African hip hop
Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. In 1985 hip hop reached Senegal, a French-speaking country in West Africa; some of the first Senegalese rappers were M. C. Lida, M. C. Solaar, Positive Black Soul, who mixed rap with Mbalax, a type of West African pop music. An early South African group was Black Noise, they began as a graffiti and breakdance crew in Cape Town until they started emceeing in 1989. There have been groups in Tanzania and other countries that emceed before 1989,that knows as Kwanza Unit although it is not well known. During the late 1980s–early 1990s rap started to escalate all over Africa; each region had a new type of style of hip hop. Rap elements are found in Kwaito, a new genre based on house music which developed in South Africa in the 1990s. Algerian hip hop music, as a genre, includes the hip hop music of both native Algerians and Algerians abroad. Algerians living abroad have contributed much to this genre in France, where they are considered part of the French hip hop scene.
Some of these Algerians have become prominent. Algeria has a hip hop scene, while less well-known internationally, is among the most developed in Africa and the Arab world. Raï is a genre of music which developed in Algeria during the 1920s as rural migrants incorporated their native musical styles into the culture of the growing urban centers of western Algeria. Angola has a lively hip hop music scene, including popular and influential crews like Conciencia da Africa, Atitude violenta, Pobres Sem Culpa, Filhos Da Ala Este. and solo Mc Mutu Moxy Based in Cape Town, South Africa, have begun to work with some South African hip hop musicians. Angolan hip hop is characterized by the influence of American hip hop beats with a special flavor of Portuguese flow, mixed with African rhythm and some Caribbean influence. SSP, Mutu Moxy Political Rap, Kool Kleva, Nelboy Dastha Burda are credited for being the pioneers of the hip hop in Angola from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. Botswana has never had a large popular music industry, with most of its recorded music coming from South Africa or further abroad.
However, since about 1999, Botswana hip hop performers have begun to gain mainstream acceptance. The hip hop movement in Botswana has grown over the years as evidenced by the release over the years of albums and songs from artists such as Mr Doe, Touch Motswak Tswak, Ignition, S. C. A. R, Awesomore.aka Gaddamit, Cashless Society, Konkrete, HT, Dice, Dj Dagizus, 3rd Mind, Kast and Draztik to name a few. The release of hip hop albums is slow because of the small market and competition from other genres of dance-oriented music. Since 2000 hip hop has achieved more prominence in Botswana, with rappers like Scar Kast and Third Mind releasing successful albums. In 2006, Scar released his sophomore offering, "Happy Hour"; the same year Kast released "Dazzit". S. C. A. R has since won a Channel O Spirit of Africa Award 2007 for best hip hop; some Botswana hip hop artists include Zeus, Sasa Klaas, DA HoodstarZ, Ryan Blaze, Dj Fiction, A. T. I, Chub Heights, Dramaboi, EMIPHLOCX, Ozi F Teddy, Dj Dagizus, and upcoming hip hop group Native Rhymes.
Among the best in Gaborone are HallowTips, Faded Gang, SliqStar, Bicko Gee, Dizmatic Bryan and Stargate The hip hop scene of Cameroon includes pioneers like Manhitoo and Negrissim' who broke new ground in the early 1990s and stars like Koppo. Other hip hop artists from Cameroon are Les Nubians and Bams—female vocalists with a personal approach to the genre who now reside in France. Many others hip hop artist appears with time such as Stanley Enow and Jovi to continue building the industry Ivorian hip hop became a mainstream part of the popular music of Côte d'Ivoire beginning in 2009 after the victory of Ivorian hip hop group Kiff No Beat at the hip-hop contest Faya Flow, has been fused with many of the country's native styles, such as zouglou. There is a kind of gangsta rap-influenced Ivorian hip hop called rap dogba, inspired by Angelo & les Dogbas. Ivory Coast's number 1 hip hop artist is Kiff No Beat. Ivorian Hip Hop is in the French language, but includes nouchi; the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has long been a major home for pan-African styles of popular music like rumba and kwassa kwassa.
