The Karamojong or Karimojong are an ethnic group of agro-pastoral herders living in the north-east of Uganda. Their language is known as Karamojong or Karimojong, is part of the Nilo-Saharan language group; the Karamojong live in the southern part of the region in the north-east of Uganda, occupying an area equivalent to one tenth of the country. According to anthropologists, the Karamojong are part of a group that migrated from present-day Ethiopia around 1600 A. D. and split into two branches, with one branch moving to present day Kenya to form the Kalenjin group and Maasai cluster. The other branch, called Ateker, migrated westwards. Ateker further split into several groups, including Turkana in present-day Kenya, Dodoth, Jie and Kumam in present-day Uganda Jiye and Toposa in southern Sudan all of them together now known as the "Teso Cluster" or "Karamojong Cluster", it is said that the Karamojong were known as the Jie. The name Karamojong derived from phrase "ekar ngimojong", meaning "the old men can walk no farther".
According to tradition, the peoples now known as the Karamojong Cluster or Teso Cluster are said to have migrated from Abyssinia between the 1600 and 1700 AD as a single group. When they reached the area around the modern Kenyan-Ethiopian border, they are said to have fragmented into several groups including those that became Turkana and the Dodoth; the group that became known as the Toposa continued to present day southern Sudan. The Turkana settled in Kenya where they are now and today's Jie of Uganda are thought to have split from them, moving up the escarpment into today's Kotido District; the main body continued southwards consisting of seven groups or clans who settled in today's southern Karamoja merging to become the three clans now existing: the Matheniko in the east around Moroto mountain, the Pian in the south and the Bokora in the west. However, a significant sized group went west and formed the Iteso, the Kumam, the Langi, it was this group who were said to have used the phrase "the old men can walk no farther".
Related to Turkana: in the Karamojong language, the people and the language have the convenient prefixes ŋi- and ŋa- respectively. Lack of a prefix indicates the land. All the above-mentioned branches from Ateker speak languages that are mutually intelligible.. The main livelihood activity of the Karamojong is herding livestock, which has social and cultural importance. Crop cultivation is a secondary activity, undertaken only in areas. Due to the arid climate of the region, the Karamojong have always practiced a sort of pastoral transhumance, where for 3–4 months in a year, they move their livestock to the neighboring districts in search of water and pasture for their animals; the availability of food and water is always a concern and affects the Karamojong's interaction with other ethnic groups. The dominant feature of Karamojong society is their age system, based on generation; as successive generations have an increasing overlap in age, this leads logically to a breakdown of the system, which appears to have occurred after rules were relaxed in the nineteenth century among their close neighbours, the Jie.
However, the Karamojong system is flexible enough to contain a build-up of tension between generations over a cycle of 50 years or so. When this can no longer be resolved peacefully, the breakdown in order leads to a switch in power from the ruling generation to their successors and a new status quo; the next changeover is expected around 2013. As both a rite of passage into manhood, as well as a requirement for engagement, a young Karamojong man is required to wrestle the woman he desires to marry. If he is successful in winning the wrestling match against the woman, he is now considered to be a man and is permitted to marry the woman; this ensures that the man will be strong enough to protect his wife. After a successful match, the dowry negotiations are allowed to commence. In an instance where the young man is unable to defeat the woman in the wrestling match, he will not be considered by his people to be a man and will leave to marry a woman from a different people-group where a test of strength is not required.
If a non-Karamojong man desires to marry a Karamojong woman, he is required to go through this ceremony. The Karamojong have been involved in various conflicts centered on the practice of cattle raids; the Karamojong are in constant conflict with their neighbors in Uganda and Kenya due to frequent cattle raids. This could be due to a traditional belief that the Karamojong own all the cattle by a divine right, but because cattle are an important element in the negotiations for a bride and young men use the raids as a rite of passage and way of increasing their herds to gain status. In recent years the nature and the outcome of the raids have become violent with the acquisition of AK47s by the Karamojong; the Ugandan government have attempted to broker deals for weapons amnesties, but the number of cattle the Karamojong have wanted per gun has proved too steep for any meaningful agreement to be made. UGPulse.com articles on the Karamojong everyculture.com - Karamojong
The Kakwa people are found in north-western Uganda, south-western South Sudan, north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west of the White Nile river. The Kakwa people are a small minority but a part of the larger Karo people, an intermarried group that includes the Bari, Mundari and Nyangwara, their language, Kutuk na Kakwa, is an Eastern Nilotic language. The major cities of the Kakwa people are the city of Yei and Morobo County, Koboko District, Imgbokolo and Aba; the Kakwa people sometimes refer to themselves as "Kakwa Saliya Musala", translated directly as "kakwa three hills" a phrase they use to denote their'oneness' in spite of being politically dispersed among three countries. According to the Kakwa oral tradition, they migrated out of East Africa from the city of Kawa in between the third and fourth cataracts of the Nile. First into South Sudan, from there southwards into Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the Kakwa converted to Islam. They were annexed into Equitoria region claimed by the Egyptian Islamic ruler Khedive Ismail by his descendant Tewfik Pasha in 1889.
As the British colonial empire expanded into East Africa and Egypt, the region with Kakwa people became a part of the Uganda Protectorate. The Kakwa people rose to international prominence when General Idi Amin, of Kakwa ancestry, assumed the power in Uganda through a coup, he filled important military and civil positions in his administration with his ethnic group, Nubians. He arrested and killed officials from other ethnic groups such as the Acholi and Lango people, whom he doubted. Idi Amin supplied arms and financed the Sudanese Kakwa people in the first civil war of Sudan; the Kakwa officials in Idi Amin regime were accused of many humanitarian crimes. After Amin was deposed in 1979, many Kakwa people were killed in revenge killings, causing others to leave the area and fled to Sudan. However, they have now returned to their native areas in the West Nile region of northern Uganda. For most of the South Sudanese Civil War, the fighting was focused in the Greater Upper Nile region. After the clashes in Juba in 2016, the fighting shifted to the safe haven of Equatoria, where the bulk of SPLM-IO forces went for shelter.
Accounts point to both sides targeting civilians on ethnic lines between the Dinka and the dozens of ethnic groups among the Equatorians who are in conflict with the Dinka, such as the Karo, who include the Bari. Witnesses report Dinka soldiers threatening villagers that they will kill all Kakwa people for their alleged support to Machar and killing Pojulu people while sparing those who they find can speak Dinka. A UN investigation said rape was being used a tool of ethnic cleansing and Adama Dieng, the U. N.'s Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, warned of genocide after visiting areas of fighting in Yei. The traditional Kakwa livelihood has been based on cultivating corn, cassava and cattle; the traditional villages of Kakwa are linked with male forming councils of elders. Polygyny is accepted, the Islamic traditions are a part of the Kakwa people lives. Equatorians-Dinka fighting
Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society. Such a disintegration may be abrupt, as in the case of Maya civilization, or gradual, as in the case of the fall of the Western Roman Empire; the subject of societal collapse is of interest in such fields as history, sociology, political science, more complex-systems science. Common factors that may contribute to societal collapse are economical, environmental and cultural, disruptions in one domain sometimes cascade into others. In some cases a natural disaster may precipitate a collapse. Other factors such as a Malthusian catastrophe, overpopulation or resource depletion might be the proximate cause of collapse. Significant inequity may combine with lack of loyalty to established political institutions and result in an oppressed lower class rising up and seizing power from a smaller wealthy elite in a revolution; the diversity of forms that societies evolve corresponds to diversity in their failures. Jared Diamond suggests that societies have collapsed through deforestation, loss of soil fertility, restrictions of trade and/or rising endemic violence.
The decline of the Roman Empire is one of the events traditionally marking the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the European Middle Ages. Throughout the 5th century, the Empire's territories in western Europe and northwestern Africa, including Italy, fell to various invading or indigenous peoples in what is sometimes called the Barbarian invasions, although the eastern half still survived with borders intact for another two centuries; this view of the collapse of the Roman Empire is challenged, however, by modern historians who see Rome as transforming from the Western Empire into barbarian kingdoms as the Western Emperors delegated themselves out of existence, the East transforming into the Byzantine Empire, which only fell in 1453 AD. North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Bedouin tribes of Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become arid desert.
