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Maria Komnene, Queen of Jerusalem

Maria Komnene or Comnena was the second wife of King Amalric I of Jerusalem and mother of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem. She was the daughter of John Doukas Komnenos, sometime Byzantine dux in Cyprus, Maria Taronitissa, her sister Theodora married Prince Bohemund III of Antioch, her brother Alexios was in 1185, a pretender to the throne of the Byzantine Empire. After the annulment of his first marriage to Agnes of Courtenay, Amalric was anxious to forge an alliance with Byzantium and emperor Manuel I Komnenos, so in 1164/65 he sent ambassadors to Constantinople to ask the hand of an imperial princess but received no answer until August 1167, when they landed at Tyre with Maria Komnene, the emperor's grandniece and had had bestowed upon her a rich dowry; the marriage of Amalric and Maria was celebrated with much fanfare at Tyre, on 29 August 1167. They died shortly after. Isabella I of Jerusalem, born in 1172. On his deathbed, in 1174, Amalric left Nablus to Maria. In 1177, Maria married secondly with Balian of Ibelin, who commanded the defense of Jerusalem against Saladin in 1187.

She bore him at least four children: Helvis of Ibelin, who married Reginald of Sidon, Guy of Montfort John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut and constable of Jerusalem, who married Helvis of Nephin Melisende of Arsur Margaret, who married Hugh of Tiberias, Walter III of Caesarea Philip of Ibelin, bailli of Cyprus, who married Alice of Montbéliard. Maria and Balian supported Conrad of Montferrat in his struggle for the crown against Guy of Lusignan, they arranged for Maria's daughter by Amalric, Isabella, to have her first marriage annulled so that she could marry Conrad, giving him a stronger claim to the throne. In this and Balian gained the enmity of Richard I of England and his chroniclers; the anonymous author of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi wrote of them: Steeped in Greek filth from the cradle, she had a husband whose morals matched her own: he was cruel, she was godless. As the grandmother of Alice of Champagne, Maria conducted the marriage negotiations with Cyprus in 1208 – Alice was to marry Hugh I of Cyprus.

Blanche of Navarre and Countess of Champagne, widow of Alice's paternal uncle, provided the dowry for Alice. This is the last time Maria is mentioned, she was dead by 1217. Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier, edited by M. L. de Mas Latrie. La Société de l'Histoire de France, 1871. La Continuation de Guillaume de Tyr, edited by Margaret Ruth Morgan. L'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1982. Ambroise, The History of the Holy War, translated by Marianne Ailes. Boydell Press, 2003. Chronicle of the Third Crusade, a Translation of Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, translated by Helen J. Nicholson. Ashgate, 1997. Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996. Edbury, Peter W. John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1997 Payne, Robert; the Dream and the Tomb, A History of the Crusades, vols. II-III. Cambridge University Press, 1952-55

New York City Subway rolling stock

The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system and has a large fleet of rolling stock. As of November 2016, the New York City Subway has 6418 cars on the roster; the system maintains two separate fleets of passenger cars: one for the A Division routes, the other for the B Division routes. All A Division equipment is 8 feet 9 inches wide and 51 feet long. B Division cars, on the other hand, are about 10 feet wide and either 60 feet 6 inches or 75 feet 6 inches long; the 75 foot cars, such as R44s, R46s, R68s, R68As, are not permitted on BMT Eastern Division – the J, L, M and Z trains – because of sharper curves on those tracks. The A Division and B Division trains operate only in their own division; the A Division sections have narrower tunnel segments, tighter curves, tighter platform clearances than the B Division sections, so B Division trains cannot fit in the A Division tunnels and stations, while A Division trains would have an unacceptably large gap between the platform and train if they were allowed in the B Division lines.

The safety train stop mechanism is not compatible between divisions, being located on opposite sides of the track and train in each division. Service and maintenance trains are composed of A Division-sized cars, so they can operate with either division's clearances and they have safety train stops installed on both sides of the trucks. All rolling stock, in both the A and B Divisions, run on the same 4 foot 8.5 inches standard gauge and use the same third-rail geometry and voltage. A typical revenue train consists of 8 to 10 cars; the G runs 4-car trains, the 7 runs 11-car trains. When the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company entered into agreements to operate some of the new subway lines, they decided to design a new type of car, 10 feet wide and 67 feet long; the subject of several patents, the car's larger profile was similar to that of steam railroad coaches, permitting greater passenger capacity, more comfortable seating, other advantages. The BRT unveiled its design, designated BMT Standard, to the public in 1913 and received such wide acceptance that all future subway lines, whether built for the BRT, the IRT, or the IND, were built to handle the wider cars.

