Ike: Countdown to D-Day
Ike: Countdown to D-Day is a 2004 American made-for-television historical war drama film aired on the American television channel A&E, directed by Robert Harmon and written by Lionel Chetwynd. Countdown to D-Day was filmed in New Zealand with the roles of British characters played by New Zealanders. Tom Selleck portrays General Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, popularly known by his nickname of "Ike"; the film deals with the difficult decisions he made leading to up to D-Day, including dealing with the varied personalities of his command: Lieutenant General Omar N. Bradley, US Army, Lieutenant General George S. Patton, US Army, General Bernard Montgomery, British Army and General Charles de Gaulle, Free French; the film does not have action sequences, focusing instead on the inner workings of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force that led to the successful D-Day invasion of World War II. Concentrating on decisions made by Eisenhower and the pressures brought to bear on him it includes his personal relationship with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his own Chief of Staff, Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, US Army.
The film is notable for being the only major production in which General Montgomery's portrayal concentrates on his role as a competent military professional, instead of focusing on his alleged personality disorders, while still showing his eccentricities. General Patton's complex personality is outlined in a brief set of scenes played by Gerald McRaney; the film omits Ike's relationship with Kay Summersby, his driver, though she appears in a scene where the general officers are viewing movie reels. She is portrayed as his driver when Ike visits US paratroopers on the eve of D-Day. Tom Selleck as Dwight D. Eisenhower James Remar as General Omar Bradley Gerald McRaney as George S. Patton George Shevtsov as General Charles de Gaulle Timothy Bottoms as Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith Ian Mune as Prime Minister Winston Churchill Bruce Phillips as General Bernard Law Montgomery Paul Gittins as Major General Henry Miller John Bach as Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory Nick Blake as Air Marshal Arthur W. Tedder Kevin J. Wilson as Admiral Bertram Ramsay Christopher James Baker as Group Captain James Stagg Bruce Hopkins as U.
S. Colonel at Savoy Gregor McLennan as Captain Chapman Paul Barrett as Major Wiatt Mick Rose as King George VI Carole Seay as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Brian Gidley as Chief Whip Mark Cirillo as Paul A. Hodgeson Catherine Boniface as Woman at Savoy Rachel Wallis as WAC Sgt. Stephen Brunton as Corporal Younger David Mackie as Projector Sergeant Andrew Robertt as 101st Lt. Robert Pollock as 101st Sgt. Craig Hall as 101st Corporal Clint Sharplin as 101st Paratrooper Millen Baird as 101st Private Churchill incorrectly refers to the Combined Bomber Offensive as "saturation bombing," an anachronistic term that can only be applied to RAF Bomber Command; the period term was "area bombing." The opening scene suggests that Great Britain and the United States had not considered the possibility of a supreme allied commander prior to planning the D-Day invasion. In fact, appointing supreme commanders for the various theaters was seen as a given as it had proved beneficial in the last days of World War I with the appointment of Ferdinand Foch in 1918 over the Allied forces in Western Europe.
The reason Eisenhower's appointment took some negotiation was the fact that the original supreme commander for the European Theater of Operations, Frank Maxwell Andrews, was killed in an airplane crash. The scene at the end of the film showing the visit to the 101st airborne troops is presented to the viewer as being on June 6, 1944; this particular gathering took place on the eve of D-Day on June 5, 1944, prior to the take-off to France. The airborne phase of Overlord began late in the evening of June 5 and into the early hours of June 6, thus by daylight on June 6 Allied airborne troops were on the ground in France. The film incorrectly talks about "DD" -- "duplex drive landing craft." No landing craft had DD drive. The "DD's" were Sherman tanks modified with a waterproof underbody and skirt, allowing the tank to float in calm water, a propeller to propel the tank from LCT launching craft to shore. On Omaha, most of them sank in rough seas; the raid by German torpedo boats on a large practice landing did happen, but did not involve DD and was extensively "hushed up."
