SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ifni

Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands. It had a total area of 1,502 km², a population of 51,517 in 1964; the main industry was fishing. Spain's presence in the area can be traced to a settlement called Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña, founded in 1476. After attacks by the Berbers, the Spanish decided to focus on colonising other areas of North Africa and abandoned the region. In the mid-19th century, when the European powers looked again to Africa for resources, Spain mooted an interest in its lost late medieval fortress in order to stake a claim to the southern part of Morocco; this served as a pretext for a short war with Morocco in 1859. The territory and its main town of Sidi Ifni were ceded to Spain by the Sultanate of Morocco on 26 April 1860, but there was little interest in this colonial acquisition until 1934, when the Governor-General of Spanish Sahara took up residence; until 1952, Ifni region had the status of a protectorate.

In this year, the region became part of Spanish West Africa. After the Ifni War, most of the territory became occupied de facto by Morocco. In 1958, the colony was made into a Spanish province in order to forestall United Nations criticism of continued colonisation. Spain formally returned the territory to Morocco on 30 June 1969. Spain began issuing postage stamps for Ifni in 1941 overprinting Spanish stamps with "TERRITORIO DE IFNI" issuing new designs in 1943. Issues followed at the rate of about ten per year with the last on 23 November 1968. Most are available and are more seen unused than used. List of colonial governors of Ifni Ifni War Spanish West Africa Ifni Friend's Association Ifni stamp gallery The Corner of Sidi Ifni Ifni today Jomabase photo album on Picasa Maps of Ifni

Hungary at the FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but referred to as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the first tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946, due to World War II; the tournament consists of the qualification phase and the final phase. The qualification phase, which take place over the three years preceding the Finals, is used to determine which teams qualify for the Finals; the current format of the Finals involves 32 teams competing for the title, at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month. The World Cup Finals is the most viewed sporting event in the world, with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the 2006 tournament final. Hungary have appeared in the finals of the FIFA World Cup on nine occasions, the first being at the 1934 where they reached the quarter-final.

They have been runners-up on two occasions, in 1938 and 1954. They have failed to qualify for the FIFA World Cup since 1986. *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks The third edition of the FIFA World Cup was the first without the host team competing in the final. At half-time, defending champions Italy were leading by 3-1 and Hungary did not manage to get back into the game; the Hungarian Golden Team were favourites for winning the World Cup in Switzerland in 1954 after 31 unbeaten games in the previous five years, among them a recent 7-1 against England and an 8-3 against their West German opponents in the group stage only two weeks before the final. In one of the greatest comebacks in football history, the favoured Hungarians were defeated 2-3 despite an early 2-0 lead. With 11 goals in five matches in 1954, Sándor Kocsis beat Brazilian Ademir's existing record of nine goals in one tournament from 1950. However, only four years the record was in turn beaten by Just Fontaine.

Hungary at FIFA World Cup Finals Statistics

Five Sisters (Aarhus)

The Five Sisters is a building and silo complex in Aarhus, Denmark, an Industrial Heritage Site of Denmark. It is situated on the Mellemarmen pier on the industrial section of the Port of Aarhus in Aarhus city center; the silos represent the transition from manual to mechanized labor during the second wave of industrialization in the early 20th century and is symptomatic of the relationship between agriculture and transport in the city. The Five Sisters were the first reinforced concrete structure to be erected in Aarhus and at the time it was the only building apart from the cathedral to rise above the city. In the 1800s grain was stored in bulk or in sacks in storehouses or merchant's attics in a process, both labor intensive and physically demanding; the risk of the products rotting or catching fire combined with the rising amount of cargo arriving made it necessary to find a more modern solution. In the 1890s silos were used; the earliest were placed inside existing buildings but on dedicated structures of reinforced concrete became the norm.

In 1898 the farmer's cooperative Jysk Andelsfoderstofforretning was established and headquartered in Aarhus for the purpose of managing and selling agricultural products. The company became one of the largest in the country. In 1927 the silo complex was erected in the south harbor with designs by the architect Hjalmar Kjær; the new structure heralded a change in labor processes with physically demanding work being replaced by electrical engines and elevators. The silos had capacity for 12000 cubic meter oilseed and 13800 cubic meter grain while the lifting systems could handle 120 metric tonnes per hour. Building the silos into one structure made it possible to aerate the grain by moving it from one silo to another with electrical cup elevators and vacuums; the elevators was used to load and unload cargo ships and at the same time unloading coal became mechanized with cranes. The system was the beginning of a reduced labor force in the port; the productivity benefits became apparent. The Five Sisters was the other complexes followed shortly.

In 1969 JAF merged with a number of other companies to form Dansk Landbrugs Grovvareselskab which still owned the silo complex in the 2010s. The Five Sisters were not received well due its size and industrial appearance; the cathedral had since the 1500s been the dominating feature of the skyline and the tall silos were by many considered an eyesore in comparison. However, some architects have noted them as an inspiration for industrial and functionalist architecture; the Five Sisters was designed by engineer Jørgen Christensen. It was the largest silo complex in the Nordic Countries when it was completed and it was a technologically advanced replacement for the former storehouses; the complex includes 5 silos and a storehouse in 2 stories constructed of white painted re-enforced concrete with smooth, homogeneous facades absent any decoration. The area chosen was swampy in a newly developed part of the harbor making it necessary to use a piled foundation with 1200 14 meter long poles; the warehouse sits on a floating raft foundation.

The Five Sisters marks the beginning of industrial Functionalist architecture in Denmark but can be best described as Neoclassical in style due to its historicist references. The name of the complex references the division of the silos into 5 parts inspired by the front gabled canal houses seen in Amsterdam and other Dutch cities. It's a combination of a modern technological engineering solution with architectural references to the past and stands as a unique structure in the 1920s functionalist architecture