Trieste Commodity Exchange
The Trieste Commodity Exchange was founded in 1755 by Empress Maria Theresa. It is one of the oldest commodity exchanges in the world; the rise of Trieste as a commercial center took place in the eighteenth century by the will of the Habsburg imperial government, during the reign of Charles VI. The ratification of the free port and the Deputation of the Court laid the foundation for the city's economic development. In 1755, Empress Maria Theresa replaced the Deputation, dissolved a few years earlier, with Agents who could operate independently from the government. Theresa instituted the Trieste Commodity Exchange, governed by a collegiate body called the ‘Deputation of the Stock’; this body was made up of six members. Its duties included management of annuities, the commodity exchange, the plant for goods delivery, storage archive business and shareholder meetings, it transmitted proposals and complaints from local merchants to the government The Trieste Commodity Exchange contributed undertook many initiatives, the most important of which were the design and construction, from 1815, of a series of marine lamps in the Adriatic Sea and the establishment in 1842 of the "Monte Civic Commercial", hereinafter referred to as "Savings Bank of Trieste".
To deal with extraordinary problems the Deputation was joined by the Consultation Exchange, consisting of forty members and elected by the merchant class. In 1853, following an 1850 law that applied to the whole empire, the Trieste Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established and the Trieste Commodity Exchange became part of it. From 1875, the traditional function of amicable settlement of commercial disputes, carried out by the Deputation since its inception, was replaced by a legal approach: the "Arbitral Chamber" was created and remains operational as the Arbitration Board. With the end of World War I and the passage of Trieste to the Kingdom of Italy, the Trieste Commodity Exchange and its related bodies were absorbed into similar institutions under Italian law, such as the “Commerce Exchange”, certified to treat both goods and values under Law 1068 of 1913. After 1920 the Trieste Commodity Exchange continued to operate separately from the Trieste Stock Exchange, active until 1996, following the destinies of the Trieste economy.
The Trieste Commodity Exchange is now in a phase of restructuring and growth, presents itself as an instrument of exchange at national and international level to support the competitiveness of companies interested in importing or exporting their products. The exchange offers the Excellence Exchange, with a B2X business model aimed at promoting local production and the Commodity Exchange platform for energy products with green or white certificates, with free shipping to Friuli-Venezia Giulia; the system allows the trading of new concept TMD securities
Gorizia is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, it is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border; the entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board. Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Vipava Valleys, it lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia Hills. Sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold bora wind, which affects most of the neighboring areas.
The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate throughout the year. The name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica'little hill', a common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas. Originating as a watchtower or a prehistoric castle controlling the fords of the Isonzo River, Gorizia first emerged as a small village not far from the former Via Gemina, the Roman road linking Aquileia and Emona; the name Gorizia was recorded for the first time in a document dated April 28, 1001, in which Holy Roman Emperor Otto III donated the castle and the village of Goriza to the Patriarch of Aquileia John II and to Count Verihen Eppenstein of Friuli. The document referred to Gorizia as "the village known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs". Count Meinhard of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble lineage, with possessions around Lienz in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107; the borders of the county changed in the following four centuries due to frequent wars with Aquileia and other counties, to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the upper Drava near Lienz, the other centered on Gorizia itself.
Between the 12th century and early 16th century, the town served as the political and administrative center of this independent County of Gorizia, which at the height of its power comprised the territory of the present-day regions of Goriška, southeast Friuli, the Karst Plateau, central Istria and East Tyrol. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development: the upper castle district and the village beneath it; the first played the second a rural-commercial role. In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg rule, after a short occupation by the Republic of Venice in the years 1508 and 1509. Under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy started their commerce. Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian and the Slovene language were spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a center of Protestant Reformation, spreading from the neighboring northeastern regions of Carniola and Carinthia.
The prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, Catholic Counter-Reformation had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, who became bishop of Ljubljana. Tavčar was instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter. Gorizia was at first part of the County of Görz and since 1754, the capital of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca. In ecclesiastical matters, after the suppression of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 1751, the Archdiocese of Gorizia was established as its legal successor on the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy. Gorizia thus emerged as a Roman Catholic religious center; the archdiocese of Gorizia covers a large territory, extending to the Drava River to the north and the Kolpa to the east, with the dioceses of Trieste, Trento and Pedena subject to the authority of the archbishops of Gorizia. A new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia were transferred.
Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, which characterized it up to World War I. A synagogue was built within the town walls, another example of Gorizia's tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces between 1809 and 1813. After the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a popular summer residence of the Austrian nobility, became known as the "Austrian Nice". Members of the former French ruling Bourbon family, deposed by the July Revolution of 1830 settled in the town, including the last Bourbon monarch Charles X who spent his last years in Gorizia. Unlike in most neighboring areas, the revolutionary spri
Vittoria Light known as the Victory Lighthouse, is an active lighthouse in Trieste, serving the Gulf of Trieste. It is located off the Strada del Friuli. At a height of 223 feet it is one of the tallest lighthouses in the world; the idea to raise a monument in the vicinity arose during World War I, following capture of Kobarid in the Battles of the Isonzo and following the Battle of the Piave River. The lighthouse was to rise on the coast of Istria, near Pula. However, the location chosen was the hill of Gretta, due to ideal height and the solid foundations of the former Austrian fort Kressich, built between 1854 and 1857; the lighthouse plans took shape following the end of the war, in December 1918. It was designed by triestine architect Arduino Berlam. One of the reasons for building such a high monument was the desire to build a victory monument higher than the Berlin Victory Column, 62.3 metres high at the time. Work started only in 1923 and ended on May 24, 1927 with the inauguration in the presence of King Vittorio Emanuele III.
The structure celebrates the Italian victory and commemorates the fallen of the first world war, as testified by the inscription "SPLENDI E RICORDA I CADUTI SUL MARE MCMXV-MCMXVIII". In 1979 the lighthouse was closed for restoration for seven years, was reopened to the public May 18, 1986; the large base of the lighthouse includes the earthwork of the Austrian fort. The bottom of structure is covered by stone from Carso and the top is covered by stone from Istria, it weighs about 8,000 tonnes and construction involved the use of 1,500 cubic metres of stone, 2,000 cubic metres of concrete and 100 tonnes of iron. Above the column is a capital and a crow's nest, in which the bronze crystal cage of the lantern is inserted; the cage is topped by a copper fome with a scale-like motif, on top of, the 7.2 metres statue of winged victory by sculptor Giovanni Mayer, made of embossed copper and weighing about 7 tonnes. A 8.6 metres statue of a seaman by sculptor Giovanni Mayer, adorns the front of the lighthouse, made from 100 tonnes of stone from Vrsar, under, the anchor of the destroyer Audace, the first Italian ship to enter the port of Trieste on November 3, 1918, is attached.
Two projectiles of the Austrian battleship SMS Viribus Unitis are placed on both sides of the lighthouse entry. The light itself is an electrical light since its first lighting; the current light is a 1000 watt halogen bulb. The site of the lighthouse is open to the public; the lighthouse itself is open Saturday and Sunday 3 pm to 7 pm, from the last Saturday of April to the second Sunday of October. Reaching the top requires climbing 285 steps. List of tallest lighthouses in the world List of lighthouses in Italy Official website Servizio Fari Marina Militare
Synagogue of Trieste
The Synagogue of Trieste is a Jewish house of worship located in the city of Trieste, northern Italy. It was built between 1908 and 1912, bears the hallmark of architects Ruggero and Arduino Berlam; the synagogue was unveiled in 1912 in the presence of municipal officials, it replaced the four smaller ones that existed, from mid 18th century, which were based on an architectural model quite common in the North-East of Italy, with rectangular rooms with rows of pews orientated towards the centre or the eastern side. The Great Temple was meant to satisfy the religious need of a growing Community that, in 1938, had 6,000 members. For its construction an international contest was organized; the synagogue was closed in 1942 following the instigation of the race laws under the Fascist regime. It was devastated by fascist squads and during the Nazi occupation, it was used as a storehouse for works of art and books seized from the Jewish houses; the ritual silvers of the Community were preserved from the plunder thanks to a clever hiding place inside the building.