Long-time performers on the Kinshasa scene include Profetzion, the Congo Brazzaville rapper Passi. Promising new Congolese hip hop groups include Lopango yaba Nka, Kaysha, Yolé! Africa All Stars and Ya Kid K. Gambia's much larger neighbor, Senegal, is home to a thriving hip hop scene, which has exerted a strong influence on Gambian hip hop but Gambian hip hop is now evolving its own unique style. In 1999, the Gambia Radio & Television Services gave out the first Gambian Rap Award; the first crew to win the award for best new act was Da Fugitvz, who rapped in Wolof, the national language of Senegal, thus became popular in both countries. They later played at Popkomm in Germany. Hip hop in Ghana is referred to as Gh hiphop; the phrase GH Rap was created by Ball J when they released their first Skillions mixtape. According to the two rappers, GH Rap means Hiphop made in Ghana. Hiplife is a Ghanaian genre similar to hip hop music; this started in the late 1980s and early 90s with the hiplife father Reggie Rockstone, VIP, Talking Drums and Nananom.
But others did a mix of English with Twi or Ga like Heaven n' Hell, this was copied by secondary school and small area rap groups who will rap in pidgin English (a m
Igbo culture are the customs and traditions of the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria. It comprises archaic practices as well as new concepts added into the Igbo culture either by cultural evolution or by outside influence; these customs and traditions include the Igbo people's visual art and dance forms, as well as their attire and language dialects. Because of their various subgroups, the variety of their culture is heightened further; the Igbo peoples have a symphonic musical style, which they designed from forged iron. Other instruments include opi, a wind instrument similar to the flute and ichaka. Another popular musical form among Igbo people is highlife, a fusion of jazz and traditional music and popular in West Africa; the modern Igbo highlife is seen in the works of Prince Nico Mbarga Dr Sir Warrior, Oliver De Coque, Bright Chimezie, Chief Osita Osadebe, who are some of the greatest Igbo highlife musicians of the twentieth century. There are other notable Igbo highlife artists, like the Mike Ejeagha, Paulson Kalu, Ali Chukwuma, Ozoemena Nwa Nsugbe.
Igbo Art is known for various types of masquerade and outfits symbolizing people, animals or abstract conceptions. Igbo art is known for its bronze castings found in the town of Igbo Ukwu from the 9th century. Igbo art is any body of visual art originating from the people of the Igbo. Igbo culture is a visual art and culture While today many Igbo people are Christian, the traditional ancient Igbo religion is known as Odinani. In the Igbo mythology, part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu. To the ancient Igbo, the Cosmo is divided into four complex parts: Okike Alusi Mmuo Uwa Alusi known as Arusi or Arushi, are minor deities that are worshiped and served in Igbo mythology. There are a list of many different Alusi and each has its own purpose; when there is no longer need for the deity it is discarded. The yam is important to the Igbo as it is their staple crop. There are celebrations such as the New yam festival; the New Yam festival is celebrated annually to secure a good harvest of the staple crop.
The festival is practiced in Nigeria and other countries in West Africa. Traditionally the attire of the Igbo consisted of little clothing as the purpose of clothing was to conceal private parts, although elders were clothed. Children were nude from birth till their adolescence but sometimes ornaments such as beads were worn around the waist for medical reasons. Uli body art was used to decorate both men and women in the form of lines forming patterns and shapes on the body. With colonialism and the Westernization of Igbo culture, Western styled clothes such as shirts and trousers over took traditional clothing. Women carried their babies on their backs with a strip of clothing binding the two with a knot at her chest; this baby carrying technique was and still is practiced by many people groups across Africa, including the Igbo. This method has been modernized in the form of the child carrier. In most cases Igbo women did not cover their chest areas. Maidens wore a short wrapper with beads around their waist with other ornaments such as necklaces and beads.
Both men and women wore wrappers. Men would wear loin cloths that wrapped around their waist and between their legs to be fastened at their back, the type of clothing appropriate for the intense heat as well as jobs such as farming. Men could tie a wrapper over their loin cloth. Modern Igbo traditional attire is made up, for men, of the Isiagu top which resembles the African Dashiki. Isiagu is patterned with lions heads embroidered over the clothing, It can be plain, it is worn with trousers and can be worn with either a traditional title holders hat, or with the traditional Igbo stripped men's hat. For women, an embodied puffed sleeve blouse along with a head scarf are worn. Accomplished men and women are admitted into orders for people of title such as Ndi Ozo or Ndi Nze; these people receive insignia to show their stature. Membership is exclusive, to qualify an individual need to be regarded and well-spoken of in the community; the Igbo have a unique form of apprenticeship in which either a male family member or a community member will spend time with another family, when they work for them.