In the brutal pillaging that followed Mongol invasions, the invaders decimated the populations of China, the Middle East, Islamic Central Asia. Mongol leaders, such as Timur, destroyed many cities, slaughtered thousands of people and did irreparable damage to the ancient irrigation systems of Mesopotamia; these invasions transformed a settled society to a nomadic one. Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. Smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlán alone, including the emperor, Peru in the 1530s, aiding the European conquerors; some believe that the death of up to 95% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases although new research suggests tuberculosis from seals and sea lions played a significant part. Variolous matter was included in the ship inventories of the Australian first settlement, a smallpox epidemic spread across the continent 3 years after European settlement.
Societal collapse of many indigenous cultures has occurred as a result of European imperialism in various parts of the globe in areas where European settler communities took possession of land once held by native peoples, in Latin America and North America, in Australasia. The effects of this dispossession are still evident in many of the problems confronting indigenous cultures, including alcoholism, high rates of incarceration, suicide rates and fraternal violence; the Greek historian Polybius, writing in The Histories blamed the decline of the Hellenistic world on low fertility rates: In our time all Greece was visited by a dearth of children and a decay of population, owing to which the cities were denuded of inhabitants, a failure of productiveness resulted, though there were no long-continued wars or serious pestilences among us…. For this evil grew upon us and without attracting attention, by our men becoming perverted to a passion for show and money and the pleasures of an idle life, accordingly either not marrying at all, or, if they did marry, refusing to rear the children that were born, or at most one or two out of a great number, for the sake of leaving them well off or bringing them up in extravagant luxury.
In a speech to Roman nobles, Emperor Augustus commented on the low birthrates of the Roman elite: How otherwise shall families continue? How can the commonwealth be preserved if we neither marry nor produce children? You are not expecting some to spring up from the earth to succeed to your goods and to public affairs, as myths describe, it is neither pleasing to Heaven nor creditable that our race should cease and the name of Romans meet extinguishment in us, the city be given up to foreigners,—Greek or barbarians. We liberate slaves chiefly for the purpose of making out of them as many citizens as possible. Upon the establishment of the Roman Empire, Augustus introduced legislation designed to increase the birthrate of the Roman nobility. There are three main types of collapse: Reversion/Simplification: A society's adaptive capacity may be reduced by either a rapid change in population or societal complexity, destabilizing its institutions and causing massive shifts in population and other social
The Kiga people, or Abakiga, are an ethnic group located in northern Rwanda and southern Uganda. The Kiga speak, they are sometimes referred to as the Kiga, while the singular form is Omukiga. Additionally, a large number of Bakiga were still living in Rwanda at the time of European colonization. An Anglo-German Agreement signed in Brussels on 14 May 1910, modified part of the boundary between British and German territories established as the parallel of one degree south latitude by the treaty of 1890. Modified were the sectors between the Congo tripoint and the junction of the Kakitumba and Kagera, comprising the present Rwanda-Uganda boundary, between the junction and the second crossing of the parallel of one degree south latitude by the Kagera, comprising the western segment of the present Tanzania-Uganda boundary. Details of the final delimitation and demarcation of the Rwanda-Uganda boundary between the Congo tripoint of Sabinio and the southwestern branch of the Tshinzinga are given in an Anglo-German Protocol signed at Kamwezi on 30 October 1911.
Therefore, many Bakiga became Ugandans by de facto in 1911 when the current international boundaries of Uganda were formally finalized. The Kiga people are believed to have originated in Rwanda as mentioned in one of their folk songs - Abakiga twena tukaruga Rwanda, omu Byumba na Ruhenjere, - meaning that all of us Bakiga, we came from Rwanda in Byumba and Ruhenjere. Both Byumba and Ruhengeri are Rwandan cities; the Bakiga are believed to be the descendants of Kashyiga, who came to be called Kakiga son of Mbogo from the small Kingdom of Bumbogo in Rwanda later. He came to form the present community of the Bakiga of Kigezi as a result of immigration. Before 1700 A. D. Rwanda is believed to have been occupied by the Twa people, was on occupied by the second immigration of the Hutu people, the third was the Tutsi. Rwanda under one ruler called the Mwami, he was known as Omukama. Among the Bakiga, the ruling person was therefore named Mukama, equivalent to Mwami in other parts of Rwanda; the name Mukama was not a name, but rather the title of a Ruler.
