Aubrey Brain was a British horn player and teacher. He was the father of Dennis Brain. Aubrey Harold Brain was born in London in 1893, he came from a musical family. His father, Alfred Edwin Brain Sr. was a member of the London Symphony Orchestra horn quartet. His brother Alfred was for many years principal horn player in the Queen's Hall Orchestra under Sir Henry J. Wood, he went to the United States to join the Damrosch Orchestra in 1923, remained permanently, becoming an American citizen. In 1911 Aubrey Brain won a scholarship to the Royal College of Music, he was appointed principal horn of the New Symphony Orchestra that same year, in 1912 he went on the LSO's tour of the United States under Arthur Nikisch. He was principal horn of Sir Thomas Beecham's opera company orchestra in 1913. In 1923 he succeeded his teacher Borsdorf as professor of horn at the Royal Academy of Music, where his son Dennis was among his students. Dame Ethel Smyth wrote her Concerto for Violin and Orchestra with Aubrey Brain in mind.
He and Jelly d'Arányi premiered the work under Sir Henry Wood on 5 March 1927. He played it in Berlin with Marjorie Hayward, he joined the BBC Symphony Orchestra as principal horn, remained there until illness caused his premature retirement in 1943. He was a soloist, made a number of recordings He had a marked preference for French instruments, played a hand horn made by Labbaye in c. 1865, to which English-made valves had been added. He would never permit the use of large-bore German horns in the BBC Symphony, he married a singer at Covent Garden. His two sons were Dennis Brain more famous as a horn player, Leonard Brain, an oboist. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed. 1954 One recording by Aubrey Brain has been made available by the British classical record company Testament: SBT 1001 Johannes Brahms, Horn Trio in E flat major, Op. 40. With Adolf Busch and Rudolf Serkin, piano. Recorded on 13 November 1933, at the Abbey Road Studios and published on 78 RPM shellac as DB.2105/8. Further included on the CD is Brahms' Clarinet Quintet, played by Reginald Kell and the Busch Quartet.^ All information taken from the booklet of Testament SBT 1001
Carlisle is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. In Cumberland, it is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Petteril, 10 miles south of the Scottish border, it is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city; the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; the castle now houses the Duke of the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle.
The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station. Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural and industrial centre for north Cumbria, it is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974. What is known of the ancient history of Carlisle is derived from archaeological evidence and the works of the Roman historian Tacitus; the earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbria and North Lancashire.
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down; the Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name, reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, " of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus". Excavations undertaken along Annetwell Street in the 1970s dated the Roman timber fort constructed at the site of present Carlisle Castle to the winter of AD 73, protecting a strategic location overlooking the confluence of the Caldew and Eden rivers; this walled civitas the only one in northwest Britain served as the tribal centre of the Carvetii on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north; as a result, it is that greater control was achieved at Carlisle over anti-imperial groups.
This is indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Sebosiana. By the early 2nd century, Carlisle was established as a prominent stronghold. The'Stanegate' frontier, which consisted of Luguvalium and several other forts in a line east to Corbridge, was proving a more stable frontier against the Picts than those established deeper into Caledonia. In 122, the province was visited by Hadrian, who approved a plan to build a wall the length of the frontier. A new fort, was built at Carlisle in the Stanwix area of the city north of the river, it was the largest fort along the length of Hadrian's Wall and was completed in stone by around 130. Like Luguvalium, which lay within sight, Petriana housed a 1,000-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Petriana, the sole regiment of this size along the wall. Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius attempted to move further north.
It was not a success and, after 20 years, the garrisons returned to Hadrian's Wall. Until 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance. At one time, it broke off from Rome, he was assassinated and suffered damnatio memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II, from 375 to 392; the period of late antiquity after Roman rule saw Cumbria organised as the native British kingdom of Rheged. It is that the kingdom took its name from a major stronghold within it. King Urien and his son and successor Owain became the subjects of a great deal of Arthurian legend, their capital has been identified as the Cair Ligualid listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain, which developed into Caer-luel, whence the city's modern Welsh name Caerliwelydd. Rheged came under Northumbrian control before 730 by inheritance after Rienmelth, daughter of Royth and great-granddaughter of Urien, married Oswy, King of Northumbria.