After the time spent with the family, the head of the host household, the older man who brought the apprentice into his household, will establish the apprentice by either setting up a business for him or giving money or tools by which to make a living. This practice was exploited by Europeans, who used this practice as a way of trading in enslaved people. Olaudah Equiano, although stolen from his home, was an Igbo person, forced into service to an African family, he said that he felt part of the family, unlike when he was shipped to North America and enslaved in the Thirteen Colonies. The Igbo apprenticeship system is called Imu Ahia or Igba Boy in igbo land which became more prominent in among the Igbos After the Nigerian civil war. In a quest to survive the £20 policy, proposed by Obafemi Awolowo that only £20 be given to every Biafran citizen to survive on regardl
Owoh Chimaobi Chrismathner, popularly known by his stagename Zoro, is a Nigerian indigenous rapper, songwriter, recording artist, stage performer and a model. Zoro was born on the in Anambra State in the south eastern part of Nigeria, he can rap in the Igbo language. Zoro is from Agwu, a small town in Enugu State in the south eastern part of Nigeria, but was born and bred in Onitsha, Anambra State in the south eastern part of Nigeria, where he completed both his primary and secondary school education and obtained both his First School Leaving Certificate and West African Senior School Certificate Examination. Zoro rose to fame after the release of his hit singles O42, Otu and Achikolo which he featured Nigerian music legends Phyno and Flavour, his three hit singles was a commercial success. He has work with video directors Clarence Peters, Mr Moe Musa, Mex films, Unlimited LA few to mention. Hero Premium Lager "042" "Achikolo" Phyno "Mabuza Mabuza" "Ogene" Flavour "Oyoko" Chidinma "Nekede" "Otu" "Enyi" "Obiageli" Wizboy "Ogene Remix" flavour x Lil Kesh and YCEE "Buy the Bar" Falz "Good Year" Awilo Longomba "Coal City Chic" Latino "Campus Girls" "Bianca" "Landlady" "Mbada" "Mbada" remix lio Steve, Paragon and Zez "Echolac" Flavour "Stainless" Simi "One on One" "Upandan' Mr Real "Halleluyah' "Friday" - Dj Neptune Zoro and Reminisce "Owu sa gi" - Wizboy Zoro "Ifunanya" - Expensive Olamide and Zoro "Mkpotu" - Phyno Zoro, Tidinz "Gbogangbom" - Flavour Phyno, Zoro "Ijele" - Flavour Zoro "Ebelebe" - Solidstar Zoro & Jojo "Normal Level" - DJ Nana Mr Real & Zoro Swagbag One music Africa fest London One music Africa fest Houston Afrimma Dallas Big brother Naija season 3 South Africa
Azonto is a dance and music genre from Ghana. The dance originated from a traditional dance called Kpanlogo, associated with the coastal towns in the country such as Chorkor, James Town, La, Teshie and Tema, in the Greater Accra Region. Songs in the Afrobeat genre are the ones dedicated to the Azonto dance. Other music genres, can be used; the dance involves a set of hand movements that either mimic everyday activities or are meant to amuse an audience. It began with one- or two-step movements but has been advanced to more complex and acrobatic movements. Just like most African dances, Azonto involves knee hip movements; the dance has evolved from a few basic moves to miming actions such as ironing of clothes, driving, praying and others. The term "Azonto" was a rude reference to wayward girls, it stems from the word "Abontoa", which means an ugly girl, but it has since lost its sting; the dance "azonto" is a communicative dance believed to originate from "Apaa" which means to work. Apaa was used to show the profession of an individual.
The azonto dance has since grown further to relay coded messages. The dance got into the minds of most Ghanaians. In the same year, most Ghanaian music videos were full of Azonto dance and spread to most African countries and other parts of the world. Popular music researcher Jesse Weaver Shipley claims that like hiplife, the popularity of Azonto is a direct result of its interactions in diaspora. "Azonto, in content and form, is the embodiment of circulation, though the meanings attributed to its mobility vary. Azonto is identified with Ghanaian indigeneity by those abroad and with cosmopolitanism by those at home." Azonto was popularized on social media by the music videos that portrayed the dance form with fast-pace tempos, home-made dance instructional videos uploaded on YouTube with no commercial intent, group choreographers done by Ghanaians and other African nationals living in UK, Germany and U. S. Ghanaian footballer Asamoah Gyan and Togolese football star Emmanuel Adebayor and James Anaman have performed the dance as part of their goal celebrations, John Carew uploaded a video of himself and his son dancing to Fuse ODG's "Antenna".
