Gotland is a province, county and diocese of Sweden. It is Sweden's largest island; the province includes the islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands to the west. The population is 58,595, of which about 23,600 live in the main town; the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The island's main sources of income are agriculture along with food processing, information technology services and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined limestone. From a military viewpoint, it occupies a strategic location in the Baltic sea; as of 2018 the Gotland Regiment has been re-raised and is the first time since World War II that a new regiment has been established in Sweden. The island is the home of the Gutes, sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has been occupied since prehistory. A DNA study conducted on the 5,000-year-old skeletal remains of three Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland showed that they were related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found to be more related to modern-day Mediterraneans.
This is consistent with the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time. Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was populated by his descendants, it tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutes, the native name of the people of the island. It tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. According to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden, it gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden. The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia.
The total sum is as great as the number, unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved north through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries; the Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl. It is assumed; the Mästermyr chest, an important artefact from the Viking Age, was found in Gotland. On 16 July 1999, the world's largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings Hoard, was found in a field at Spillings farm northwest of Slite; the silver treasure was divided into two parts weighing a total of 67 kg and consisted of coins, about 14,000, from foreign countries Islamic. It contained about 20 kg of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, iron bands and clasps.
The treasure was found by using a metal detector, the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million crowns. The treasure was found by accident while filming a news report for TV4 about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland. Early on, Gotland became a commercial center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts, each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting. New laws were decided at the landsting, which took other decisions regarding the island as a whole; the city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. About 1,500 Gotlandic farmers were killed by the Danish invaders after massing for battle at Mästerby.
The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark and Sweden; the authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Orde
Districts of Latvia
Before July 1, 2009 Latvia was divided into 26 administrative districts and 7 cities under state jurisdiction, indicated with asterisks: Administrative divisions of Latvia Administrative divisions of Latvia before 2009 Planning regions of Latvia Cultural regions of Latvia ISO 3166-2:LV Media related to Districts of Latvia at Wikimedia Commons
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture, it is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523; the old part of Lübeck is on an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Denmark. Travemünde is a sea ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Lübeck Hauptbahnhof links Lübeck to a number of railway lines, notably the line to Hamburg. Humans settled in the area around what today is Lübeck after the last Ice Age ended about 9700 BCE. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area. Around AD 700, Slavic peoples started moving into the eastern parts of Holstein, an area settled by Germanic inhabitants who had moved on in the Migration Period. Charlemagne, whose efforts to Christianise the area were opposed by the Germanic Saxons, expelled many of the Saxons and brought in Polabian Slavs allies.
Liubice was founded on the banks of the River Trave about four kilometers north of the present-day city-center of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. In 1128 the pagan Rani from Rügen razed Liubice. In 1143 Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, founded the modern town as a German settlement on the river island of Bucu, he built a new castle, first mentioned by the chronicler Helmold as existing in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, in 1158. After Henry's fall from power in 1181 the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa ordained. With the council dominated by merchants, pragmatic trade interests shaped Lübeck's politics for centuries; the council survived into the 19th century. The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and formed part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217, of the kingdom of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.
Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and by the Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of that medieval trade organization. In 1375 Emperor Charles IV named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome and Florence. Several conflicts about trading privileges resulted in fighting between Lübeck and Denmark and Norway – with varying outcome. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck joined the pro-Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of the mid-16th century. After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power declined.
The city remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648, but the combination of the devastation from the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade caused the Hanseatic League – and thus Lübeck with it – to decline in importance. However after the de facto disbanding of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck still remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. Franz Tunder was the organist in the Marienkirche, it was part of the tradition in this Lutheran congregation that the organist would pass on the duty in a dynastic marriage. In 1668, his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703; some of the greatest composers of the day came to the church to hear his renowned playing. In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on 6 November 1806. Under the Continental System, the State bank went into bankruptcy.
In 1811, the French Empire formally annexed Lübeck as part of France. The writer Thomas Mann was a member of the Mann family of Lübeck merchants, his well-known 1901 novel Buddenbrooks made readers in Germany familiar with the manner of life and mores of the 19th Century Lübeck bourgeoisie. In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, which merged the city of Lübeck with Prussia. During World War II, Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force bombing; the attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm. This raid destroyed large parts of the built-up area. Germany operated a POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, near the city from 1940 until April 1945; the British Second Army occupied it without resistance. On 3 May 1945 one of the biggest disasters in naval history occurred in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships: the SS Cap Arcona, the SS Deutschland, the SS Thielbek – which, unknown to them, were packed with concentr
Saint Meinhard was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, his body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral. As a canon at the Segeberg Abbey, Meinhard was inspired by Vicelinus missionary work among the Slavs. Meinhard traveled with merchants to Livonia on a Catholic mission to convert pagan Semigallians and Livonians into Christianity, he settled on the Daugava River at Ikšķile southeast of Riga. In 1185–1186 he built a stone church, dedicated to Our Lady. Following an attack by the Lithuanians, Meinhard brought stonemasons from Gotland to build a fortress to defend against future attacks; these were the first known stone buildings among the Baltic tribes. Remains of the church survive to this day. Another stone castle was built in Salaspils as a gift to newly converted pagans, but the inhabitants attacked Meinhard attempting to drive him out of Livonia. When he returned to Germany in 1186, Meinhard was consecrated as Bishop of Üxküll by Hartwig of Uthlede, Archbishop of Bremen.
