Morongo Band of Mission Indians
The Morongo Band of Mission Indians is a federally recognized tribe. The main tribal groups are Serrano. Tribal members include Cupeño, Luiseño, Chemehuevi Indians. Although many tribes in California are known as Mission Indians, like those at Morongo, were never a part of the Spanish Missions in California; the Morongo Reservation is located in California. The Morongo Reservation is located at the base of the San San Jacinto Mountains, it is over 35,000 acres in size. On May 15, 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant established this and eight other reservations in the area by executive order. 954 of the 996 enrolled tribal members live on the reservation. The name Morongo comes from the Serrano clan Maarrenga'; the first official "Captain" of Potrero Ajenio recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the hereditary leader of the Maarrenga', known to Americans by his English name, John Morongo. As time went on the Bureau referred to the tribe as the Morongo Band of Mission Indians; the Morongo Band of Mission Indians is headquartered in California.
They are governed by a democratically elected tribal council. Their current administration is as follows: Cahuilla and Serrano are Takic languages, part of the Uto-Aztecan language family; the main aboriginal group of the San Gorgonio Pass are Pass Cahuilla. The Serrano, who had traditionally intermarried with the Pass Cahuilla, who have lived in the area since well before the inception of the reservation, call the area Maarrkinga'. Cahuilla and Serrano are technically considered to be extinct as they are no longer spoken at home, children are no longer learning them as primary languages. Joe Saubel, a Morongo tribal member and the last pure speaker of Pass Cahuilla, died in 2008; the last pure speaker of Serrano was enrolled at Morongo, Ms. Dorothy Ramon, who died in 2002. Recent generations have found a renewed interest in their native languages however, many families are now reclaiming Pass Cahuilla and Serrano for their children. In 2012, the Limu Project announced that it had reconstructed Pass Cahuilla, is offering an online course.
The project offers online courses in Maarrenga' and Yuhaviat. The tribe opened a small bingo hall in 1983, which became the foundation of what is now one of the oldest Native gaming enterprises in California; the government of Riverside County, attempted to shut down the bingo hall, so the tribe joined with the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians in a lawsuit decided by the U. S. Supreme Court. On February 25, 1987, the court upheld the right of sovereign Indian tribes to operate gaming enterprises on their reservations; the Morongo Casino, Resort & Spa was opened in 2004 in California. It is open 24 hours a day; the hotel has 310 rooms. Several restaurants and bars are part of the complex, Desert Orchid: Contemporary Asian Cuisine, Potrero Canyon Buffet, Cielo: Pacific Coast Steak and Seafood Restaurant, Sunset Bar and Grill, a food court, Mystique Lounge, the Pit Bar; the club, 360, is open on weekends. A bottling plant on the reservation is operated by Nestle Waters North America Inc. which leases the property from the tribe.
The plant bottles Arrowhead spring water as well as purified water sold under the brand Nestle Pure Life. In his 2010 book "Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water", author Peter H. Gleick said the plant was producing more than 1 billion bottles of Arrowhead spring water per year; the Malki Museum on the Morongo Reservation is open to the public. It maintains the Malki Museum Press, which publishes the Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology and scholarly books on Indian culture; the reservation is home to the Limu Project, a tribal community-based nonprofit organization that helps families preserve knowledge of their indigenous languages and cultural traditions. Two churches are on the Morongo Reservation, they are the Protestant Morongo Moravian Church and the Catholic St. Mary's Mission, maintained by the Saint Kateri Tekakwitha Catholic Community. Marigold Linton, psychologist and author Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People.