For the rest of the first millennium, Carlisle was an important stronghold c
Royal Liverpool Philharmonic
The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Society is a British society based in Liverpool, that manages a professional symphony orchestra, a concert venue, extensive programmes of learning through music. The society is the second oldest of its type in the United Kingdom, its orchestra, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, is the country's longest-surviving professional orchestra. The RLPO is the UK's only orchestra. In addition to the orchestra, the society administers the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Choir, the Liverpool Philharmonic Youth Orchestra and other choirs and ensembles, it is involved in educational and community projects in its surrounding region. It is based in an Art Deco concert hall built in the late 1930s; the society has its origins in a group of music amateurs in the early 19th century. They had met during the 1830s in St Martin's Church under the leadership of William Sudlow, a stockbroker and organist; the society was established as the Liverpool Philharmonic Society on 10 January 1840 with the object of promoting "the Science and Practice of Music".
The society was the second of its kind to be established, the first being the London-based Royal Philharmonic Society whose orchestra was disbanded in 1932. The organisation was founded for the rich and élite members of Liverpool society, for "the pleasure of the moneyed merchant class in the town", its first concert was given on 12 March 1840 in a room at the back of a dance academy in Great Richmond Street and was conducted by John Russell with William Sudlow as organist. The programme consisted of 13 short orchestral and choral pieces, including works by Auber, Spohr, Henry Bishop, George Onslow, madrigals by Thomas Morley and John Wilbye; the society outgrew this room and gave its performances in the hall of the Collegiate Institution in Shaw Street. In 1843 the society appointed its first principal conductor, the Swiss-born J. Zeugheer Herrmann, who continued in this role until his death in 1865. During the following year, the orchestra performed its first symphonies, Haydn's No. 99 and Beethoven's First.
In 1844 the society appointed the Liverpool architect John Cunningham to prepare plans for a concert hall to be situated at the junction of Hope Street and Myrtle Street. It was to contain an audience of 2,100 and an orchestra of 250. To raise money for its building, shares were issued and members of Liverpool society were invited to buy seats in the boxes to be included in the hall; the foundation stone was laid in 1846 and construction began the following year. In 1847 the society invited Felix Mendelssohn to compose a cantata based on words from Milton's Comus to celebrate the opening of the hall. Mendelssohn died; the hall cost £30,000 and was formally opened on 27 August 1849. The first concert was performed by an orchestra of 96 and a choir of over 200; the organist was W. T. Best; the hall was not full for the first performance. Problems soon arose. In 1850 the choir formed the Liverpool Philharmonic Auxiliary Society and were in conflict with their conductor. Herrmann offered his resignation, not accepted.
By 1852 the financial problems of the society were deteriorating. Membership was exclusive and not all the seats on offer had been taken up. Suggestions that the conditions for membership should be relaxed were refused. In 1852 the society widened its activities from music by arranging theatrical performances, including Charles Dickens' company and an appearance by William Makepeace Thackeray. In 1855 it was discovered that William Sudlow, the Honorary Secretary had been stealing money from the society. Sudlow resigned from the society, he was replaced by a paid secretary. Henry was to serve the society for some 30 years with no similar problem. Prominent performers appearing for the society in 1856 were Jenny Lind, Clara Schumann and Charles Hallé. Dickens returned in 1858 and during that year the society was able to pay off the mortgage on the hall. By 1865 Hermann's health was deteriorating and a new principal conductor, Alfred Mellon, was appointed in September. Mellon died only 18 months and was replaced by Julius Benedict, who remained in post until 1880, when his eyesight was deteriorating.
While Benedict was principal conductor, the society flourished both financially. This did not continue during the tenure of the next principal conductor, despite his fame. Max Bruch was served for less than three years. During this time he experienced conflict with the committee of the society and complained about the behaviour of the audience, he resigned in January 1883 at which time the standards of the orchestra and the choir had deteriorated, members of the committee were disagreeing with each other. The person appointed to sort this out was Charles Hallé who had by this time established the Hallé Orchestra in Manchester. Hallé continued as principal conductor until his death in 1895. During this time the orchestra and choir flourished; those who appeared with the society during this time included Paderewski, Hubert Parry, Nellie Melba, Clara Butt. In 1883 the secretary, Henry Sudlow, died; the next principal c
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria, who invented the water organ, it was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire, where it continued to be used in secular and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church. Subsequently it re-emerged as a recital instrument in the Classical music tradition. Pipe organs use air moving through pipes to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary in timbre and volume. Hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible when the lowest of the pipes can be replaced.
Non-piped organs include the reed organ or harmonium, which like the accordion and harmonica use air to excite free reeds. Electronic organs or digital organs, notably the Hammond organ, generate electronically produced sound through one or more loudspeakers. Mechanical organs include the barrel organ, water organ, Orchestrion; these are controlled by mechanical means such as book music. Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an organ grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor; the pipe organ is the largest musical instrument. These instruments vary in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, are built in churches, concert halls, homes. Small organs are called "positive" or "portative"; the pipes are controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics, some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters.
