Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and animal matter, omnivores digest carbohydrates, protein and fiber, metabolize the nutrients and energy of the sources absorbed, they have the ability to incorporate food sources such as algae and bacteria into their diet. Omnivores come from diverse backgrounds that independently evolved sophisticated consumption capabilities. For instance, dogs evolved from carnivorous organisms while pigs evolved from herbivorous organisms. What this means is that physical characteristics are not reliable indicators of whether an animal has the ability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal matter. Owing to the wide range of unrelated organisms independently evolving the capability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal materials, no generalizations about the anatomical features of all omnivores can realistically be made; the variety of different animals that are classified as omnivores can be placed into further categories depending on their feeding behaviors.
Frugivores include maned orangutans. All of these animals are omnivores, yet still fall into special niches in terms of feeding behavior and preferred foods. Being omnivores gives these animals more food security in stressful times or makes possible living in less consistent environments; the word omnivore derives from the Latin omnis, vora, from vorare, having been coined by the French and adopted by the English in the 1800s. Traditionally the definition for omnivory was behavioral by means of "including both animal and vegetable tissue in the diet." In more recent times, with the advent of advanced technological capabilities in fields like gastroenterology, biologists have formulated a standardized variation of omnivore used for labeling a species' actual ability to obtain energy and nutrients from materials. This has subsequently conditioned two context specific definitions. Behavioral: This definition is used to specify if a species or individual is consuming both plant and animal materials.
Physiological: This definition is used in academia to specify species that have the capability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal matter. The taxonomic utility of omnivore's traditional and behavioral definition is limited, since the diet and phylogeny of one omnivorous species might be different from that of another: for instance, an omnivorous pig digging for roots and scavenging for fruit and carrion is taxonomically and ecologically quite distinct from an omnivorous chameleon that eats leaves and insects; the term "omnivory" is not always comprehensive because it does not deal with mineral foods such as salt licks and the consumption of plant and animal material for medical purposes which would not otherwise be consumed within non-omnivores. Though Carnivora is a taxon for species classification, no such equivalent exists for omnivores, as omnivores are widespread across multiple taxonomic clades; the Carnivora order does not include all carnivorous species, not all species within the Carnivora taxon are carnivorous.
It is common to find physiological carnivores consuming materials from plants or physiological herbivores consuming material from animals, e.g. felines eating grass and deer eating birds. From a behavioral aspect, this would make them omnivores, but from the physiological standpoint, this may be due to zoopharmacognosy. Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered omnivorous. Thus, such animals are still able to be classified as carnivores and herbivores when they are just obtaining nutrients from materials originating from sources that do not complement their classification. For instance, it is well documented that animals such as giraffes and cattle will gnaw on bones, preferably dry bones, for particular minerals and nutrients. Felines, which are regarded as obligate carnivores eat grass to regurgitate indigestibles, aid with hemoglobin production, as a laxative, it is found that animals classified as carnivorous may deliberately eat plant material.
For example, in 2013, it was considered that American alligators may be physiologically omnivorous once investigations had been conducted on why they eat fruits. It was suggested that alligators ate fruits both accidentally but deliberately."Life-history omnivores" is a specialized classification given to organisms that change their eating habits during their life cycle. Some species, such as grazing waterfowl like geese, are known to eat animal tissue at one stage of their lives, but plant matter at another; the same is true for many insects, such as beetles in the family Meloidae, which begin by eating animal tissue as larvae, but change to eating plant matter after they mature. Many mosquito species in early life eat plants or assorted detritus, but as they mature, males continue to eat plant matter and nectar whereas the females eat blood to reproduce effectively. Although cases exist of herbivores eating meat and carnivores eating plant matter, the classification "omnivore" re
The Iguanidae are a family of lizards composed of iguanas and related species. Several classification schemes have been used to define the structure of this family; the "historical" classification recognized all New World iguanians, plus Brachylophus and the Madagascar oplurines, as informal groups and not as formal subfamilies. Frost and Etheridge formally recognized these informal groupings as families. Macey et al. in their analysis of molecular data for iguanian lizards recovered a monophyletic Iguanidae and formally recognized the eight families proposed by Frost and Etheridge as subfamilies of Iguanidae. Schulte et al. reanalyzed the morphological data of Frost and Etheridge in combination with molecular data for all major groups of Iguanidae and recovered a monophyletic Iguanidae, but the subfamilies Polychrotinae and Tropidurinae were not monophyletic. Townsend et al. Wiens et al. and Pyron et al. in the most comprehensive phylogenies published to date, recognized most groups at family level, resulting in a narrower definition of Iguanidae.
