History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century, the first European to colonize Brazil was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22,1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a colony, the countrys borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7,1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal, a military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic. The country has seen a dictatorship during Vargas Era and a period of rule under Brazilian military government. When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, the dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called Indians by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. For this reason, very little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500, archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, and occasional large state-like federations.
At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes, the indigenous peoples were traditionally mostly semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living mainly on the coast, the Europeans saw the natives as noble savages, and Europeans began having children with the Native people right away. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives. But the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people, the diseases spread quickly along the indigenous trade routes, and whole tribes were likely annihilated without ever coming in direct contact with Europeans. There are so many theories regarding who was the first European to set foot on the now called Brazil.
In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese encountered stone-using natives divided into several tribes, many of whom shared the same Tupi–Guarani language family, and fought among themselves. Until 1529 Portugal had very little interest in Brazil mainly due to the profits gained through commerce with India, China. The system was a failure - only four lots were successfully occupied Pernambuco, São Vicente, Captaincy of Ilhéus, the captaincies gradually reverted to the Crown and became provinces and eventually states of the country. At first, settlers tried to enslave the natives as labor to work the fields, the initial exploration of Brazils interior was largely due to para-military adventurers, the bandeirantes, who entered the jungle in search of gold and Native slaves. However colonists were unable to sustainably enslave Natives, and Portuguese land owners soon turned to import millions of slaves from Africa, mortality rates for slaves in sugar and gold enterprises were dramatic, and there were often not enough females or proper conditions to replenish the slave population indigenously
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Santa Catarina Island
Santa Catarina Island is an island in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, located off the southern coast. It is home to the capital, Florianópolis. Santa Catarina Island is approximately 54 km long by 18 km wide, measuring east-west at its widest point, the island is the largest of an archipelago of more than 30 islands, the majority of which lie within the Florianópolis municipality. Nearby islands part of the archipelago, but which belong to other cities, Anhatomirim Island, Cabras Island, Arvoredo Island, Deserta Island and Galés Island. The three main bridges, Hercílio Luz Bridge, Colombo Salles Bridge and Pedro Ivo Campos Bridge, span a 500-meter wide, one of the continental neighborhoods in Florianópolis is named after this strait. Santa Catarina Island is home to the capital, Florianópolis. The island contains numerous beach resorts, Jurerê Internacional, Canasvieiras, a large part of the city of Florianópolis lies within the borders of the island. The downtown area lies in the mid-west, but many other neighborhoods, one notable neighborhood is Trindade, where the Federal University of Santa Catarina is located.
In the north, the communities of Ingleses and Jurerê can be found, the neighborhoods Santo Antônio de Lisboa, Cacupé, Barra do Sambaqui, Rio Vermelho and Praia da Daniela are located in the northwest. To the south lie Pântano do Sul, Costa de Dentro, Caieira da Barra do Sul and Ribeirão da Ilha, morro das Pedras and Armação do Pântano do Sul lie in the southeast. The east contains the communities Barra da Lagoa, Lagoa da Conceição, Rio Tavares, other neighborhoods on the island include Carvoeira, Córrego Grande, Pantanal, Parque São Jorge, and Santa Mônica. The Carijós Ecological Station was established by decree of 20 July 1987 and it preserves a significant area of mangroves on the Ilha de Santa Catarina. The tip of the island is in the 84,130 hectares Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, the 1,532 hectares Rio Vermelho State Park, created in 2007, is in the northeast of the island