See Exercise Tiger Tanks were deployed in Exercise Tiger, at least one being sunk during the German attack. It's now a War memorial at Slapton Ley, England, where the Exercise was conducted. Contrary to the film, LST's were not used on the initial hours of D-Day. General Montgomery's "dagger like thrust" into Berlin wasn't presented to Eisenhower before D-Day, it was part of his plan for operations following the breakout of Normandy and was presented during the first week of September. In fact the landings were enlarged from three beaches to five by Montgomery. In the film, Churchill said "no-one in Britain lives more than 150 miles from the sea". In fact, it's 65 miles; the movie depicts the incident which nearly torpedoed Overlord. In a drunken scene at a restaurant, Major General Henry Jervis Friese Miller — a West Point classmate of Eisenhower and his chief of the Materiel Command, USAFE — blurted out the general time and place of Overlord. A lieutenant of the 101st Airborne reported it up the chain of command.
Miller was sent home in his permanent establishment rank
Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance
Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance is a tactical role-playing video game developed by Intelligent Systems and Nintendo SPD, published by Nintendo for the GameCube home console in 2005. It is the ninth main installment in the Fire Emblem series, the third to be released in the west; as with previous installments, gameplay revolves around positioning characters on a battlefield to defeat an opposing force. If characters are defeated in battle, they are removed from the rest of the game; the story takes place in the continent Tellius, inhabited by the humanoid Beorc and the shapeshifting Laguz. The game begins; the mercenary Ike journeys to restore Crimea's heir Princess Elincia to the throne. Ike and his group travel across Tellius, allying with other countries to free Crimea from Daein's control and confronting racial tensions and long-standing resentment between the Beorc and the Laguz along the way. Path of Radiance began development for the GameCube after the overseas success of the Game Boy Advance game Fire Emblem, becoming the first home console entry in the series since Fire Emblem: Thracia 776.
The game is the first entry in the series to feature 3D graphics, full motion cutscenes, voice acting. The series' transition to 3D caused multiple difficulties for the developers; the localization team worked with Intelligent Systems to ensure the localization was as true to the original Japanese as possible. Upon release, the game received widespread critical acclaim for its gameplay and story, but several journalistic sites and magazines made negative comments about the game's graphics; the game debuted at the top of Japanese gaming charts, was considered to have sold well. A direct sequel for the Wii, Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn, was released in 2007 in North America and Japan, 2008 in Europe and Australia. Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance is a tactical role-playing video game in which players control protagonist Ike and a group of characters across multiple battle scenarios. At the game's opening, multiple difficulty settings can be chosen: in the Japanese version, the options are Normal and Maniac modes, while the western version has Easy and Hard modes.
In all modes, characters who fall in battle are permanently dead and removed from the rest of the game. If Ike falls in battle, the game will end and the stage must be restarted. Before entering battle, players can choose a certain number of characters to use from a roster of up to 46 characters; the roster grows as the game progresses and more characters are recruited, the number of characters able to be used varied between battles. During battle, players have access to two species: the shape-shifting Laguz. Beorc use magic, while Laguz use close-quarters melee attacks. Laguz have a gauge which fills up during battle, filling at varying speed depending on their status and whether they are under attack; when the gauge is full, they transform into their animal form for a set number of turns, becoming far more powerful than Beorc characters. However, they are unable to attack while in human form, are vulnerable until they transform again; the time between transformations can be shortened using special items.
Playable Beorc characters are each assigned a character class. These classes how far they can move on the battlefield; some classes are exclusive to certain characters: for example, the Ranger class and its skills are exclusive to Ike. Laguz characters have different movement speeds and strengths depending on their transformed form. Character skills are additional abilities; these classes can be tailored to a degree, with some skills available to award to any character, but skills inherent to a particular character cannot be removed or changed, the amount of skills able to be awarded is restricted by the character's skill limit. Characters used in battle gain experience points, with larger amounts of experience being awarded depending on a character's performance in battle. Bonus experience is awarded by fulfilling secondary requirements outlined at the beginning of the level. Once a character earns 100 experience points, they automatically levels up. At level 21, a character's class is automatically upgraded.