San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 1992. ISBN 0-937401-20-X. Hinton, Leanne. Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994. ISBN 0-930588-62-2 Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. James, Harry Clebourne; the Cahuilla Indians. Morongo Reservation: Malki Museum. ASIN B0007HDH7E. LCCN 60010491. OCLC 254156323. LCC E99. K27 J3 ASIN B0007EJ4OM Mager, Elisabeth. "Ethnic Consciousness in Cultural Survival: The Morongo Band of Mission Indians and the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas". American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 41: 47–72. Morongo Band of Mission Indians, official website Malki Museum, tribal museum at Morongo Reservation, Banning California The Limu Project, nonprofit organization providing language and cultural revitalization U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Morongo Reservation
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
The Paipai are an indigenous people of Mexico living in northern Baja California. Their traditional territory lies between the Kiliwa on the south and the Kumeyaay and Cocopa on the north, extending from San Vicente near the Pacific coast nearly to the Colorado River's delta in the east. Today they are concentrated at the multi-ethnic community of Santa Catarina in Baja California's Sierra de Juárez. Meigs suggested that the aboriginal populations associated with San Vicente and Santa Catarina missions were 780 and 1,000 individuals. Hicks estimated 1,800 for the aboriginal population of the Paipai, or a density of 0.3 persons per square kilometer. Owen argued that these estimates were too high; however some studies show that there are less than 200 speakers of the Paipai language left, because the new generations do not find it necessary to learn the Paipai language. The Paipai language was documented by Judith Joël, who have published texts and studies of phonology and syntax. Mauricio J. Mixco have published transcription of stories.
It is close to the Upland Yuman language spoken by the Yavapai and Havasupai of western Arizona. Aboriginal Paipai subsistence was based on hunting and gathering of natural animal and plants rather than on agriculture. Numerous plants were exploited as food resources, notably including agave, mesquite, prickly pear, pine nuts, juniper berries. Many other plants served as material for construction or craft products. Animals used for food included deer, bighorn sheep, woodrats, various other medium and small mammals, quail and shellfish. Crop growing and stock raising were introduced during the historic period. Information about the cultural practices of the precontact Paipai comes from a variety of sources; these include the accounts of the maritime expedition led by Sebastián Vizcaíno. Owen, Thomas B. Hinton, Frederic N. Hicks, Ralph C. Michelsen, Michael Wilken-Robertson, Julia Bendímez Patterson. Paipai traditional material culture included structures, equipment for hunting and warfare, processing equipment and cradles.
Kinship was based on patrilocal šimułs. It is not clear to; the existence of any formal community leaders was denied by some. Social recreations included a variety of games: shinny, kickball races, the ring-and-pin game, peon, spinning tops and cat's cradle. Music was produced by singing and by instruments that included flutes, gourd rattles, jinglers. Pets were kept. Traditional narratives are conventionally classed as myths, legends and oral histories; the oral literature recorded for the Paipai is rather limited but includes narratives that can be assigned to each of these categories. Paipai narratives such as the creation myth show their closest affinities with those of the Kumeyaay to the north; the Paipai first encountered Europeans when Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition mapped the northwest coast of Baja California in 1602. More intensive and sustained contacts began in 1769 when the expedition to establish Spanish settlements in California, led by Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra, passed through the western portions.
The Dominican mission of San Vicente was founded near the coast in Paipai territory in 1780. It became a key center for the Spanish administration and military control of the region. In 1797 San Vicente was supplemented by an inland mission at Santa Catarina, near the boundary between Paipai and Kumeyaay territories. Mission Santa Catarina was destroyed in 1840 by hostile Indian forces including Paipai; the main modern settlement of Paipai is at Santa Catarina, a community they share with Kumeyaay and Kiliwa residents. Drucker, Philip. 1941. "Culture Element Distributions XVII: Yuman–Piman". Anthropological Records 6:91-230. University of California, Berkeley. Gifford, E. W. and Robert H. Lowie. 1928. "Notes on the Akwa'ala Indians of Lower California". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 23:338-352. Berkeley. Hicks, Frederic N. 1959. "Archaeological Sites in the Jamau-Jaquijel Region, Baja California: A Preliminary Report". University of California, Los Angeles, Archaeological Survey Annual Report 1958-1959:59-66.