Family Iguanidae Informal grouping anoloids: anoles, Polychrus Informal grouping basiliscines: casquehead lizards Informal grouping crotaphytines: collared and leopard lizards Informal grouping iguanines: marine, Galapagos land, rock, desert and chuckwalla iguanas Informal grouping morunasaurs: wood lizards, clubtails Informal grouping oplurines: Madagascan iguanids Informal grouping sceloporines: earless, tree, side-blotched and horned lizards Informal grouping tropidurines: curly-tailed lizards, South American swifts, neotropical ground lizards Family CorytophanidaeFamily CrotaphytidaeFamily HoplocercidaeFamily Iguanidae Genus Amblyrhynchus – marine iguana Genus Brachylophus – Fijian/Tongan iguanas Genus Cachryx – spinytail iguanas Genus Conolophus – Galápagos land iguanas Genus Ctenosaura – spinytail iguanas Genus Cyclura – West Indian rock iguanas Genus Dipsosaurus – desert iguana Genus Iguana – green and Lesser Antillean iguanas Genus Sauromalus – chuckwallas Genus Armandisaurus Genus Lapitiguana giant Fijian iguana Genus Pumilia Genus Pristiguana Family OpluridaeFamily PhrynosomatidaeFamily PolychridaeFamily Tropiduridae Family Iguanidae Subfamily Corytophaninae: casquehead lizards Subfamily Crotaphytinae: collared and leopard lizards Subfamily Hoplocercinae: wood lizards, clubtails Subfamily Iguaninae: marine, Galapagos land, rock, desert and chuckwalla iguanas Subfamily Oplurinae: Madagascan iguanids Subfamily Phrynosomatinae: earless, tree, side-blotched and horned lizards Subfamily Polychrotinae: anoles, Polychrus Subfamily Tropidurinae: curly-tailed lizards, neotropical ground lizards, South American swifts Here families and subfamilies are proposed as clade names, but may be recognized under the traditional Linnean nomenclature.
Iguanidae Corytophaninae: casquehead lizards Crotaphytinae: collared and leopard lizards Hoplocercinae: wood lizards, clubtails Iguaninae: marine, Galapagos land, rock, desert and chuckwalla iguanas Oplurinae: Madagascan iguanids Phrynosomatinae: earless, tree, side-blotched and horned lizards Polychrotinae: anoles, Polychrussubclade of Polychrotinae Anolis: anoles subclade of Polychrotinae Leiosaurini: leiosaurssubclade of Leiosaurini Leiosaurae: subclade of Leiosaurini Anisolepae:subclade of Polychrotinae Polychrus Tropidurinae: curly-tailed lizards, neotropical ground lizards, South American swiftssubclade of Tropidurinae Leiocephalus: curly-tailed lizards subclade of Tropidurinae Liolaemini: South American swifts subclade of Tropidurinae Tropidurini: neotropical ground lizards Family Corytophanidae Family Crotaphytidae Family Dactyloidae Family Hoplocercidae Family Iguanidae Family Leiocephalidae Family Leiosauridae Family Liolaemidae Family Opluridae Family Phrynosomatidae Family Polychrotidae Family Tropiduridae Family Iguanidae
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
The Taíno were an indigenous people of the Caribbean. At the time of European contact in the late fifteenth century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas and the northern Lesser Antilles; the Taíno were the first New World peoples to be encountered by Christopher Columbus during his 1492 voyage. They spoke an Arawakan language; the ancestors of the Taíno originated in South America, the Taíno culture as documented developed in the Caribbean. Taíno groups were in conflict with the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles. At the time of contact, the Taíno were divided into several groups. Western Taíno groups included the Lucayans of the Bahamas, the Ciboney of central Cuba, the inhabitants of Jamaica; the Classic Taíno lived in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, while the Eastern Taíno lived in the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. At the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno chiefdoms in Hispaniola, each led by a principal Cacique, to whom tribute was paid.