But on it came to be recognised as a name, implying to one ruling man. In the Bakiga culture, the name was attributed to GOD as LORD. Among the Bakiga, the name Mukama is not a female name. There are not many, it is a name, reserved to be used in the family of the ruling clan, the Bamuhutu, who possess the inheritance powers. If there is any person bearing the name Mukama, he must be a Bamuhutu a Mungura/Mwitira, or belong to the royal clan of the Bamuhutu. Not in Rwanda among the Tutsi who took over the Kingdom after Mbogo had been defeated, did they dare to use the name Mukama because it signified a more fundamental power than they had assumed. Similar names could be like Byamukama, Womukama, Bainomukama and so on. Therefore, the title for the King in Rwanda remained Mwami, whereas in the Rukiga they continued to use the title Mukama. In the first stages of the formation of the Kingdom of Rwanda, the major states were Bumbogo and Rukoma; each of these states was represented by a clan chief. The first Mwami was Mbogo of the small state of Bumbogo.
At that time, the Hutu and Twa ethnic groups were all present in Rwanda, living side by side. Though these three major groups stood out, their indigenous clans remained as the point of reference due to their totems. Mbogo, who belonged to the Abungura clan, today known as Abahitira clan, is believed to have been conquered by his friend Kirima of the Abanyiginya clan. Kirima accused Mbogo of mistreating the people, Kirima promised he would be a better chief, though he could not claim to be a King or Umwami. Kirima is believed to have made progress, but his time was short lived by the first invasion of Bunyoro, led by Cwa I son of Nyabwongo; until now, the King, is not identified with any tribe, but rather with the clan of the Abahitira. He was old and did not want to fight Kirima, his son Kashyiga fled to the north, trying to regroup so he could fight. The departure of Kakiga left a big wound to the state of Bumbogo; because Kakiga fled with the royal drum Kamuhagama, Kirima could never claim to be King.
The newly established Kingdom was taken over by sympathizers of the Tutsi king Kirima. But came the first of two invasions of Banyoro under Kirima's successor Mukobanya. In the Rwandan history, Kirima is known as Cyirima I Rugwe. In contrast to the classic chronology, modern historians dispute that his successor, Kigeri I Mukobanya, was his son, they rather insist that he was son of the king of Bugesera, a kingdom located south of Kigali ruled by the clan of Abahondogo. Cyirima stole his wife, it is assumed that she was pregnant with Mukobanya. At the reign of Cyirima, Mukobanya became a great warrior because he could annex Bumbogo and Rukoma among others, expanding the Rwandan territory from a few hills to a large territory. During his own reign, he inflicted a strong defeat to the mighty Banyoro army, it had to withdraw from Rwanda, they defeated him. Mukobanya was the first true expansionist king of Rwanda, but his acceptance as king seems to have been a result of his bravery. In t
Cevin Soling is an American writer, philosopher, music producer and artist. He has two graduate degrees from Harvard University. Soling writes articles and books in addition to producing documentaries, short films, feature films that engage in social critique, he is president of Spectacle Xemu Records. Soling produced and directed the well-received documentary The War on Kids, which argues that American schools are failing to educate and that perceptions of the dangers posed by and to children have become distorted; the New York Times described the film as “a shocking chronicle of institutional dysfunction.” It was honored as the best educational documentary of its year at the New York Independent Film and Video Festival, received accolades from Variety and The Huffington Post, among others. He appeared as a guest on The Colbert Report to discuss the film. Soling's other notable works include the following documentaries and animated shorts: A Hole in the Head, Urine: Good Health, Boris the Dog, The Bill Johnson Show, Great Moments in Rock, Captain Stickman vs The Color Black.
Cevin Soling was born in New York Hospital in New York City, grew up in Scarsdale, New York. His father, Chester Soling, was an architect and real estate developer who founded The Soling Program at Syracuse University, he attended the University of Michigan, as well as Union College, ended up majoring in English. Cevin wrote and directed the short animated film Boris the Dog, which aired on MTV in 1998 and on the BBC, it won the "Premio Nuovo" award at the Williamsburg Brooklyn Film Festival. It aired as part of MTVs Cartoon Sushi and on the BBC His short films Captain Stickman and Destruction were selected for the 2006 Chicago Indiefest; the Bill Johnson Show, an animated series written and created by Soling, was featured in Spike and Mike's Sick and Twisted Animation Festival, as well as in the Shout Factory's Caught in the Act video compilations. Soling was executive producer for the animated short Great Moments in Rock, he was executive producer for the 1998 independent feature film Relax...
It's Just Sex, shown on HBO and Showtime. Urine: Good Health Soling Executive produced this hour-long documentary directed by Eli Kabillio about urine therapy; this unconventional and controversial practice, which involves the use of one’s own urine for health benefits, has been employed throughout history by people around the world and is one of the oldest modalities of health care. This documentary objectively explores the claims of the users and proponents of urine therapy and the views of some of the world’s preeminent doctors and researchers regarding the medical uses of urine; the War on the War on Drugs Cevin was writer and producer of the film The War on the War on Drugs which won the award for best experimental feature film at the New York International Independent Film and Video Festival in 2005, as well as the High Times Stoney award for best documentary. It won the "Clear Creek" Honorable Mention Award at the Winslow International Film Festival; the film was acquired for worldwide DVD distribution by The Disinformation Company.
A Hole in the Head In 1998, he produced the documentary A Hole in the Head on the history of trepanation. It was broadcast on The Learning Channel, it won the Best Documentary Award at the Atlantic City Film Festival and the Brooklyn International Film Festival. In 2008, the documentary found new life with a screening on April 30, at New York City's Anthology Film Archives, plus the rights of the movie reverted to Cevin, he made the movie available through mail order; the War on Kids In spring 2009, Cevin's documentary The War on Kids won "best educational documentary" for the New York International Independent Film and Video Festival. While the movie had a week-long run at New York City's Quad Cinema, Cevin was invited to appear on the Colbert Report in which Cevin explained how schools have been transformed into what are "effectively prisons"; the film screened at universities such as Harvard, has been reviewed in The New York Times and The Huffington Post. The documentary was featured on The Dr. Nancy Show on MSNBC and Soling was a guest on radio shows such as The Lionel Show on Air America, The Joe Reynolds Show on WOR, the Leonard Lopate Show on WNYC.
Ikland Ikland is a 2011 documentary about a journey into northern Uganda and visit with the notorious Ik people. It was produced by Soling, directed by Soling and David Hilbert; the Ik were famously described as sadistic monsters by anthropologist Colin Turnbull in his 1972 ethnographic book The Mountain People. Ikland examines Turnball's description within the context of the Iks' lives and circumstances, reveals the Ik in a more human way; the documentary was the Winner of the "Indie Spec Best Content in a Documentary" award at the 2011 Boston International Film Festival, was positively reviewed by Discover Magazine and Lonely Planet. Soling runs the New York City-based Spectacle Films, Inc. In 1994, Cevin worked with Robert Church to produce Church's Smile Zone album. In 1998, his band The Neanderthal Spongecake released The Side Effects of Napalm. Soling and keyboardist Bill Brandau produced the album along with backing from Buffalo, New York-based band Scary Chicken; the songs "This Thing" and the acoustic cover of "Metal Health" with Quiet Riot vocalist Kevin Dubrow both received extensive airplay on college and commercial radio in the United States.
The song "Tastes Like Chicken" has been played on the Dr. Demento show, the song "Buffalo" was featured in the closing credits of the A&E series Confessions of a Matchmaker. In addition to tours, the band had a large followin
Raiding known as depredation, is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose and is not intended to capture and hold a location but instead finish with the raiding force retreating to a previous defended position prior to enemy forces being able to respond in a coordinated manner or formulate a counter-attack. A raiding group may consist of combatants specially trained in this tactic, such as commandos, or as a special mission assigned to any general troops. Raids are a standard tactic in irregular warfare, employed by warriors, guerrilla fighters or other irregular military forces; some raids are large, for example the Sullivan Expedition. The purposes of a raid may include: to demoralize, confuse or exhaust the enemy to ransack, pillage or plunder to destroy specific goods or installations of military or economic value to free POWs to capture enemy soldiers for interrogation to kill or capture specific key persons to gather intelligence. Among many tribal societies, raiding was the most lethal form of warfare.