Hicks, Frederic N. 1963. Ecological Aspects of Aboriginal Culture in the Western Yuman Area. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. Hinton, Thomas B. and Roger C. Owen. 1957. "Some Surviving Yuman Groups in Northern Baja California". América Indígena 17:87-102. Hohenthal, William D. Jr. 2001. Tipai Ethnographic Notes: A Baja California Indian Community at Mid Century. Edited by Thomas Blackburn. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, California. Joël, Judith. 1966. Paipai Phonology and Morphology. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. Joël, Judith. 1976. "Some Paipai Accounts of Food Gathering". Journal of California Anthropology 3:59-71. Joël, Judith. 1998. "Another Look at the Paipai-Arizona Pai Divergence". In
Mission Indians are the indigenous peoples of California who lived in Southern California and were forcibly relocated from their traditional dwellings and homelands to live and work at 15 Franciscan missions in Southern California and the Asisténcias and Estáncias established between 1796 and 1823 in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Spanish explorers arrived on California's coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the first Spanish Franciscan mission was built in San Diego. Local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, over work and torture decimated these tribes. Many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes. For instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey and the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano.
The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many tribes' linguistic and cultural practices. With no acquired immunity to the new European diseases and changed cultural and lifestyle demands, the population of Native American Mission Indians suffered high mortality and dramatic decreases in the coastal regions where population was reduced by 90 percent between 1769 and 1848; when Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, but abuse persisted. Mexico secularized the missions and transferred or sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners. Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions. Around 1906 Alfred L. Kroeber and Constance G. Du Bois of the University of California, Berkeley first applied the term "Mission Indians" to Southern California Native Americans as an ethnographic and anthropological label to include those at Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and south.
On January 12, 1891 the U. S. Congress passed "An Act for the Relief of the Mission Indians in the State of California" which further sanctioned the original grants of the Mexican government to the natives in southern California and sought to protect their rights while giving railroad corporations a primary interest. In 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D. C. to list tribes in California. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band.” The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised but never fulfilled by 18 non-ratified treaties made in 1851-1852; because of the enrollment applications and the native American's association with a specific geographical location associated with the Catholic missions, the bands of natives became known as the "mission band" of people associated with a Spanish mission.
Some bands occupy trust lands—Indian Reservations—identified under the Mission Indian Agency. The Mission Indian Act of 1891 formed the administrative Bureau of Indian Affairs unit which governs San Diego County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, Santa Barbara County. There is one Chumash reservation in the last county, more than thirty reservations in the others. Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, Orange counties do not contain any tribal trust lands. But, resident tribes, including the Tongva in the first and the Juaneño-Acjachemen Nation in the last county continue seeking federal Tribal recognition by the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Eleven of the Southern California reservations were included under the early 20th century allotment programs, which broke up communal tribal holdings to assign property to individual households, with individual heads of household and tribal members identified lists such as the Dawes Rolls; the most important reservations include: the Agua Caliente Reservation in Palm Springs, which occupies alternate sections with former railroad grant lands that form much of the city.
These and the tribal governments of fifteen other reservations operate casinos today. The total acreage of the Mission group of reservations constitutes 250,000 acres; these tribes were associated with the following Missions, Asisténcias, Estáncias: Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, in San Luis Obispo Mission La Purísima Concepción, northeast of Lompoc Mission Santa Inés, in Solvang Mission Santa Barbara, in Santa Barbara Mission San Buenaventura, in Ventura Mission San Fernando Rey de España, in Mission Hills Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, in San Gabriel Mission San Juan Capistrano, in San Juan Capistrano Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, in Oceanside Mission San Diego de Alcalá, in San Diego Santa Ysabel Asistencia, founded in 1818 in Santa Ysabel San Antonio de Pala Asistencia, founded in 1816 in eastern San Diego County San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, founded in 1819 in Redlands Santa Ana Estancia, founded in 1817 in Costa Mesa Las Flores Estancia, founded in 1823 in Camp Pen
Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation
The Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Mission Indians from Southern California, located in the unincorporated area of San Diego County just east of El Cajon. The Sycuan band are a Kumeyaay tribe, one of the four ethnic groups indigenous to San Diego County; the Sycuan Reservation is located at 32°46′57″N 116°49′59″W. The nearest outside communities are the unincorporated communities of Harbison Crest. Cody Martinez is their current tribal chairman; the band operates two waste water treatment plants, a sequencing batch reactor used for their casino, administrative buildings, maintenance buildings. They operate and own a modular treatment plant in a flood plain near one of their residential areas; the tribe operates a water treatment facility. Additionally, the tribe operates a small medical clinic, dental office, fire department and tribal police force. In 2005, they eliminated their environmental department for economic reasons. In 2004, they installed a new air conditioning system, internal control systems, a new parking lot.