This upgrade can happen at level 10 if the player uses an item called a Master Seal. Once the class changes, the character receives set stat bonuses, their level is reset to level 1, while carrying over all the random stat increases aggregated up to that point. After promotion, the level-cap is 20, no character can earn experience points after achieving this level. Between battles, characters can be managed at a Base. In this location, skills can be assigned, weapons can be traded and forged, bonus experience points earned in battle can be given to characters. There is a Support system accessible through the Base where player characters can talk with each other and improve their relationships; these conversations improve affinity between characters and grant stat boots in battle. Supports are granting the best bonuses. Battles take place on a grid-based map with multiple teams: the player team, the enemy team, allied characters, neutral characters. A character's class and the map's terrain can affect how far they can move and the range of their attacks.
Gameplay is turn-based, with the player moving their characters during the player phase. Once the player's turn ends, the enemy phase begins. If allied or neutral character are present, their phases will follow. During each phase, a character can follow one command. Once this is done, the unit turns gray and cannot be moved or command
1981 Pacific typhoon season
The 1981 Pacific typhoon season was a above average season that produced 29 tropical storms, 13 typhoons and two intense typhoons. The season ran throughout 1981, though most tropical cyclones develop between May and October; the season's first named storm, developed on March 12 while the final storm, dissipated on December 29. Tropical cyclones only accounted for 12 percent of the rainfall in Hong Kong this season, the lowest percentage for the protectorate since 1972; the scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can result in a cyclone having two names; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 1-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has been given a name by the JTWC.
The Japan Meteorological Agency monitors the whole basin and uses the 10-minute sustained wind scale. Moreover, the JTWC assigns a number with a "W" suffix when a system has strengthened into a tropical depression; the season started with Freda, which became the fourth March typhoon for the basin since 1959. The system passed west of Wake Island before dissipating on March 17. Gerald formed in mid-April near an upper level low, recurved just east of Guam bringing the island heavy rainfall. Holly formed in the middle of the tropical Pacific Ocean in late April, dissipated far from land on May 7. Ike was the first system to form in the South China Sea, living during the second week of June before recurving across Taiwan and becoming an extratropical cyclone. June formed during the third week of June, moved just east of Taiwan before approaching Japan as a nontropical cyclone. Kelly crossed the Philippines on July 1, moving into Vietnam on July 4. Lynn moved nearby the northern Philippines before making landfall in mainland China on July 7.
Maury tracked near Taiwan and Vietnam as a remnant low during the third and fourth weeks of July. Nina formed on the northeast fringe of Maury moving into mainland China on July 23, three days after Maury. Ogden moved into Japan at the end of July. Tropical Depression 11 formed in the tropical west Pacific, dissipating well east of Asia on August 2. Phyllis formed and remained southeast of Japan on August 3 and August 4. Roy meandered around the South China Sea between August 3 and August 9. Susan moved northwest through the open western Pacific during the second week of August. Thad moved north-northeast through its life cycle, moving through Japan on August 23. Vanessa moved northeast through the open western Pacific in mid-August. Warren moved west-northwest through Hainan Island and northern Vietnam during the third week of August. Agnes moved close to eastern China before dissipating on September 1. Bill recurved southeast of Japan during the first week of September. Clara moved west-northwest into mainland China during the third week of September.
Doyle moved through the central Pacific during the third week of September. Elsie recurved south of Japan during the beginning of October. Fabian moved westward through the Philippines into Vietnam during the second week of October. Gay recurved near the Japanese coast on October 21 and 22. A tropical depression moved west-northwest into Vietnam on November 11. Hazen moved across the Central Philippines into mainland China by November 23. Irma moved across the northern Philippines and south of Taiwan during late November. Jeff recurved east of mainland Asia during late November. Kit moved erratically westward towards the Philippines during mid-December. Lee moved across the central Philippines, dissipating across the South China Sea on December 28. Freda was the first tropical cyclone in the western Pacific in 1981 and the fourth typhoon to occur in March since 1959; the incipient disturbance was nearly stationary near the Gilbert Islands for a few days, before drifting northwest and intensifying.
During the morning of the March 11 it was upgraded to a tropical depression. It tracked along the periphery of the subtropical ridge with slow development for the next few days. On March 14 intensification became more rapid and Freda became a typhoon. Passing 120 kilometres west of Wake Island with maximum sustained winds of 100 knots intensity, the island sustained wind gusts to typhoon force and waves to 6 metres; as the typhoon moved more northeast, the cyclone weakened, Freda was absorbed by March 17 into another extratropical cyclone. This cyclone formed in response to a mid to upper level cyclone southeast of Ponape on April 12. Thunderstorms developed near the upper level system, an outflow pattern was present on satellite imagery, but a surface circulation did not materialize until April 15; the system became a tropical depression by that night. Steady intensification was seen until around midday on April 17 when a new upper level high formed to its east, inducing southerly vertical wind shear.
Weakening began while the storm was located about 130 kilometres east of Guam late on April 18. Moderate to heavy rainfall did occur on the island, with 76.2 millimetres to 127 millimetres being measured. After passing Guam, the remaining thunderstorm activity sheared away, leaving
Interstate 290 (Illinois)
Interstate 290 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that runs westwards from the Chicago Loop. The portion of I-290 from I-294 to its east end is called the Dwight D. Eisenhower Expressway. In short form, it is known as "the Ike" or the Eisenhower. Before being designated the Eisenhower Expressway, the highway was called the Congress Expressway because of the surface street, located in its path and onto which I-290 runs at its eastern terminus in the Chicago Loop. I-290 connects I-90 in Rolling Meadows with I-90/I-94 near the Loop. North of I-355, the freeway is sometimes known locally as Illinois Route 53, or Route 53, since IL 53 existed before I-290. However, it now merges with I-290 at Biesterfield Road. In total, I-290 is 29.84 miles long. This section runs from Rolling Meadows to Addison, it is the portion of I-290 more locally known as "Route 53." Here, I-290 runs above-grade through Schaumburg and Elk Grove Village, at or below grade through Itasca and Addison. The northern five miles of this highway were reconstructed in 2003–04.
A left shoulder and an auxiliary lane between ramps were added, as well as improved lighting. The highway is four lanes wide north of the Elgin–O'Hare Expressway / Thorndale Avenue, five lanes wide with a wide left shoulder south to the exit to I-355. Between mile markers 0 and 4, IL 53 overlaps this section of the Eisenhower Expressway; this section runs from Addison to Hillside. It took its name; the highway runs at-grade or above-grade for this length. U. S. Route 20 overlaps I-290 around Elmhurst from mile markers 12 to 13, runs parallel to the rest of this section between mile markers 7 and 18; this section of I-290 varies in width from two lanes at the ramp east from the I-290/I-355 split, to three lanes between I-355 and US 20, to three lanes plus two exit lanes at US 20/IL 64. After exit 13B, the highway reverts to three through traffic lanes. Exit 15 to southbound I-294 is a frequent point of congestion due to ramp traffic backing up onto the mainline highway as long as two miles; this is because the ramp is not isolated from the mainline, only one lane in width, is a low-speed ramp, is short while carrying a high volume of truck traffic south to Indiana from North Avenue.
Additionally, the sudden appearance of the exit tends to cause accidents when cars in the center lane try to aggressively turn into the right lane at the mouth of the I-294 exit. There is a dangerous high-volume weaving situation at the end of the ramp to I-294 with southbound I-294 traffic exiting to westbound I-88; as of 2006, there are no plans to overcome any of these problems with new construction. The western three miles of this section are blacktop, while east of IL 83 the original concrete is still in place; this section of I-290 is seven miles long, it runs from Hillside to the western border of Chicago. This section is sometimes referred to as "The Avenues"; as of 2002, it is the third-most-congested stretch of highway in the Chicago area, behind the Circle Interchange area and the intersection of the Dan Ryan Expressway and the Chicago Skyway. It is known for having a high volume of traffic on ramps through the Avenues, high volumes of traffic on left-side ramps in Forest Park and Oak Park.
I-290 runs above grade west of Mannheim Road, at or below grade east of Mannheim Road. Eastbound at Mannheim Road, the highway splits into one local lane. After Mannheim Road, the highway narrows to three lanes in width, causing mile-long backups, it remains three lanes to Austin Boulevard. Westbound, I-290 is three lanes wide to Mannheim Road, four lanes wide to the I-88/I-290 split. Exits at Harlem Avenue and Austin Boulevard are Inverted single-point urban interchanges, with left offramps and onramps; these cause backups as trucks switch lanes to exit, a large volume of traffic enters on the left side of the highway. In 2001–02, this section between mile markers 15 and 18 was reconstructed in the first phase of an attempt to untangle the "Hillside Strangler", adding the local lanes and extra on-ramp to I-290; the second phase, reconstruction of the highway between mile markers 18 and 23, is still in the preliminary engineering phase of construction as of April 2009. The easternmost section of I-290 is seven miles long and runs through the city of Chicago to the terminus at I-90/I-94.
It runs below grade for its entire length. This highway is four lanes wide in both directions for its entire length, most on-ramps and off-ramps are located just two blocks apart. Therefore, an exit in one direction may be marked one street, while the same exit in the other direction may be marked another though the streets are only a block apart; this configuration results in most exits on this portion of road being marked as A/B exits. Eastbound congestion is lighter here than through the "Avenues" limited to congestion on the tight onramps to the Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways at the eastern terminus or blind onramps at Kostner Avenue and at Homan Avenue. Westbound, congestion
Ike Gyokuran was a Japanese Bunjinga painter and poet. She was famous in Kyoto, during her lifetime, she remains a celebrated artist in Japan, her parents gave her the birth name Machi. As a child, she was given the art-name Gyokuran, most by her painting teacher Yanagisawa Kien. Gyokuran married fellow artist Ike no Taiga, she is best known by her married name Ike Gyokuran, her surname before marriage was Tokuyama, she is known as Tokuyama Gyokuran. Gyokuran began to learn to paint at an early age under famous literati painter Yanagisa Kien, a regular at her mother's teahouse, it is that he was the one to introduce her to Ike no Taiga, among his students. Gyokuran's husband Taiga taught her the painting style of the nanga movement, a Japanese version of a Chinese style. Gyokuran, in turn, taught her husband poetry in the Japanese waka style, in which she was proficient; the couple were renowned for their eccentricity. They created art together, mutually influencing each other, were known to play music together for leisure, as equals.
This was unusual in a country where women were still considered inferior to men. It is noted that Gyokuran did not shave her eyebrows, as was customary for married women at the time. Gyokuran painted folding screens and sliding doors, handheld scrolls, hanging scrolls, fan paintings. "It was exceptionally rare for women in 18th century Japan to be painters," according to Anne d’Harnoncourt, director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Gyokuran and her husband Taiga dedicated themselves to making art, living on little money, sometimes collaborating on art pieces, she lived with Taiga in a small studio next to the Gion shrine in Kyoto. Gyokuran created folding screens, handheld scrolls, hanging scrolls, fan paintings, she often painted small scenes, on which she inscribed her poems in calligraphy. In 1910, her verses were printed alongside a woodblock print of the Matsuya teahouse at the Gion Shrine in the Gion sanjo kashū. To this day, during Kyoto's yearly Jidai Matsuri, young women dress up as prominent female figures of Kyoto history, including Gyokuran.