Following the worldwide interest in the Ghana's Azonto dance, the name of Azonto itself being used for a varieties of entertaining activities, such as Azonto Petroleum, the Azonto Ghana Commission was created organise the Ghana's most populous arts and entertainment and use the Commission as a department to support groups or individuals using the Azonto dance and other form to promote Ghana and unity among people from all walks of life. Dance portal Alkayida
Isicathamiya is a singing style that originated from the South African Zulus. In European understanding, a cappella is used to describe this form of singing; the word itself does not have a literal translation. Isicathamiya contrasts with an earlier name for Zulu a cappella singing, meaning "lion"; the change in name marks a transition in the style of the music: traditionally, music described as Mbube is sung loudly and powerfully, while isicathamiya focuses more on achieving a harmonious blend between the voices. The name refers to the style's tightly-choreographed dance moves that keep the singers on their toes. South African singing groups such as Ladysmith Black Mambazo demonstrate this style. Isicathamiya choirs are traditionally all male, its roots reach back before the turn of the 20th century, when numerous men left the homelands in order to search for work in the cities. As many of the tribesmen became urbanized, the style was forgotten through much of the 20th century. Today, isicathamiya competitions in Johannesburg and Durban take place on Saturday nights, with up to 30 choirs performing from 8pm - 8am the following morning.
Although the style originated in the 20th century in the 1920s and 1930s, many academics argue it can be traced back to the end of the 19th century. They believe the roots of isicathamiya are found in the American minstrels and ragtime US vaudeville troupes that toured South Africa extensively in 1860. Isicathamiya would have merged from a combination of minstrel inspired songs and Zulu traditional music. Culturally and traditionally, isicathamiya is influenced by Zulu indigenous beliefs such as: belief in Communalism, expressed in the Zulu dictum, "umuntu, ngabantu", competition and power associated with animals, reverence of the fireplace as a resource for food and warmth and, dreams for communicating with ancestors; the expression "umuntu, ngabantu" which means "a person is a person because of other people", dominates Zulu social organization and is used as a tool to strengthen social harmony. In the Zulu community, competition is valued with music, as it is seen as a social issue, subject to competition.
It is perceived as a public platform in which people can establish a concept of identity in a community. Isicathamiya performers improve their image by winning competitions. In Zulu folklore, bulls are a common symbol of masculinity. Other wild animals such as snakes, crocodiles and lions are expressions of power relations and assertion of power in competitive isicathamiya competitions. Early isicathamiya groups were named after animals such as Empangeni Home Tigers and Brave Lion Singers; the fireplace is used metaphorically for the "cooking of songs" in isicathamiya stage performances. Emphasis is placed on the social organization based on the Zulu indigiounous residence which took form in a circular bee-hive grass hut and at the center the head of surrounded by wives and children; the same formation takes places when isicathamiya songs were created with the leader in the center of the group. Dreams were an essential part of communicating with ancestors and formed part of a rooted Zulu religious though process.
Some isicathamiya musicians claim some of their songs were created in the spiritual realm given to them by ancestors. Joseph Shabalala of Ladysmith Black Mambazo explains he composes through dreams whereby for six months in the 1960s he was visited by voices in his dreams; these were spiritual elders. He experienced a final examination where each of the twenty-four elders asked him a musical question and Shabalala achieved a perfect score. In the 1980s, isicathamiya competitions were held in male hostels such as Glebeland, in Umlazi, one of townships in Durban; the groups were allowed to perform two songs adhering to the competition formation. Joseph Shabalala formed Ladysmith Black Mambazo and had the opportunity to work with Paul Simon on the Graceland album which included a track titled "Homeless" and "Diamonds on Soles of her Shoes", which gained the group international recognition; the influence Joseph Shabalala had would change the context of isicathamiya in the late 20th century. Joseph Shabalala, Bongani Mthethwa and Paulos Msimango formed an organization called South African Traditional Music Association to help reclaim isicathamiya as a form of traditional music.