The new bishopric was confirmed by Pope Clement III in September 1188. In 1190, Clement III allowed any monk to join Meinhard's mission. New Pope Celestine III showed more enthusiastic support for the mission in his letter in April 1193, authorizing active missionary recruitment, making exceptions to rules governing monks' food and clothing, granting indulgences to those who joined the mission. Among the recruits was Theodorich from Loccum Abbey, who started a mission in Turaida. Meinhard converted the pagans by peaceful means, but faced with resistance and apostasy, he turned to the idea of a crusade. Meinhard was succeeded by Berthold of Hanover and Albert of Riga, who began the Livonian Crusade and established the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, a crusading military order, in Riga
Riga Hydroelectric Power Plant
Riga's Hydroelectric Power Plant is located just beyond Riga's southern border. It is geographically located in the town of Salaspils. Total installed power generating capacity is 402 MW. There are two transformers and two 330 kV power lines; the Riga Hydroelectric Power Plant was put into operation in 1974. In order to build Riga HES, a dam was constructed across the Daugava River through the middle of Doles Sala, half of which has since been flooded to make room for Riga Reservoir. Along with Doles Sala, there have been several other smaller islands drowned in order to fill the reservoir; the dam was built in the late 1970s. Aside from its main purpose of keeping the reservoir contained, its top is used as a motor vehicle highway. A railroad was constructed on the dam, but it was utilized only during construction of the powerplant and was demolished at the beginning of the 21st century; this is. This railroad began at Salaspils railway station, ended at the middle of Doles sala. There is a powerline pylon in the middle of reservoir, it carries two 330 kV lines, shore to shore distance there is 1 kilometre.
Rigas HES is an important part of Riga's development. It is the primary source of electricity in Riga, while Riga reservoir is a source of tap water for the majority of Riga residents. In addition, the power plant is used as a compensation plant for TEC2 thermal power plant to regulate voltage in electrical networks and to compensate the power deficiencies; the power plant is operated by Latvenergo
Loccum Abbey is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake. Originating as a foundation of Count Wilbrand of Hallermund, Loccum Abbey was settled from Volkenroda Abbey under the first abbot, Ekkehard, in 1163. An ancient account describes it as being "in loco horroris et vastæ solitudinis et prædonum et latronum commorationis". Loccum quickly grew wealthy and was under the direct protection of the Pope and the Emperor as an Imperial abbey, it was a Roman Catholic monastery run by the Cistercians. In the 16th century in Protestant Reformation it became Lutheran. By 1700 the abbot of Loccum was permitted to marry and the Loccum Hof was built at Hanover to accommodate his spouse; the monastery retained its property and wealth until the agrarian reforms of the 19th century, when it was included in the territory of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, otherwise Hanover. Since 1891 the monastery has operated as a Protestant seminary and academy, a tradition going back to around the start of the 19th century.
The title of "abbot" is retained, anomalously. The community today consists of between four and eight members, most of whom are in holy orders. In addition the Lutheran Bishop of Hanover and the Director of Studies of the seminary are members ex officio; the abbot and prior are chosen from among the members. The abbey is known for its well preserved monastic buildings from the late Romanesque period with church and associated rooms, chapter-house, dormitory, refectory and lay-brothers' wing, as well as the various service buildings; the buildings as a whole are considered of equal architectural worth with Maulbronn Abbey and Bebenhausen Abbey. The monastery's ponds and woods throw an interesting light on the abbey's medieval economy; the abbey church of Saints Mary and George – now St. George's parish church – was built between 1230/40 to 1280. Gerhard Wolter Molanus Just Christopherus Böhmer Georg Wilhelm Ebell Christoph Heinrich Chappuzeau Johann Christoph Salfeld August Ludwig Hoppenstedt, vacant till 1832 Friedrich Rupstein Gerhard Uhlhorn Georg Hartwig August Marahrens Johannes Lilje Eduard Lohse Horst Hirschler Valdemar of Denmark ^ Quoted in the "Catholic Encyclopedia" without a reference.
Hirschler and Berneburg, Ernst, 1980. Geschichten aus dem Kloster Loccum. Studien, Dokumente. Hanover. Siegmund, Johannes Jürgen, 2003. Bischof Johannes Lilje, Abt zu Loccum. Eine Biographie.. Göttingen. Official website Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Loccum". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Loccum". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton