The Ikarus 214 was a military aircraft produced in Yugoslavia in the early 1950s. Intended as a light reconnaissance-bomber, it was produced as a trainer and transport aircraft when the testing of the prototype showed it had insufficient performance for the reconnaissance-bomber role. A conventional, low-wing cantilever monoplane with twin tail, the Ikarus 214 was designed by Professor constructor Simo Milutinovic, first flew on 7 August 1949; the aircraft was of wooden construction, twin-engined, with a crew of two to four depending on the mission/role of the aircraft. The main landing gear wheels retracted into the engine nacelles of the two Ranger SVG-770C-B1 inverted V-12 piston engines. Serial production aircraft were powered by 2x Whitney R-1340AN-1 radial engines. Unlike production aircraft, the first prototype had fixed landing gear, due to delays in development of the retractable undercarriage. On the first test flight one engine failed, the pilot, Lieutenant Nikola Simic, attempted to return to the airport at Zemun, but the aircraft lost altitude and crashed near the Ikarus factory, killing the pilot.
Analysis concluded that the accident was caused by a combination of failure of the propeller feathering mechanism, high drag to the landing gear, small fin area, asymmetric thrust and limited engine power. The second prototype with the same engines, retractable landing gear and increased vertical tail surfaces flew in 1951; this aircraft was used, after flight test was completed, by the JRV until 10 October 1957. The revised version for photo-reconnaissance, designated Ikarus 214F, flew until 1959 when it was written off after an accident. A total of 22 aircraft, two prototypes and series production of only 20 meant the Ikarus 214 was not used, flight testing having revealed that the 214 could not meet the requirements of a light twin-engine bomber; the Ikarus 214AS trainer was used as a crew trainer for bomber pilots and navigators. The Ikarus 214D transport variant of the aircraft could carry up to 8 parachutists. Naval reconnaissance versions were limited, by a lack of suitable equipment, to mission in daylight and good weather conditions.
Two aircraft were equipped to carry out maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare as the Ikarus 214PP, Ikarus 214AM2. All Ikarus 214 aircraft were withdrawn from military service by 1967. Six aircraft were donated to the Aeronautical Union of Yugoslavia, continuing to fly in aero-clubs at Ljubljana, Novi Sad, Vrsac and Sarajevo, for transport and parachute jumps. All civilian 214s were withdrawn from service during the 1970s. Although not successful in its intended role the Ikarus 214 gained a good reputation from parachute jumpers at the aero-clubs. A single Ikarus 214 has been preserved at the Museum of Aviation at Belgrade Airport. Ikarus 214 prototype with Ranger SVG-770C-B1 inline engines, Ikarus 214D with Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 radial engines, Ikarus 214AS training aircraft, Ikarus 214F reconnaissance aircraft for photoreconnaissance, Ikarus 214PP anti-submarine aircraft, Ikarus 214АМ2 improved version of the anti-submarine aircraft. YugoslaviaYugoslav Air Force 570th Anti-Submarine Aviation Squadron 571st Anti-Submarine Aviation Squadron 679th Transport Aviation Squadron Data fromGeneral characteristics Crew: One or two pilots Capacity: 8 passengers Length: 11.20 m Wingspan: 16.20 m Height: 3.95 m Wing area: 29.80 m2 Empty weight: 3,965 kg Gross weight: 5,025 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1, 450 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 365 km/h Range: 1,080 km Service ceiling: 7,000 m Armament Sima Milutinović Aircraft of comparable role and era Siebel Si 204 Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 430. Уголок неба Бојан Б. Димитријевић "Југословенско ратно ваздухопловство 1942.-1992." Жутић. Н. И Бошковић. Л. Икарус - Икарбус: 1923 - 1998, Икарбус, Београд, 1999. Златко Рендулић, Авиони домаће конструкције после Другог светског рата, Лола институт, Београд, 1996. Год. Ђокић, Небојша. Домаћи авион "214". Аеромагазин. YU-Београд: ББ Софт. 59: 33–36. ISSN 1450-6068. Ikarus 214 Photos at Уголок неба www.ikarbas.rs www.mysity-military.com/Avijacija-i-PVO/Licna-karta-Ikarus-214.html www.aeroklub-sarajevo.ba/911.htm www.muzejrv.mod.gov.rs/pages_files/expo_files/motori.html www.aeroflight.co.uk/waf/yugo/af2/types/ikarus.htm
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Aeronautical Museum Belgrade
The Aeronautical Museum Belgrade known as the Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum, is a museum located in Surčin, the capital of Serbia. Founded in 1957, the museum is located adjacent to Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport; the current facility, designed by architect Ivan Štraus, was opened to the public on 21 May 1989. Construction of the present building of the museum began in the mid 1970s; the works dragged on, so it was only in the late 1988 that the setting of the first permanent exhibition began. The museum was ceremonially open in 1989. In 1975 JAT, the national flag carrier, donated 48 a of land for the museum and the museum purchased further 2.7 ha. The museum owns over 200 aircraft operated by the Yugoslav Air Force, Serbian Air Force, others, as well as aircraft flown by several civil airliners and private flying clubs, it owns the only known surviving example of the Fiat G.50. The most valuable collections are housed in geodesic glass building, with additional aircraft displayed on the surrounding grounds.
