows Where the Time Goes? – recorded by Fairport on Unhalfbricking – has become a signature for herself and the band.
Bassist Ashley Hutchings met guitarist Simon Nicol in North London in 1966 when they both played in the Ethnic Shuffle Orchestra. They rehearsed on the floor above Nicol's father's medical practice in a house called "Fairport" on Fortis Green in Muswell Hill – the same street on which Ray and Dave Davies of the Kinks grew up; the house name lent its name to the group they formed together as Fairport Convention in 1967 with Richard Thompson on guitar and Shaun Frater on drums. After their initial performance at St Michael's Church Hall in Golders Green on 27 May 1967, they had their first of many line-up changes as one member of the audience, drummer Martin Lamble, convinced the band that he could do a better job than Frater and replaced him, they soon added a female singer, Judy Dyble, which gave them a distinctive sound among the many London bands of the period. Fairport Convention were soon playing at underground venues such as UFO and The Electric Garden, which became the Middle Earth club.
After only a few months, they caught the attention of manager Joe Boyd who secured them a contract with Polydor Records. Boyd suggested they augment the line-up with another male vocalist. Singer Iain Matthews joined the band and their first album, Fairport Convention, was recorded in late 1967 and released in June 1968. At this early stage Fairport looked to North American folk and folk rock acts such as Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan, The Byrds for material and inspiration; the name "Fairport Convention" and the use of two lead vocalists led many new listeners to believe that they were an American act, earning them the nickname'the British Jefferson Airplane' during this period. Fairport Convention played alongside Jefferson Airplane at the First Isle of Wight Festival, 1968. After disappointing album sales they signed a new contract with Island Records. Before their next recording Judy Dyble was replaced by the band with Sandy Denny, a