The Taíno name for Hispaniola was Ayiti, the source of the name Haiti. Cuba was divided into 29 chiefdoms, many of which have given their name to modern cities, including Havana, Batabanó, Camagüey, Bayamo. Taíno communities ranged from small settlements to larger centers of up to 3,000 people, they may have numbered 2 million at the time of contact. The Spanish conquered various Taíno chiefdoms during early sixteenth century. According to The Black Legend and harsh enslavement by the colonists decimated the population. A smallpox epidemic in Hispaniola in 1518–1519 killed 90% of the surviving Taíno; the remaining Taíno were intermarried with Europeans and Africans, were incorporated into the Spanish colonies. The Taíno were considered extinct by the end of the century. However, since about 1840, there have been attempts to create a quasi-indigenous Taíno identity in rural areas of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico; this trend accelerated among Puerto Rican communities in the mainland United States in the 1960s.
At the 2010 U. S. census, 1,098 people in Puerto Rico identified themselves as "Puerto Rican Indian", 1,410 identified as "Spanish American Indian", 9,399 identified as "Taíno". In total, 35,856 Puerto Ricans considered themselves Native American. A direct translation of the word "Taíno" signified "men of the good". Additionally, the name was used by the indigenous people of Hispaniola to indicate that they were "relatives"; the Taíno people, or Taíno culture, has been classified by some authorities as belonging to the Arawak, as their language was considered to belong to the Arawak language family, the languages of which were present throughout the Caribbean, much of Central and South America. The early ethnohistorian Daniel Garrison Brinton called the Taíno people the "Island Arawak". Contemporary scholars have recognized that the Taíno had developed a distinct language and culture. Taíno and Arawak appellations have been used with numerous and contradictory meanings by writers, historians and anthropologists.
They were used interchangeably. "Island Taíno" has been used to refer to those living in the Windward Islands only, to the northern Caribbean inhabitants only, as well as to the population of the entire Caribbean. Modern historians and anthropologists now hold that the term Taíno should refer to all the Taíno/Arawak nations except for the Caribs, who are not seen to belong to the same people. Linguists continue to debate whether the Carib language is an Arawakan dialect or creole language, or an individual language, with an Arawakan pidgin used for communication purposes. Rouse classifies as Taíno all inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, the Bahamian archipelago, the northern Lesser Antilles, he subdivides the Taíno into three main groups: Classic Taíno from Haiti, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic. Two schools of thought have emerged regarding the origin of the indigenous people of the Caribbean. One group of scholars contends that the ancestors of the Taíno came from the center of the Amazon Basin, are related to the Yanomama.
This is indicated by linguistic and ceramic evidence. They migrated to the Orinoco valley on the north coast. From there they reached the Caribbean by way of what is now Guyana and Venezuela into Trinidad, proceeding along the Lesser Antilles to Cuba and the Bahamian archipelago. Evidence that supports this theory includes the tracing of the ancestral cultures of these people to the Orinoco Valley and their languages to the Amazon Basin; the alternate theory, known as the circum-Caribbean theory, contends that the ancestors of the Taíno diffused from the Colombian Andes. Julian H. Steward, who originated this concept, suggests a migration from the Andes to the Caribbean and a parallel migration into Central America and into the Guianas and the Amazon Basin of South America. Taíno culture as documented is believed to have developed in the Caribbean; the Taíno creation story says that they emerged from caves in a sacred mountain on present-day Hispaniola. In Puerto Rico, 21st century studies have shown a high proportion
A feral animal or plant is one that lives in the wild but is descended from domesticated individuals. As with an introduced species, the introduction of feral animals or plants to non-native regions may disrupt ecosystems and has, in some cases, contributed to extinction of indigenous species; the removal of feral species is a major focus of island restoration. A feral animal is one that has escaped from a domestic or captive status and is living more or less as a wild animal, or one, descended from such animals. Other definitions include animals that have changed from being domesticated to being wild, natural, or untamed; some common examples of animals with feral populations are horses, goats and pigs. Zoologists exclude from the feral category animals that were genuinely wild before they escaped from captivity: neither lions escaped from a zoo nor the sea eagles re-introduced into the UK are regarded as feral. Domesticated plants that revert to wild are referred to as escaped, naturalized, or sometimes as feral crops.