The museum displays wreckage of a downed USAF F-117 Nighthawk and F-16 Fighting Falcon, both shot down during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. In addition, the collection consists of more than 130 aviation engines, more radars, various aeronautical equipment, over 20,000 reference books and technical documentation as well as more than 200,000 photographs. New'Rocket and Radar' museum exhibition will be constructed. Existing missiles and radars in museum: P-15 Termit S-75 Dvina List of aerospace museums List of museums in Belgrade Museum review by TravelDriveRace History of the Museum at Jat Airways website Belgrade Aviation Museum Музеј ваздухопловства-Београд Званична интернет презентација Музеја ваздухопловства-Београд Aeronautical Museum-Belgrade Official internet presentation of Aeronautical Museum - Belgrade Virtual tour through museum
The RWD 23 was a Polish low-wing trainer aircraft of 1938, constructed by the RWD team, that remained a prototype. The aircraft was designed in 1938 to fill the gap in the Polish trainer aircraft, by creating a light low-wing trainer. All trainers built in series in Poland to that point were high-wing monoplanes, for example the RWD-8 or the various biplanes; the main designer was Andrzej Anczutin of the RWD bureau. Among the designers were Bronisław Żurakowski and Tadeusz Chyliński. Chyliński designed; the plane was over 100 kg lighter. Low power output and simple wooden construction would make it cheap and economical in service, therefore it might replace the RWD-8 in aeroclubs; the first prototype was flown in early 1939 in Warsaw by E. Przysiecki, it underwent factory trials in June 1939 it was given to tests to the Aviation Technical Institute. It was destroyed in the first days of World War II, in September 1939; the plane was found as successful, it could perform basic aerobatics. The second improved prototype was under construction when the war broke out, but it was not completed.
The LOPP paramilitary organization ordered a series of 10 aircraft, that were not completed due to the war. Wooden construction low-wing cantilever monoplane, conventional in layout, with a fixed landing gear and open cockpits. Fuselage semi-monocoque, rectangular in cross-section, plywood-covered. Single-piece trapezoid wings with rounded tips, single-spar and canvas covered, fitted with flaps. Conventional tail of a shape typical to RWD designs, like RWD 8, canvas covered. Two open cockpits in tandem, with individual windshields and twin controls. Rear cockpit was raised a bit for a better view. Conventional fixed landing gear with main gear in aerodynamic covers. 62 hp Walter Mikron II inline engine in front, with two-blade wooden propeller. 90 hp Cirrus Minor or 63 hp Avia 3 engines could to be installed. Fuel tank 45 l in a fuselage, cruise fuel consumption 14 l/h. ( Data from Polish Aircraft 1893-1939General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 8 m Wingspan: 11.1 m Mid wingspan: 1.9 m Wing area: 16 m2 Empty weight: 325 kg Gross weight: 550 kg Fuel capacity: 50 l Powerplant: 1 × Walter Mikron II 4-cylinder air-cooled inverted in-line piston engine, 48 kW or 1 x 47.7 kW Avia 3 or 1 x 67.1 kW Blackburn Cirrus MinorPerformance Maximum speed: 171 km/h at sea level Cruise speed: 145 km/h Stall speed: 65 km/h Range: 450 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Rate of climb: 2.083 m/s Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 8 minutes Wing loading: 34.4 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.081 kW/kg Aircraft of comparable role and era de Havilland Moth Minor ICAR Universal Yakovlev UT-2 Miles Hawk Trainer CSS-10 Photos and drawings at Ugolok Neba
De Havilland Gipsy Major
The de Havilland Gipsy Major or Gipsy IIIA is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, inline engine used in a variety of light aircraft produced in the 1930s, including the famous Tiger Moth biplane. Many Gipsy Major engines still power vintage aircraft types worldwide today. Engines were produced both by de Havilland in the UK, by the Australian arm of the company, de Havilland Australia, the latter modifying the design to use imperial measures rather than the original metric measurements; the engine was a modified Gipsy III, a de Havilland Gipsy engine modified to run inverted so that the cylinders pointed downwards below the crankcase. This allowed the propeller shaft to be kept in a high position without having the cylinders blocking the pilot's forward view over the nose of the aircraft. One initial disadvantage of the inverted configuration was the high oil consumption requiring regular refills of the external oil tank, this problem improved over time with the use of modified piston rings; the Major was a bored-out Gipsy III.
