New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
Holešov is a town in the Zlín Region, Czech Republic. The town is located on the western hillside of the Hostýn Hills - the westernmost part of the Carpathian Mountains. Holešov is well known for its mannerist château with the garden complex. Today, the public airport of regional importance in the south part of Holešov is transformed into the Strategic Industrial Zone, one of the biggest in Czech Republic. Holešov was the birthplace of František Xaver Richter. Established in the place of the neolithic villages, Holešov was mentioned in the first half of 12th century for the first time as the market village in the ownership of the Bishop of Olomouc. Holešov got some municipal rights in 1322. Traditionally a half of the town with the castle was in the hereditary possession of the nobility, while the other half was administrated by diocese. After 1480, the whole domain of Holešov was owned by nobility. First the House of Sternberg and several other noble families until 1848, of which the most important was the Styrian Rottal Family, which made Holešov the centre of their domain and rebuilt the old castle into representative palace with the system of gardens.
After 1848, Holešov became the administrative centre of the Okres Holešov. Since 1848 the town was divided into two parts: the larger Christian town Holešov and in the area of former Jewish ghetto was the smaller Jewish municipality of the same name, which had its own administration and contained one-third of the town's population, it was only after 1918. In 1960, the district Holešov was dissolved and Holešov became an ordinary town without any administrative importance; the town was inhabited by a large Jewish community from the first half of the 16th century until World War II, during which nearly the entire Jewish population was murdered. There is a uncommon Jewish synagogue of the "Polish" type including ornate ironwork and paintings on ceilings and walls using floral and animal motifs; this "Old Synagogue" known as the "Shakh" or "Šach" Synagogue, was preserved because it looked like an ordinary building from outside. The New Synagogue was destroyed by the Nazis in 1942. Holešov is twinned with: Turčianske Teplice, Slovakia Pszczyna, Poland Desinić, Croatia
A Singspiel is a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera. It is characterized by spoken dialogue, alternated with ensembles, songs and arias which were strophic, or folk-like. Singspiel plots are comic or romantic in nature, include elements of magic, fantastical creatures, comically exaggerated characterizations of good and evil; some of the first Singspiele were miracle plays in Germany, where dialogue was interspersed with singing. By the early 17th century, miracle plays had grown profane, the word "Singspiel" is found in print, secular Singspiele were being performed, both in translated borrowings or imitations from English and Italian songs and plays, in original German creations. In the 18th century, some Singspiele were translations of English ballad operas. In 1736, the Prussian ambassador to England commissioned a translation of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay; this was performed in the 1740s in Hamburg and Leipzig. A further version of this was made by Johann Adam Hiller and C. F. Weiße in 1766, the first of a string of such collaborations which led to Hiller and Weisse being called "the fathers of the German Singspiel."French operas with spoken dialogue were transcribed into the German and became successful in Vienna in the late 1770s and early 1780s.
By contrast, German translations of contemporary Italian opere buffe, which were quite successful in England and France at the time, were less frequent. Singspiele were considered middle-to-lower class entertainment – as opposed to the predominantly aristocratic genres of opera and stage play – and were performed by traveling troupes, rather than by established companies within metropolitan centers. Mozart wrote several Singspiele: Bastien und Bastienne, Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Der Schauspieldirektor, Die Zauberflöte. E. T. A. Hoffmann, who admired him, composed Singspiele, such as Liebe und Eifersucht in 1807. In 1927, Kurt Weill created a new word, "Songspiel". Notes Sources Barbara Russano Hanning, Donald Jay Grout: Concise History of Western Music, W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "Singspiel." Media related to Singspiele at Wikimedia Commons
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni
Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni was an Italian poet and librettist. As a poet Frugoni was one of the best of the school of the Arcadian Academy, his lyrics and pastorals had great facility and elegance, his collected works were published at Parma in 10 volumes in 1799, a more complete edition appeared at Lucca in the same year in 15 volumes. Born at Genoa, he was destined for the church and at the age of fifteen, against his will, was shut up in a convent. In the following year he had no liking for this life, he acquired considerable reputation as an elegant writer both of Latin and Italian verse. Through Cardinal Bentivoglio he was recommended to Antonio Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma, who appointed him his poet laureate. Shortly afterwards, through Bentivoglio's influence, he obtained from the pope the remission of his monastic vows, succeeded in recovering a portion of his paternal inheritance. After the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle he returned to the court of Parma, there devoted the years of his life chiefly to poetical composition.