"The Nanga Movement," Philadelphia Museum of Art
Ike no Taiga
Ike no Taiga was a Japanese painter and calligrapher born in Kyoto during the Edo period. Together with Yosa Buson, he perfected the bunjinga genre; the majority of his works reflected his passion for classical Chinese culture and painting techniques, though he incorporated revolutionary and modern techniques into his otherwise traditional paintings. As a bunjin, Ike was close to many of the prominent social and artistic circles in Kyoto, in other parts of the country, throughout his lifetime. Ike no Taiga was born into a poor and humble family; the family moved into Kyoto proper some years before Taiga's birth to escape famine. His father found work at the silver mint, which granted his family some small degree of wealth, but he died when Taiga was three years of age. Taiga's widowed mother somehow managed to afford to provide him with good teachers, in all the classical Japanese and Chinese disciplines. At age six, he began receiving instruction in calligraphy and religious matters at the Manpuku-ji Zen temple.
He would continue to foster strong connections with this temple for the remainder of his life. By age fourteen, Taiga was distinguished calligrapher, he ran a small fan-painting shop in Kyoto, engraved artists' and collectors' seals as well. It was an encounter with Yanagisawa Kien, a major social and artistic figure of the time, that initiated Taiga's introduction to the world of the bunjin. Chinese painter Yi Fujiu, whose main activity was selling horses in Nagasaki, taught Chinese literati painting that soon became the main model for Ike no Taiga, as reported in the I Fukyū Ike no Taiga sansui gafu published in 1803. Taiga studied painting and calligraphy under Kien beginning in 1738, he became quite fond of the eccentric, but ancient, practice of painting with fingertips and fingernails, became close friends with two other bunjin students, Kan Tenju and Kō Fuyō. By the age of twenty, Taiga considered himself a member of the literati, took the name "Ike," shortened from his family name "Ikeno", in emulation of the Chinese tendency for single-character names.
Taiga returned to his fan shop in the early 1740s. Though the bunjin lifestyle dictated an avoidance of commercialism, Taiga had no other source of income and so he continued to sell his works and various artistic services, much like his contemporary and friend Yosa Buson, he married an tea house proprietor in 1746, who went by the art-name Gyokuran. The pair became well-renowned in the social circles and artistic community of Kyoto. Two years into his marriage, Taiga set off on a series of journeys, another major element of the bunjin lifestyle, he sought to commune with nature, to glean inspiration for his art, most of all, to become a more cultured and experienced individual. After travels through Kanazawa, Nikkō, Mt. Fuji, Taiga stayed for a time in Edo. There, he produced paintings and calligraphic pieces, learned about Dutch art from a number of Rangaku scholars, including Noro Genjō. Taiga would continue to travel and to climb mountains for much of the rest of his life accompanied by bunjin colleagues.
For a time, he took on the gō of Sangaku Dōja. He would collaborate with his colleagues on joint works of art during this trips; the Jūben jūgi-jō, illustrated by Taiga and Yosa Buson, containing text by Chinese writer Li Yu, acclaims and celebrates a life of simple pleasures and communing with nature. The book is regarded today as providing an exemplary insight into the bunjin philosophy. Another artist who would have a dramatic influence on Taiga a little in life, after his return to Kyoto, was Hakuin Ekaku, who stayed at Taiga's home in 1752. Though they met only Taiga began to use elements of Hakuin's personal style, he soon afterwards sought out many of Hakuin's disciples, working with them and inscribing one another's works; some of Taiga's works have been classified National Treasures by the Japanese government. Rosenfield, John M.. Extraordinary Persons: Works by Eccentric, Nonconformist Japanese Artists of the Early Modern Era in the Collection of Kimiko and John Powers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Art Museums.