First built in 1932, total production of all Gipsy Major versions was 14,615 units. In 1934, when Geoffrey de Havilland needed a more powerful engine for his twin-engined transport aircraft, the four-cylinder Gipsy Major was further developed into the 200 hp six-cylinder Gipsy Six. In 1937 more power was needed for the new D. H.91 Albatross four-engined transatlantic mailplane, so two Gipsy Six cylinder banks were combined to form one 525 hp Gipsy Twelve 12-cylinder inverted Vee. In military service, the Gipsy Twelve became known as the Gipsy King and the Gipsy Six the Gipsy Queen; the advent of World War II cut short all civilian flying and after the war de Havilland was too busy concentrating on jet engines to put much energy into its piston engines. The Gipsy did not go without a fight though. In Canada the Gipsy Major was the engine of choice for the DHC1 Chipmunk trainer, which replaced the Tiger Moth in the RAF. By that time however, the Gipsy Major was eclipsed by the Blackburn Cirrus Major in Britain and the American Lycoming and Continental horizontally opposed engines abroad.
In its final supercharged form, the Gipsy Major used in helicopter applications delivered 220 hp. By 1945 the Gipsy Major had been cleared for a world record 1,500 hours Time between overhaul, surpassing its held world record of 1,260 hours TBO achieved in 1943. 1,000 hours TBO had earlier been achieved in 1938. Gipsy Major I Gipsy Major IC Higher compression ratio and maximum RPM for racing use. Gipsy Major ID Fuel pump added, plus screened ignition priming system. Gipsy Major IF Aluminium cylinder heads, 5.25:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major II Variable pitch propeller Gipsy Major 7 Military version of Gipsy Major 1D, increased climb RPM. Gipsy Major 8 Sodium cooled exhaust valves, cartridge starter for DHC Chipmunk. Gipsy Major 10 Electric starter option. Gipsy Major 30 Major redesign and stroke increased. 6.5:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major 50 Supercharged. 197 hp. Gipsy Major 200 Designed as a light helicopter engine. 200 hp. Gipsy Major 215 Turbo-supercharged helicopter engine. 220 hp. Alfa Romeo 110 Alfa Romeo licence production/derivative de Havilland L-375-1 US military designation for the Gipsy Major I IAR 4-G1 IAR licence produced in Romania Application list from Lumsden unless otherwise noted.
Many Gipsy Major engines remain in service today worldwide, in the United Kingdom alone 175 de Havilland Tiger Moths were noted on the Civil Aviation Authority register in September 2011 although not all of these aircraft were airworthy. Examples of the Gipsy Major are on display at the following museums: de Havilland Aircraft Museum Fleet Air Arm Museum Shuttleworth Collection Royal Air Force Museum Cosford Data from Jane's. Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled inverted inline piston aircraft engine Bore: 4.646 in Stroke: 5.512 in Displacement: 373.7 in³ Length: 48.3 in Width: 20.0 in Height: 29.6 in Dry weight: 300 lb Mk 1F to 322 lb Mk 1D Valvetrain: OHV Fuel system: Downdraught Hobson A. I.48 H3M or H1M Oil system: Dry sump, gear-type pump Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 122 hp at 2,100 rpm, 145 hp at 2,550 rpm Specific power: 0.39 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 5.25:1 or 6.0:1 Fuel consumption: 6.5 to 6.75 gph at 2,100 rpm Oil consumption: 1.75 pints per hour. Power-to-weight ratio: 0.48 hp/lb de Havilland Aircraft Museum Frank HalfordRelated development de Havilland Gipsy Comparable engines Alfa Romeo 110 Argus As 8 Blackburn Cirrus Major Elizalde Tigre IV Hirth HM 504 Menasco PirateRelated lists List of aircraft engines Wesselink, Theo.