When the R44s and R46s were rebuilt, the rollsigns on the side of the cars were replaced with electronic LCD signs while the front service sign remained as a rollsign. In sharp contrast, the rebuilt R32s and R38s retained rollsigns on the sides, but a flip-dot display was placed in the front; the MTA has been incorporating newer subway cars into its stock in the past two decades. Since 1999, the R142s, R142As, R143s, R160s, R179s, R188s have been added into service. All cars built since 1992, are equipped with digital signs on the front and interior. Old cars, some from the original companies, are preserved at the New York Transit Museum, while others have been sold to private individuals and/or other railway/trolley museums. Between 1984 and 1989 some of the IRT trains were painted giving them the name Redbirds. By February 2020, various older B Division cars, such as the entire fleets of R38s, R40s, R40As, R42s, NYCTA-built R44s, as well as most of the R32s, were retired and replaced by newer models, including the R160s and R179s.

The General Overhaul Program was a mid-life overhaul program for neglected subway cars which involved thorough rebuilding of the fleet. Since the completion of the GOH program, the new Scheduled Maintenance System program has replaced the GOH program by ensuring that trains do not reach a state in which they would need such an overhaul; the car types which were part of the MTA NYCT GOH program are the IRT Redbirds, as well as IND/BMT cars. These cars were rebuilt between 1985 and 1992; some cars in various classes from R10 to R46 were given lighter overhauls during this period. Cars purchased by the City of New York since the inception of the IND and for the other divisions beginning in 1948 are identified by the letter "R" followed by a number; this number is the contract number. Cars with nearby contract numbers may be identical being purchased under different contracts; the New York City Board of Transportation settled on a system of documentation, still in place under MTA New York City Transit.

This included a prefix letter or letters that indicated the Department that the specific documentation, followed by a series of numbers of a length defined by the specific department concerned. For example, the Surface Department used the letter "S", while the Rapid Transit Department used the letter "R". A new R- number is assigned for any vehicle purchase involving a bidding process. Since the 1970s, the system has suffered from "R- inflation" going through only 46 R- numbers in its first 40 years, but over 114 in its subsequent 30. Possible reasons include an increased number of specialized maintenance vehicles that were made in house or a lower floor for requiring a formal bidding process in order to reduce waste and abuse. In 2001, the New York City Transit Authority started disposing of retired subway cars by dumping them at sea to create artificial reefs, with the intention of promoting marine life; this option was chosen.

Dominant-party system

A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future." The dominant party holds majority government, without the need for coalitions. Examples include United Russia in Russia, the Justice and Development Party in Turkey, the Serbian Progressive Party in Serbia, the Bharatiya Janata Party in India, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath PartySyria Region in Syria, the New Azerbaijan Party in Azerbaijan, Nur Otan in Kazakhstan, the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan in Tajikistan, Fidesz in Hungary, the People's Action Party in Singapore, the African National Congress in South Africa, the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan, the Awami League in Bangladesh, ZANU–PF in Zimbabwe, the MPLA in Angola and the Rwandan Patriotic Front in Rwanda. Critics of the "dominant party" theory argue that it views the meaning of democracy as given, that it assumes that only a particular conception of representative democracy is valid.

Raymond Suttner argues that "the dominant party'system' is flawed as a mode of analysis and lacks explanatory capacity. But it is a conservative approach to politics, its fundamental political assumptions are restricted to one form of democracy, electoral politics and hostile to popular politics. This is manifest in the obsession with the quality of electoral opposition and its sidelining or ignoring of popular political activity organised in other ways; the assumption in this approach is that other forms of organisation and opposition are of limited importance or a separate matter from the consolidation of their version of democracy."One of the dangers of dominant parties is "the tendency of dominant parties to conflate party and state and to appoint party officials to senior positions irrespective of their having the required qualities." However, in some countries this is common practice when there is no dominant party. In contrast to one-party systems, dominant-party systems can occur within a context of a democratic system.