Taking place at night, the goal was to catch the enemy sleeping to avoid casualties to the raiding party. Cattle raiding was a major feature of Irish society in the Iron Age and forms the central plot of the historical epic Táin Bó Cúailnge; the traditional habit of Bedouin tribes of raiding other tribes, caravans, or settlements is known in Arabic as ghazzu. The Islamic prophet Muhammad made frequent use of raiding tactics, his first use of raids was during the caravan raids, his first successful raid was the Nakhla raid. In January 624 Muhammad ordered this raid to attack a Quraysh caravan and gather information During the Invasion of Thi Amr he ordered a raid on the Banu Muharib and Banu Talabah tribes after he received intelligence that they were going to raid the outskirts of Medina. One person was captured by Muslims during this raid. In August 627 he ordered the First Raid on Banu Thalabah, a tribe aware of the impending attack. So they lay in wait for the Muslims, when Muhammad ibn Maslamah arrived at the site, 100 men of the Banu Thalabah ambushed them, while the Muslims were making preparation to sleep, after a brief resistance killed all of Muhammad ibn Maslamah's men.
Muhammad ibn Maslamah pretended to be dead. A Muslim who happened to pass that way assisted him to return to Medina; the raid was unsuccessful. Small scale raiding warfare was common in Western European warfare of the Middle Ages. Much of a professional soldiers' time could be spent in "little war", carrying out raids or defending against them. Typical of this style of warfare was the mounted raid or chevauchée, popular during the Hundred Years War. Chevauchées varied in size from a few hundred men to armies of thousands, could range in scope from attacks on nearby enemy areas to the devastation of whole regions, such as that carried out by the Black Prince in Southern France in 1355; this last is notable not just for its success and scope but the fact that the raiders deliberately captured records in order to carry out a post-operational analysis of the impact of the raid on the enemy economy. The largest raids in history were the series undertaken during and following the Mongol invasion of Central Asia.
Examples of lesser scale raids include those staged by the Cossacks of the Zaporizhian Sich, the Grande Armée, cavalry raids that took place during the American Civil War such as Morgan's Raid, numerous examples of small group raids behind enemy lines that have taken place throughout all periods of history. In the operational level of war, raids were the precursors in the development of the Operational Manoeuvre Groups in the Soviet Army as early as the 1930s. Raiding by sea was known at the time of the Pharaohs, when the shipborne forces of the Sea Peoples caused serious disruption to the economies of the eastern Mediterranean. In the early Middle Ages, Viking raiders from Scandinavia attacked the British isles and Spain, attacking coastal and riverside targets. Much Viking raiding was carried out as a private initiative with a few ships to gain loot, but much larger fleets were involved as intent on extorting protection money as looting and pillaging. Raiding did not cease with the decline of the Viking threat in the 11th century.
It remained a common element of the medieval naval warfare. Extensive naval raiding was carried out by all sides during the Hundred Years War involving privateers such as John Hawley of Dartmouth or the Castilian Pero Niño. In the Mediterranean, raiding using oared galleys was common throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance and was a feature of the wars between the Christian powers and the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Raiding formed a major component of English naval strategy in the Elizabethan era, with attacks on the Spanish possessions in the New World. A major raid on Cadiz to destroy shipping being assembled for the Spanish Armada was carried out by Sir Francis Drake in 1587. During the Second World War, the British set up the Combined Operations Headquarters to organise harassing raids against the Germans in Europe; the first operation conducted by a "commando" formation, known as Operation Ambassador, took place in July 1940, but it was a small-scale operation that resulted in negligible success.
The next major raid was Operation Claymore, launched in March 1941 against the Lofoten Islands. Throughout the war there were many other operations of varied size, ranging from small scale operations like those undertaken by Z Special Unit against the Japanese in the Pacific, such as Project Opossum, to Operation Chariot – a raid on Saint-Nazaire – and the Dieppe Raid, a large scale raid employing about 6,000 so