Individual plants are known as volunteers. Large numbers of escaped plants may become a noxious weed; the adaptive and ecological variables seen in plants that go wild resemble those of animals. Feral populations of crop plants, along with hybridization between crop plants and their wild relatives, brings a risk that genetically engineered characteristics such as pesticide resistance could be transferred to weed plants; the unintended presence of genetically modified crop plants or of the modified traits in other plants as a result of cross-breeding is known as "adventitious presence". Certain familiar animals go feral and while others are much less inclined to wander and fail promptly outside domestication; some species will detach from humans and pursue their own devices, but do not stray far or spread readily. Others depart and are gone, seeking out new territory or range to exploit and displaying active invasiveness. Whether they leave and venture far, the ultimate criterion for success is longevity.
Persistence depends on their ability to establish themselves and reproduce reliably in the new environment. Neither the duration nor the intensity with which a species has been domesticated offers a useful correlation with its feral potential; the cat returns to a feral state if it has not been socialized when young. These cats if left to proliferate, are considered to be pests in both rural and urban areas, may be blamed for devastating the bird and mammal populations. A local population of feral cats living in an urban area and using a common food source is sometimes called a feral cat colony; as feral cats multiply it is difficult to control their populations. Animal shelters attempt to adopt out feral cats kittens, but are overwhelmed with sheer numbers and euthanasia is used. In rural areas, excessive numbers of feral cats are shot. More the "trap-neuter-return" method has been used in many locations as an alternative means of managing the feral cat population; the goat is one of the oldest domesticated creatures, yet goes feral and does quite well on its own.
Sheep are close contemporaries and cohorts of goats in the history of domestication, but the domestic sheep is quite vulnerable to predation and injury, thus seen in a feral state. However, in places where there are few predators, they get on well, for example in the case of the Soay sheep. Both goats and sheep were sometimes intentionally released and allowed to go feral on island waypoints frequented by mariners, to serve as a ready food source; the dromedary camel, domesticated for well over 3,000 years, will readily go feral. A substantial population of feral dromedaries, descended from pack animals that escaped in the 19th and early 20th centuries, thrives in the Australian interior today. Water buffalo run rampant in Northern Australia; the Australian government encourages the hunting of feral water buffalo because of their large numbers. Cattle have been domesticated since the neolithic era, but can do well enough on open range for months or years with little or no supervision, their ancestors, the aurochs, were quite fierce, on par with the modern Cape buffalo.
Modern cattle those raised on open range, are more docile, but when threatened can display aggression. Cattle those raised for beef, are allowed to roam quite and have established long term independence in Australia, New Zealand and several Pacific Islands along with small populations of semi-feral animals roaming the southwestern United States and northern Mexico; such cattle are variously called scrubbers or cleanskins. Most free roaming cattle, however untamed, are too valuable not to be rounded up and recovered in settled regions. Horses and donkeys, domesticated about 5000 BC, are feral in open grasslands worldwide. In Portugal, feral horses are called Sorraia. Other isolated feral populations exist, including the Banker horse, they are referred to as "wild horses", but this is a misnomer. There are "wild" horses that have never been domesticated, most notably Przewalski's horse. While the horse was indigenous to North America, the wild ancestor died out at the end of the last Ice Age. In both Australia and the Americas, modern "wild" horses descended from domesticated horses brought by European explorers and settlers that escaped and thrived.
Australia hosts a feral donkey population, as do the Virgin Islands and the Americ