Competitions were no longer in hostels but at the YMCA in Beatrice Street in the city center of Durban. The change in venues allowed for variation in the basic theme of the competitions. A competition for the best dressed man was on occasion for the best dressed woman. Furthermore, all who registered to compete now paid a voluntary amount to the event conveners and the contribution of each group would be announced as they entered the hall. Shabalala recognized the significance of his position on a global scale and would honor the community by conducting workshops for aspiring isicathamiya groups. Ladysmith Black Mambazo addressed pressing issues in South African in the 1990s such as HIV/AIDS, crime and rape; the group would honor prolific members of the South African society such as Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. The level of interaction the group uses with the audience has grown vastly. Shabalala communicated with the audience beyond the musical and dance aspects. There was a shift in language usage, no longer restricted to Zulu, Shabalala would recite the words to "Homeless" to teach the audience.
Shabalala continued to extend the boundaries of isicathamiya formalities by introducing Zulu maskanda (traditional musicians playing on Euro
African popular music
African popular music, like African traditional music, is vast and varied. Most contemporary genres of African popular music build on cross-pollination with western popular music. Many genres of popular music like blues, afrobeats, salsa and rumba derive to varying degrees on musical traditions from Africa, taken to the Americas by enslaved Africans; these rhythms and sounds have subsequently been adapted by newer genres like rock, rhythm and blues. African popular music has adopted elements the musical instruments and recording studio techniques of western music; the term "afropop" is sometimes used to refer to contemporary African pop music. The term does not refer to a specific style or sound, but is used as a general term for African popular music. Cuban music has been popular in sub-Saharan Africa since the mid-twentieth century, it was Cuban music that more than any other. To the Africans, clave-based Cuban popular music sounded both exotic; the Encyclopedia of Africa v. 1. States: "Beginning in the 1940s, Afro-Cuban groups such as Septeto Habanero and Trio Matamoros gained widespread popularity in the Congo region as a result of airplay over Radio Congo Belge, a powerful radio station based in Léopoldville.
A proliferation of music clubs, recording studios, concert appearances of Cuban bands in Léopoldville spurred on the Cuban music trend during the late 1940s and 1950s." Congolese bands started singing the lyrics phonetically. Soon, they were creating their own original Cuban-like compositions, with French lyrics; the Congolese called this new music rumba, although it was based on the son. The Africans adapted guajeos to electric guitars, gave them their own regional flavor; the guitar-based music spread out from the Congo taking on local sensibilities. This process resulted in the establishment of several different distinct regional genres, such as soukous. Cuban popular music played a major role in the development of many contemporary genres of African popular music. John Storm Roberts states: "It was the Cuban connection, but also New York salsa, that provided the major and enduring influences—the ones that went deeper than earlier imitation or passing fashion; the Cuban connection began early and was to last at least twenty years, being absorbed and re-Africanized."
The re-working of Afro-Cuban rhythmic patterns by Africans brings the rhythms full circle. The re-working of the harmonic patterns reveals a striking difference in perception; the I IV V IV harmonic progression, so common in Cuban music, is heard in pop music all across the African continent, thanks to the influence of Cuban music. Those chords move in accordance with the basic tenets of Western music theory. However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, performers of African popular music do not perceive these progressions in the same way: "The harmonic cycle of C-F-G-F prominent in Congo/Zaire popular music cannot be defined as a progression from tonic to subdominant to dominant and back to subdominant because in the performer's appreciation they are of equal status, not in any hierarchical order as in Western music."The largest wave of Cuban-based music to hit Africa was in the form of salsa. In 1974 the Fania All Stars performed in Africa, at the 80,000-seat Stadu du Hai in Kinshasa; this was released as Live In Africa.
The Zairean appearance occurred at a music festival held in conjunction with the Muhammad Ali/George Foreman heavyweight title fight. Local genres were well established by this time. So, salsa caught on in many African countries in the Senegambia and Mali. Cuban music had been the favorite of Senegal's nightspot in the 1950s to 1960s; the Senegalese band Orchestra Baobab plays in a basic salsa style with congas and timbales, but with the addition of Wolof and Mandinka instruments and lyrics. According to Lise Waxer: "African salsa points not so much to a return of salsa to African soil but to a complex process of cultural appropriation between two regions of the so-called Third World." Since the mid-1990s African artists have been active through the super-group Africando, where African and New York musicians mix with leading African singers such as Bambino Diabate, Ricardo Lemvo, Ismael Lo and Salif Keita. It is still common today for an African artist to record a salsa tune, add their own particular regional touch to it.