Ike Taiga exhibition description at the Philadelphia Museum of Art Bridge of dreams: the Mary Griggs Burke collection of Japanese art, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Ike no Taiga
Hurricane Ike was a powerful tropical cyclone that swept through portions of the Greater Antilles and Northern America in September 2008, wreaking havoc on infrastructure and agriculture in Cuba and Texas. The ninth tropical storm, fifth hurricane, third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, Ike developed from a tropical wave west of Cape Verde on September 1 and strengthened to a peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane over the open waters of the central Atlantic on September 4 as it tracked westward. Several fluctuations in strength occurred before Ike made landfall on eastern Cuba on September 8; the hurricane weakened prior to continuing into the Gulf of Mexico, but increased its intensity by the time of its final landfall on Galveston, Texas on September 13. The remnants of Ike continued to track across the United States and into Canada, causing considerable damage inland, before dissipating two days later. Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these deaths, 74 were in Haiti, trying to recover from the impact of three storms which had made landfall that same year.
Seven people were killed in Cuba by Ike. In the United States, 113 people were reported killed, directly or indirectly, 16 were still missing as of August 2011. Due to its immense size, Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy County region near Corpus Christi, Texas. In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippi coastline and the Florida Panhandle Damages from Ike in U. S. coastal and inland areas are estimated at $30 billion, with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba, $200 million in the Bahamas, $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of at least $38 billion in damage. At the time, the hurricane was the second-costliest in United States history; the search-and-rescue operation after Ike was the largest search-and-rescue operation in Texas history. The origins of Hurricane Ike can be traced back to a well-defined tropical wave first identified by the National Hurricane Center just within the western coast of Africa on August 28.
Despite the development of a low-pressure area associated with the wave and signs of organization within favorable conditions near the Cape Verde Islands, the system was only able to generate intermittent thunderstorm activity. The broad low-pressure continued to track westward and was considered to have become sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on September 1. By this time the cyclone had tracked 780 miles west of Cape Verde. Although post-analysis indicated that the depression reached tropical storm strength at 12:00 UTC that day, operationally the NHC began issuing advisories on Ike three hours by which time the system had gained numerous curved rainbands and well-established outflow. Over the next few hours, Ike developed additional rainbands, but failed to a centralized area of convection due to the presence of dry air to the storm's south and its location in an area with only marginally favorable sea surface temperatures; these factors were responsible for Ike's slow developmental trend that began after formation.
Ike's gradual strengthening began to quicken early on September 3, with the strengthening of an intense rainband around the center of the storm. At 15:00 UTC that day, microwave imaging indicated that a primordial eye was developing within the intensifying tropical storm. Tracking northwestward, the NHC upgraded Ike to hurricane status at 18:00 UTC based on objective satellite intensity estimates and the appearance of the eye on visible satellite imagery. During this time, Ike was centered 690 mi east-northeast of the Leeward Islands and was tracking west-northwestward as a result of a weakened subtropical ridge to its northeast. Ike's placement in an area with no wind shear allowed for the hurricane to undergo explosive intensification despite unfavorable upper-level winds to its north, reaching major hurricane strength six hours after its designation as a hurricane. At 06:00 UTC on September 4, Ike peaked with maximum sustained winds of 145 miles per hour and a minimum barometric pressure of 935 millibars, making the storm a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.
After peaking in strength, a ridge of high pressure to the storm's west strengthened, causing Ike to track towards the southwest—a path unusual for the time of year. However, this track brought the storm into an area of strong wind shear, causing the storm to become asymmetric in structure late on September 4 and weaken dropping below major hurricane status on September 6 while 150 miles east of Grand Turk Island. Although wind shear abated and allowed for reintensification, Ike would fluctuate in strength over the next few days. After passing near the Turks and Caicos Islands, Ike made its first landfall on Inagua in the Bahamas at 13:00 UTC on September 7 with winds of 125 mph. After passing over Inagua, the development of a double eyewall—a feature that denotes the beginning of an eyewall replacement cycle—slightly weakened Ike late on September 7. However, the hurricane was able to reintensify and reach Category 4 intensity for a final time before making landfall near Cabo Lucrecia on the coast of Holguín Province in Cuba by 00:00 UTC the next day.
Although Ike remained well-defined for most of its crossing of eastern Cuba, the hurricane's core had become disrupted by the time it had reached the Caribbean Sea after spending a few hours over land. Over the next day