Some organs are enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive, it has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar designs were common in the Eastern Mediterranean from the early Byzantine period and precursors, such as the hydraulic organ, have been found dating to the late Hellenistic period. Along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the Industrial Revolution. Pipe organs range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ has three or four keyboards with five octaves each, a two-and-a-half octave pedal board. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the "King of instruments"; some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes, it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. The most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, plein-jeu impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist.
For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic "polyphony" approach: each set of pipes can be played with others, the sounds mixed and interspersed in the environment, not in the instrument itself. Most organs in Europe, the Americas, Australasia can be found in Christian churches; the introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices, whether a congregation, a choir, or a cantor or soloist. Most services include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Today this organ may be a pipe organ, a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics.
It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theatre organ, a different style of instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs fell out of favor as the orgelbewegung took hold in the middle of the 20th century, organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular a
The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ is the horn most used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays a French horn is known as hornist. Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of air through the instrument. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some older horns, use piston valves and the Vienna horn uses double-piston valves, or pumpenvalves; the backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument. Pitch may be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, in effect reducing the bell's diameter; the pitch of any note can be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell. The key of a natural horn can be changed by adding different crooks of different lengths.
Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, tuned to F or less B♭. The more common double horn has a fourth, trigger valve operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭ which expands the horn range to over four octaves and blends with flutes or clarinets in a woodwind ensemble. Triple horns with five valves are made tuned in F, B♭, a descant E♭ or F. There are double horns with five valves tuned in B♭, descant E♭ or F, a stopping valve, which simplifies the complicated and difficult hand-stopping technique, though these are rarer. Common are descant doubles, which provide B♭ and alto F branches. A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece. Most of the time, the mouthpiece is placed in the exact center of the lips, because of differences in the formation of the lips and teeth of different players, some tend to play with the mouthpiece off center. Although the exact side-to-side placement of the mouthpiece varies for most horn players, the up-and-down placement of the mouthpiece is two-thirds on the upper lip and one-third on the lower lip.
When playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. However, this is undesirable from the perspective of both endurance and tone: excessive mouthpiece pressure makes the horn sound forced and harsh, decreases player's stamina due to the resulting constricted flow of blood to the lips and lip muscles; the name "French horn" is found only in first coming into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, were credited with creating the now-familiar, circular "hoop" shape of the instrument; as a result, these instruments were called in English, by their French names: trompe de chasse or cor de chasse. German makers first devised crooks to make such horns playable in different keys—so musicians came to use "French" and "German" to distinguish the simple hunting horn from the newer horn with crooks, which in England was called by the Italian name corno cromatico.
More "French horn" is used colloquially, though the adjective has been avoided when referring to the European orchestral horn since the German horn began replacing the French-style instrument in British orchestras around 1930. The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be called the horn. There is a more specific use of "French horn" to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn. In this sense, "French horn" refers to a narrow-bore instrument with three Périnet valves, it retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, most has an "ascending" third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the "up" position the valve loop is engaged, but when the valve is pressed the loop is cut out, raising the pitch by a whole tone; as the name indicates, humans used to blow on the actual horns of animals before starting to emulate them in metal. This original usage survives in the shofar, a ram's horn, which plays an important role in Jewish religious rituals.
Early metal horns were less complex than modern horns, consisting of brass tubes with a flared opening wound around a few times. These early "hunting" horns were played on a hunt while mounted, the sound they produced was called a recheat. Change of pitch was controlled by the lips. Without valves, only the notes within the harmonic series are available. By combining a long length with a narrow bore, the French horn's design allows the player to reach the higher overtones which differ by whole tones, thus making it capable of playing melodies before valves were invented. Early horns were pitched in B♭ alto, A, A♭, G, F, E, E♭, D, C, B♭ basso
Folkwang University of the Arts
The Folkwang University of the Arts is a leading university for music, dance and academic studies, located in 4 German cities of North Rhine-Westphalia. Since 1927, its traditional main location has been in the former Werden Abbey in Essen in the Ruhr Area, with additional facilities in Duisburg and Dortmund, since 2010, at the Zeche Zollverein, a World Heritage Site in Essen; the Folkwang University is home to the international dance company Folkwang Tanz Studio. Founded as Folkwangschule, its name was Folkwang Hochschule from 1963 until 2009; the university shares its unusual name with the Museum Folkwang founded in 1902 by arts patron Karl Ernst Osthaus. The term Folkwang derives from Fólkvangr, the Old Norse name of a mythical meadow where the dead gather who are chosen by Freyja, the Norse goddess of love and beauty, to spend the afterlife with her; the school's founders, opera director Rudolf Schulz-Dornburg and choreographer Kurt Jooss, regarded this Folkwang as a symbol for the arts as a unified whole, rather than divided into separate classes.