De Nederlandse vliegtuigen. Haarlem: Romem. ISBN 90 228 3792 0. Royal Air Force Museum - Gipsy Major
The Ikarus Meteor is a long-span, all-metal sailplane designed and built in Yugoslavia in the 1950s. It competed in World Gliding Championships between 1956 and 1968 and was placed fourth in 1956; the Meteor was designed by the same duo, Boris Cijan and Stanko Obad, who had produced the Orao glider which had achieved third place in the 1950 WGC. They were generously funded by the Yugoslav government; the result was "... without doubt the most advanced sailplane of its time." In 1955 all gliders had wooden structures, with a few unstressed GRP parts. The optimum glide ratio of greater than 40:1 was good, but the high inter-thermal glide speed was exceptional; the Meteor was one of a group of mid-1950s gliders to use the NACA 6 series laminar flow airfoil first adopted by the Ross-Johnson RJ-5, which required careful attention to profile control and surface finish. In plan the wings are straight tapered with unswept leading edges and forward sweep on the trailing edge; the wing tips carries small, elongated bodies termed "salmons" to dampen tip vortices, as on the earlier Bréguet Mouette and has a constant 2° of dihedral.
Metal-skinned, the wing is built around a box spar within which the thickened skin is internally stiffened with span-wise stringers. The whole trailing edge carries control surfaces; these flaps can be raised by 11 °. Schempp-Hirth type airbrakes are fitted at mid-chord, just aft of the box spar at about one third span; the Meteor has a pod-and-boom style fuselage, with a long, single-piece canopy above the upper fuselage line, forward of the wing, under which the pilot sits in a reclined position. The under-wing, retractable monowheel undercarriage is assisted by a short, forward skid. Retraction is manual. Behind the wing the fuselage has a circular cross-section. There is a long, shallow fillet or sub fin between fuselage and fin, both straight edged, both rudder and fin extend well below the lower fuselage line to form a tail bumper; the rudder is horn balanced. Revisions increased rudder area; the high aspect ratio, straight tapered tailplane is mounted above the fuselage on the fillet forward of the fin's leading edge.
The elevators are aerodynamically balanced and carried a ground adjustable trim tab removed. The Meteor was competitively long lived. During that time glider construction moved decisively from wood to composites, but the open class metal Meteor was not out-classed, it fifth in 1965 and competed again in 1968, though only placed 27th. In 1958 the Meteor established two new international closed circuit speed records over 100 km and 300 km. Meteor 57 appears on the Croatian civil register in 2010. Meteor 60 YU-4103 is under reconstruction at the Museum of Aviation in Serbia but is not on public display. Meteor Original 1955 version. Meteor 57 1957 version. Meteor 60 1960 version: refined canopy-fuselage junction and rear fuselage. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1960-61 The World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs du MondeGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 8.05 m Wingspan: 20.0 m Wing area: 16.0 m2 Aspect ratio: 25.0 Airfoil: NACA 632-616.5 Empty weight: 376 kg Gross weight: 505 kg Max takeoff weight: 505 kg Performance Stall speed: 67 km/h Never exceed speed: 250 km/h Rough air speed max: 125 km/h Aerotow speed: 150 km/h Winch launch speed: 90 km/h Terminal velocity: with full air-brakes at max all-up weight 230 km/h g limits: +4 +1 at 252 km/h +5 at 153 km/h -2.5 at 144 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 40:1 at 90 km/h Rate of sink: 0.60 m/s best Wing loading: 31.5 kg/m2 Aircraft of comparable role and era Slingsby Skylark 3 Shenstone, B.