He corresponded with Francesco Algarotti during the genesis of Jean Racine´s dramatic tragedy entitled Phèdre into Ippolito ed Aricia an opera by Tommaso Traetta. Marco Russo, Tommaso Traetta: i Libretti della Riforma - Parma 1759-61, Facoltà di Lettere di Trento, Trento 2005. Fabrizio Cassoni, Gianfranco Spada, Le Feste d'Imeneo, Tommaso Traetta a Parma, London 2010; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frugoni, Carlo Innocenzio Maria". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 253
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, as founding president of the Carnegie Institution, he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. S." Born in Norwich, the son of Eliza and mill owner William Charles Gilman, a descendant of Edward Gilman, one of the first settlers of Exeter, New Hampshire, of Thomas Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and one of the founders of Harvard College, of Thomas Adgate, one of the founders of Norwich in 1659. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in 1852 with a degree in geography. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University.
The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull and Bones. After serving as attaché of the United States legation at St. Petersburg, Russia from 1853 to 1855, he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in 1866.
Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in 1872 to become the third president of the newly organized University of California. His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office. Among the legendary educators he assembled to teach at Johns Hopkins were classicist Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, historian Herbert Baxter Adams and chemist Ira Remsen. Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition.
The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at?" The answer, he said, was "the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, the society where they dwell." In 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School, he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He was president of the National Civil Service Reform League and the American Oriental Society, vice president of the Archaeological Institute of America, executive officer of the Maryland Geological Survey. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington, his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University. Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, 1861, had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Mary Ketcham Gilman died in 1869, Daniel Coit Gilman married his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, daughter of John M. Woolsey of Cleveland and niece of Yale president Theodore Dwight Woolsey, in 1877. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut.
The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University
In music, number refers to an individual song, dance, or instrumental piece, part of a larger work of musical theatre, opera, or oratorio. It can refer either to an individual song in a published collection or an individual song or dance in a performance of several unrelated musical pieces as in concerts and revues. Both meanings of the term have been used in American English since the second half of the 19th century. In musical theatre, the lyrics of the individual song numbers are integrated with the narrative of the libretto; as early as 1917, Jerome Kern wrote that "musical numbers should carry on the action of the play, should be representative of the personalities of the characters who sing them." The lyricist Oscar Hammerstein, another proponent of this view refused to list the numbers in Rose-Marie because he thought it would detract from what he viewed as the close integration between the book and the lyrics. However, both David Horn and Scott McMillin have proposed that full integration is not possible.
For McMillin, the start of a musical number creates a noticeably different "feel" in which the singer becomes a "performer" not a character. For Horn, the individual numbers can serve not only to advance the narrative but to directly address and engage the audience in an experience which stands apart from the dramatic context of the work, and this latter function had its roots in vaudeville entertainments. In revues, a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music and sketches, there is no overall narrative, but rather a sequence of unrelated musical numbers. However, as Rick Altman points out, some of the numbers in these types of shows such "This Heart of Mine" in the film Ziegfeld Follies can be narratives in miniature; that number, according to Altman, "is not just musical—its dream-like dance grows out of the Bremer/Astaire mimed narrative which opens the selection." Opera numbers may be arias, but ensemble pieces, such as duets, quartets, sextets or choruses. They may be ballets and instrumental pieces, such as marches, sinfonias, or intermezzi.
Until the mid-19th century most operas were structured as a series of discrete numbers connected by recitative or spoken dialogue. Oratorios followed a similar model. However, as the century progressed, numbers were unified into larger musical segments with no clear break between them. Early examples of this trend include Carl Maria von Weber's opera Euryanthe and Robert Schumann's secular oratorio Das Paradies und die Peri. Number opera Comédie mêlée d'ariettes AMC Networks. Greatest Song and Dance Musical Moments and Scenes