The Folkwangschule für Musik, Tanz und Sprechen opened in 1927 in Essen, in 1928 a established school of design merged with the institution. In 1963 the Folkwang school was renamed Folkwang-Hochschule. In 2010 the institution began offering graduate studies and was renamed Folkwang University of the Arts; this coincided with Ruhr.2010, the festival in which the Ruhr district was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2010. The Folkwang University unites training in music, dance and scholarship, in order to encourage collaboration among the arts. Public events take place at the Folkwang University on its six in-house stages and in collaboration with cultural institutions of the region, such as the Philharmonie Essen, the Schauspielhaus Bochum, Musiktheater im Revier, the Duisburg Philharmonic, the Wuppertaler Bühnen and the Ruhrfestspiele. Undergraduate courses: Instrumental training for different musical instruments Jazz / Performing Artist Integrative composition Church music Voice School Music Music pedagogy Musicology in combination with an artistic subject Musicals Acting Physical Theatre Directing Dance Industrial Design Communication Design PhotographyAdvanced programs: Orchestral playing Conducting Vocal Ensemble Direction Musicology in combination with an artistic discipline Chamber music Composition Concert Performance Solo Dance Choreography Labanotation Dance Pedagogy Faculty have included: Alumni include: Folkwang Kammerorchester Essen Folkwang University Folkwang Tanz-Studio ICEM Institute For Computer Music and Electronic Media Neuhaus, Thomas.
“ Folkwang University: Development of Electronic Music and the ICEM – Institut für Computermusik und Elektronische Medien.” EContact! 12.4 – Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique. Montréal: CEC
Royal Northern College of Music
The Royal Northern College of Music is one of the leading conservatoires in the world, located in Manchester, England. It is one of four conservatoires associated with the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. In addition to being a centre of music education, RNCM is one of the UK's busiest and most diverse public performance venues; the RNCM has a rich history, dating back to the late 19th century and the establishment of the Royal Manchester College of Music. In 1858, Sir Charles Hallé founded the Hallé orchestra in Manchester, by the early 1890s had raised the idea of a music college in the city. Following an appeal for support, a building on Ducie Street was secured, Hallé was appointed Principal and Queen Victoria conferred the Royal title; the RMCM opened its doors to 80 students in 1893. Less than four decades in 1920, the Northern School of Music was established, for many years the two institutions peacefully coexisted, it wasn't until 1955 that NSM Principal, Hilda Collens, in recognising the importance of performance in training students, met with RMCM Principal, Frederic Cox, to raise the question of merging.
Discussions continued until September 1967 when a Joint Committee was formed to oversee plans to combine the two colleges. The RNCM was formed in 1972, moving to its purpose-built home on Oxford Road in 1973. 2013 marked the 40th anniversary year of the RNCM. The college building was built between 1968 and 1973 by architects Bickerdike, Allen and extended 30 years later; the college offers both undergraduate and postgraduate taught programmes in musical performance and composition. In association with Manchester Metropolitan University the college offers research degrees in musical performance, composition and music psychology as part of its Graduate School and confers awards at Companion and Member level. In January 2005, the RNCM was awarded £4.5 million by the Higher Education Funding Council for England to become a recognised Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, the only UK conservatoire to be selected. The RNCM has 770 students and 320 teaching staff, the majority of whom are part-time visiting tutors.
Many of the staff teach at the Junior RNCM, a Saturday music school for talented young musicians who are keen on pursuing a musical career. The college is divided into 6 schools by area of specialisation. School of Composition School of Keyboard Studies School of Strings School of Vocal Studies and Opera School of Wind, Brass & Percussion Popular MusicThere is a School of Conducting within its Graduate School; the RNCM students' union is the main student-run organisation. Besides representing the study body, the RNCMSU plans and organises social programmes and provides peer support for students; the RNCMSU is member of the National Union of Students. There is a large residential hall, Sir Charles Groves Hall, located next to the campus, managed by Liberty Living. Alternatively, students may choose to rent a flat at the Manchester Student Homes, the sole provider of housing for university students in Manchester. Category:Alumni of the Royal Northern College of Music Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music Conservatoires UK Hallé Orchestra Bridgewater Hall Chetham's School of Music Kennedy, Michael The History of the Royal Manchester College of Music.
Manchester University Press Royal Manchester College of Music Archive: National Archives View of the college Royal Northern College of Music