In a one-party system other parties are banned, but in dominant-party systems other political parties are tolerated, operate without overt legal impediment, but do not have a realistic chance of winning. Under authoritarian dominant-party systems, which may be referred to as "electoralism" or "soft authoritarianism", opposition parties are allowed to operate, but are too weak or ineffective to challenge power through various forms of corruption, constitutional quirks that intentionally undermine the ability for an effective opposition to thrive, institutional and/or organizational conventions that support the status quo, occasional but not omnipresent political repression, or inherent cultural values averse to change. In some states opposition parties are subject to varying degrees of official harassment and most deal with restrictions on free speech, lawsuits against the opposition, rules or electoral systems designed to put them at a disadvantage. In some cases outright electoral fraud keeps the opposition from power.

On the other hand, some dominant-party systems occur, at least temporarily, in countries that are seen, both by their citizens and outside observers, to be textbook examples of democracy. An example of a genuine democratic dominant-party system would be the pre-Emergency India, universally viewed by all as being a democratic state though the only major national party at that time was the Indian National Congress; the reasons why a dominant-party system may form in such a country are debated: supporters of the dominant party tend to argue that their party is doing a good job in government and the opposition continuously proposes unrealistic or unpopular changes, while supporters of the opposition tend to argue that the electoral system disfavors them, or that the dominant party receives a disproportionate amount of funding from various sources and is therefore able to mount more persuasive campaigns. In states with ethnic issues, one party may be seen as being the party for an ethnicity or race with the party for the majority ethnic, racial or religious group dominating, e.g. the African National Congress in South Africa has strong support amongst Black South Africans and the Ulster Unionist Party governed Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972 with the support of the Protestant majority.

Sub-national entities are dominated by one party due the area's demographic being on one end of the spectrum. For example, the current elected government of the District of Columbia has been governed by Democrats since its creation in the 1970s, Bavaria by the Christian Social Union since 1957, Madeira by the Social Democrats since 1976, Alberta by Progressive Conservatives from 1971 to 2015. On the other hand, where the dominant party rules nationally on a genuinely democratic basis, the opposition may be strong in one or more subnational areas even constituting a dominant party locally. Angola Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, Movimento Popula

What Comes After

What Comes After is the third album by Norwegian jazz guitarist Terje Rypdal recorded in 1973 and released on the ECM label. The Allmusic review awarded the album 3 stars. All compositions by Terje Rypdal except as indicated"Bend It" - 9:55 "Yearning" - 3:22 "Icing" - 7:50 "What Comes After" - 10:58 "Sejours" - 3:51 "Back of J." 4:17Recorded at the Arne Bendiksen Studio in Oslo, Norway on August 7 & 8, 1973 Terje Rypdal — guitar, flute Erik Niord Larsen — oboe, English horn Barre Phillipsbass, piccolo bass Sveinung Hovensjø — electric bass, Jon Christensenpercussion, organ

Angeles Tunnel

The Angeles Tunnel is a 7.2-mile-long, 30-foot-diameter water tunnel located in the Sierra Pelona Mountains in Los Angeles County, about 50 miles north of Los Angeles. It was constructed between 1967 and 1970 as part of the California State Water Project and serves as the final leg of the west branch of the California Aqueduct, which carries Northern California water to Southern California residents; the tunnel supplies water to the adjacent Castaic Power Plant, a pumped-storage hydroelectricity generation facility. To facilitate power generation, the tunnel's flow is bidirectional. During on-peak energy-demand hours, water flows downhill through the tunnel, starting at an elevation of 2,572 feet in Pyramid Lake, falling over 1,000 feet to the turbines of the Castaic Power Plant at 1,519 feet; the water is stored in the Elderberry Forebay, adjacent to Castaic Lake. During off-peak hours, water is pumped uphill through the tunnel in the opposite direction from Elderberry Forebay and returned to Pyramid Lake.

This operation reduces the energy cost of moving water along the California Aqueduct. California State Water Project California Aqueduct American Society for Testing and Materials. Determination of the in Situ Modulus of Deformation of Rock. ASTM International. ISBN 978-0803100619. "Angeles Tunnel". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Castaic Lake. California Department of Water Resources. 2007. "Castaic Powerplant". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Pyramid Lake. California Department of Water Resources. 2000. "Pyramid Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Roach, Michael F.. North American Tunneling 2008 Proceedings. SME. ISBN 978-0873352635. "South SWP Hydropower - Project No. 2426". California Department of Water Resources. Retrieved November 1, 2013