The move toward casino gaming on the Sycuan Band reservation was spearheaded by the Sycuan Band's former chairwoman, Anna Prieto Sandoval. The Sycuan Band opened its first gambling facility, the Sycuan Bingo Palace, on their reservation in 1983; as a direct evolution from that successful venture, they now run a profitable casino, as well as an off-reservation golf course. The Sycuan band is not the only San Diego-area band to operate significant commercial enterprises off-reservation; the Sycuan band purchased the downtown San Diego landmark U. S. Grant Hotel in 2003, it advertises in relation to the San Diego Padres major-league baseball team. A $226 million hotel casino expansion opened to the public on March 27, 2019; the casino has a total of 80 gaming tables. The Sycuan band provides an endowment to support the Sycuan Institute on Tribal Gaming, a research institute at San Diego State University; the Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students."
Kumeyaay Sycuan Institute on Tribal Gaming Mission Indians Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. Northern California Guide: Weaving the Past and Present. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 2000. ISBN 0-937401-10-2. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Sycuan Tribe official homepage Sycuan Casino official homepage Singing Hills Golf Resort at Sycuan official homepage Elicit Lounge homepage
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Cocopah Cucapá, are Native Americans who live in Baja California and Sonora, in Arizona in the United States. The Cocopah language belongs to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman family; the Spanish term for Cocopah is Cucapá. Their self-designation is Xawiƚƚ kwñchawaay, translating to “Those Who Live on the Cloudy River”. According to the US Census, there were 1,009 Cocopah in 2010. Ancestors of the Cocopah inhabited parts of present day Arizona and Baja California and are known by western academics as belonging to the Patayan culture. Patayan is a term used by archaeologists to describe prehistoric Native American cultures who inhabited parts of modern-day Arizona, west to Lake Cahuilla in California, in Baja California, between 700–1550 A. D; this included areas along the Gila River, Colorado River and in the Lower Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. They are likely ancestors of the Cocopah and other Yuman-speaking tribes in the region.
The Patayan peoples practiced floodplain agriculture where possible and relied on hunting and gathering. The first significant contact of the Cocopah with Europeans and Africans occurred in 1540, when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Alarcón sailed into the Colorado River delta; the Cocopah were mentioned by name by the expedition of Juan de Oñate in 1605. Cocopah peoples in the United States are enrolled in the Cocopah Tribe of Arizona; as of the 2000 United States Census, the Cocopah Tribe of Arizona numbered 891 people. There is a casino, resort, family entertainment center and bingo hall on the reservation as well as a Museum and Cultural Center. Another Yuman group, the Quechan, lives in the adjacent Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. On important occasions, Cocopah people wear their customary ribbon shirts and ribbon dresses. Frank Tehanna, A Cocopah capitan who helped gain United States recognition and tribal lands for the Cocopah Indian Tribe near Somerton, Arizona in 1917. Bravie Soto, A US Army Sergeant who served with Recon Platoon, Echo, 2/39, 9 Infantry Division.
He is reported by family members and tribal historians to be the first Native American Casualty in the Vietnam War Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Gifford, E. W.. The Cocopa. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol 35:5, Pg 257-334. Kelly, William H.. Cocopa Ethnography. Anthropological papers of the University of Arizona. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0496-2. Cocopah Indian Tribe, official website