Genres of African popular music include: African-American popular music Afropop! An Illustrated Guide to Contemporary African Music by Sean Barlow & Banning Eyre. ISBN 0-7858-0443-9, ISBN 978-0-7858-0443-7
Enugu is the capital of Enugu State in Nigeria. It is located in southeastern Nigeria; the city had a population of 722,664 according to the 2006 Nigerian census. The name Enugu is derived from the two Igbo words Énú Ụ́gwụ́ meaning "hill top" denoting the city's hilly geography; the city was named after Enugwu Ngwo. Since the 17th century the location of present-day Enugu has been inhabited by the Nike subgroup of the Igbo people. In 1900 the Southern Nigeria Protectorate was established by the colonial administration of the British Empire; the discovery of coal by the colonialists led to the building of the Eastern Line railway to carry coal from the inland city to the port of Port Harcourt, a city created for this purpose located 151 miles south of what was called Enugu Coal Camp. Enugu was renamed Enugu and developed as one of the few cities in West Africa created from European contact. By 1958 Enugu had over 8,000 coal miners; as of 2005 there are no significant coal mining activities left in the city.
Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region after Nigeria's independence in 1960. On 30 May 1967 Enugu was declared the capital of the short-lived Republic of Biafra. After Enugu was captured by the Nigerian armed forces, the Biafran capital was moved to Umuahia. Industries in the city include bottling industries. Enugu is one of the filming locations for directors of the Nigerian movie industry, dubbed "Nollywood". Enugu's main airport is the Akanu Ibiam International Airport; the main educational establishment in the city is the Enugu campus of the University of Nigeria based in Nsukka, a town north of Enugu and in the same state. The first settlement in the Enugu area was the small Nike village of Ogui, present since the era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Nike in the Igbo language means "with strength or power." It was through slave raiding that the Nike people acquired most of their lands, which were unsettled. The Nike used slaves for a defence strategy, placing slave camps at the edge of their territories so that it was harder for an enemy to access the free born.
The Nike people were allied to the Aro people who formed the Aro Confederacy, an Igbo organisation that controlled slave trading in the Enugu area. Along with the Aro people who came to trade from Arochukwu in the south were the Hausa people who came to trade from the north; the Hausa traders provided horses to the Nike. Both the Aro and Hausa migrated back and forth to what is now the city of Enugu and were considered foreigners to the area. A British campaign to invade Arochukwu and open up the hinterland for British military and political rule was carried out in 1901. A war between the British and Aro started on 1 December 1901 lasting till 24 March 1902 when the Aro were defeated; the Aro Confederacy ended and the rest of Aro dominated areas was added to The Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, declared in 1900. Europeans first arrived in the Enugu area in 1903 when the British/Australian geologist Albert Ernest Kitson led an exploration of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate to search for valued mineral resources under the supervision of the Imperial Institute, London.
By 1909 coal was found under the village of Enugwu Ngwo in the Udi and Okoga areas and by 1913 the coal was confirmed to be in quantities that would be viable commercially. By 1914 the colonial government had merged the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In 1915 the British began talks with the indigenous people of the land that would become Enugu about its acquisition in order to lay the Eastern Line railway and to build a colliery; the first houses built in the area were in a temporary settlement consisting of Igbo traditional mud housing inhabited by a W. J. Leck and some other Europeans on Milliken Hill. Another settlement known as Ugwu Alfred or "Alfred's Camp", inhabited by an Alfred Inoma and his labourers, was located on a hillside. After the land acquisition by the British, Frederick Lugard, the Governor-General of Nigeria at the time, named the colliery built at the bottom of the Udi Hills Enugu Coal Camp to distinguish it from Enugwu Ngwo which overlooks the city from atop a scarp on Enugu's west.
The first coal mine in the Enugu area was the Udi mine opened in 1915, shut down two years and replaced with the Iva Valley mine. Enugu became the only significant one in West Africa; the Eastern Line railway connecting Enugu with Port Harcourt was completed in 1916 in order to export the coal through its seaport of which the city was created for this purpose. Enugu became one of the few cities in West Africa created out of contact with Europeans. By 1916 parts of Enugu reserved for Europeans were set up by the colonial government; the area now known as the Government Reserved Area became the European Quarters located north of the Ogbete River. The built-up area of Enugu comprised these two areas, by 1917 the city gained township status. On the African side of the city a rapid influx of migrant workers sparked the development of squatter camps on the Udi Hills near the coal mines and the Iva Valley. In 1938 Enugu became the administrative capital of the Eastern Region; the number of employed co