S.. G. Wilkinson; the World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs dans Le Monde. Zurich: Organisation Scientifique et Technique Internationale du Vol a Voile and Schweizer Aero-Revue. Pp. 9–13. Ogden, Bob. Aviation Museums and Collections of Mainland Europe. Air Britain Ltd. ISBN 978 0 85130 418 2. Partington, Dave. European registers handbook 2010. Air Britain Ltd. p. 526. ISBN 978-0-85130-425-0. Simons, Martin. Sailplanes 1945-1965. Königswinter: EQIP Werbung & Verlag GmbH. p. 182. ISBN 3 9807977 4 0. Taylor, John W R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1960-61. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. p. 411. "Final results WGC 1968". Sailplane & Gliding. 19: 294. August–September 1968. Sailplane & Gliding
The Hansa-Brandenburg C. I known as Type LDD, was a 2-seater armed single-engine reconnaissance biplane designed by Ernst Heinkel, who worked at that time for the parent company in Germany; the C. I had similarities with the earlier B. I, including inward-sloping interplane bracing struts. Like other early-war Austro-Hungarian reconnaissance aircraft, such as C-types of Lloyd or Lohner, the Type LDD had a communal cockpit for its crew; the C. I served in the Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops in visual- and photographic reconnaissance, artillery observation and light bombing duties from early spring 1916 to the end of World War I; the aircraft had good handling characteristics, steady introduction of more powerful engines in successive production batches enabled the improvement of performance and thus the continuing front-line service. Armament of the type consisted of a free-firing 8 mm Schwarzlose machine gun at the rear for the observer, at least in some aircraft for the pilot there was a similar fixed, non-synchronised forward-firing gun in a pod above the top wing.
This latter weapon was replaced in production examples by a synchronised 8 mm Schwarzlose gun on the port side of the fuselage. The normal bomb load for the C. I was 60 kg. Data fromAustro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War OneIn addition to 84 aircraft built by Hansa-Brandenburg, Phönix Flugzeugwerke, Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik A. G. and Aero made the type under licence in the following batches: Phönix Series 23 and 26 with 120 kW Austro-Daimler Series 27 with 140 kW Austro-Daimler Series 29 with 160 kW Austro-Daimler Series 29.5, 129, 229 and 329 with 150 kW Hiero 6 Series 429 with 170 kW Hiero 6Ufag Series 61, 64, 67 and 68 with 120 kW Austro-Daimler Series 63 with 120 kW Mercedes D. III Series 269 with 150 kW Austro-Daimler Series 69 with 150 kW Hiero Series 169 with 160 kW Benz Bz. IVa Series 369 with 170 kW HieroAero post-warAero A.14, Aero A.15 and Aero A.26 with Walter-built 138 kW BMW IIIaPoland In 1919-1920, fifteen aircraft, differing in construction and engines, were assembled by the Poles in Lviv RPL-III workshops, in 1920-1924 some fifteen were made in Kraków workshops.
After World War I, in 1918, 22 original Hansa-Brandenburg C. I seized. According to some publications, it was the first Polish aircraft to perform a combat flight on 5 November 1918, flown by Stefan Bastyr, they were used in Battle of Lemberg and Polish–Ukrainian War and Polish–Soviet War. 30 more aircraft were assembled or built by the Poles afterwards in Lviv and Kraków. Austria-HungaryAustro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops PolandPolish Air Force CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian Air Force Data from Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War OneGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 8.35 m Upper wingspan: 13.2 m Lower wingspan: 11.37 m Height: 32.33 m Empty weight: 860 kg Gross weight: 1,235 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hiero 6 water-cooled in-line piston engines, 108 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch wooden propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Service ceiling: 5,800 m Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 10 minutes 40 secondsArmament Guns: 1 or 2 × 8 mm Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 machine gun Bombs: up to 100 kg of bombs Aircraft of comparable role and era Albatros C.
I Armstrong Whitworth F. K.8 Royal Aircraft Factory R. E.8 Munson, Kenneth - Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914 - 1919 ISBN 0 7537 0918 X Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1918-1924. Warsaw: Lampart. ISBN 83-86776-34-X. A page about Hansa-Brandenburg C. I in Polish Air Force service