As soon as the war finished the synagogue went back into operation. Today it is recognised as one of the largest and most important places of worship for Jews in Europe; the size and structure of the building define it as a synagogue of the emancipation period, in which the main prayer room, with a rectangular floor plan, divides itself into three naves ending with the majestic apse and its vault with golden mosaic. The whole room is orientated towards a monumental aròn with copper doors, surmounted by an pink granite aedicule which sustains the tables of the law with four columns. At its sides, two big menoròt, bronze candelabra with seven branches, leaning on a marble balustrade with wheatsheaf, symbols of the Community of Trieste. On the ceiling, elegant pendants, banded decorations edging the dome with geometrical patterns and stars and other bands on the great arches quoting verses from the book of the Psalms and showing trees of life. Above the aròn, on three sides, the beautiful balcony which used to be the women’s gallery and that, nowadays, is not used anymore because of security reasons and the small dimensions of the Community.
In this gallery, above the entrance door and under a barrel vault, there is a big organ with pipes framed by stars of David. Different architectural styles have blended into this building, whose essence is represented by four powerful marble pillars supporting an imposing central dome; the style has been described as follows: The exterior style was said to be late Roman of a type found in fourth-century Syria, the architects chose it because it brought them close as possible to ancient Jewish architecture. Jews in the Holy Land and throughout the Roman Empire had used Roman forms. Syria was near enough to the Holy Land to incorporate design elements used by Jews. A synagogue in this style could suggest the wide geographic distribution of Jews, both in the Roman Empire and in modern times, it could suggest the proximity of Jews to others within the modern Roman empires. It could suggest the Jews' Middle Eastern origin without making them look too close to Byzantine Christians or to Muslims." Jewish Community of Trieste Official website Synagogues of Europe, P. 372, Carole Herselle Krinsky
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, normal, or desirable supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies; the term right-wing can refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime; the original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the "Left" and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy and clericalism. The use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists.
The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms "right" and "left" to their own politics until the 20th century. Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has been applied to movements including fascism and racial supremacy. From the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism; this general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism. In the United States, the Right includes both social conservatives. In Europe, economic conservatives are considered liberal and the Right includes nationalists, nativist opposition to immigration, religious conservatives, a significant presence of right-wing movements with anti-capitalist sentiments including conservatives and fascists who opposed what they saw as the selfishness and excessive materialism inherent in contemporary capitalism.
The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolution, when liberal deputies of the Third Estate sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of 1789. The nobility, members of the Second Estate sat to the right. In the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Old Regime were referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side. A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. On the right, the Legitimists and Ultra-royalists held counter-revolutionary views, while the Orléanists hoped to create a constitutional monarchy under their preferred branch of the royal family, a brief reality after the 1830 July Revolution; the centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.
In British politics, the terms "right" and "left" came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The Right has gone through five distinct historical stages: the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; the meaning of right-wing "varies across societies, historical epochs, political systems and ideologies". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right. Roger Eatwell and Neal O'Sullivan divide the right into five types: reactionary, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these "styles of thought" are "responses to the left", including liberalism and socialism, which have arisen since the 1789 French Revolution; the reactionary right looks toward the past and is "aristocratic and authoritarian".
The moderate right, typified by the writings of Edmund Burke, is tolerant of change, provided it is gradual and accepts some aspects of liberalism, including the rule of law and capitalism, although it sees radical laissez-faire and individualism as harmful to society. The moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies. Radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has been applied to democratic developments"; the radical right includes various other subtypes. Eatwell argues that the extreme right' has four traits: "1) anti-democracy; the New Right consists of the liberal conservatives, who stress small government, free markets and individual initiative. Other authors make a distinction between the cent
Trieste Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Justus, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and the main church of Trieste, in northern Italy. It is the seat of the Bishop of Trieste. In 1899 Pope Leo XIII granted it the status of a basilica minor; the first religious edifice on the site was built in the 6th century on some Roman propylaea, using part of the existing structure. The entrance to a monument, this was known as the Capitoline Temple, as a pyramidal altar with the symbols of the Capitoline Triad had been found inside it. Of the hall there remains part of the mosaic floor, integrated into the present-day floor, which contains markings of the outer walls of the early Christian building. Soon after it was opened for worship, the church was destroyed in the Lombard invasion. Between the 9th and 11th centuries, two basilicas were erected on the ruins of the old church, the first dedicated to Our Lady of the Assumption and the second, the cathedral, to Saint Justus; the original design of the latter building was subsequently lengthened.
In the 14th century the two basilicas were joined by means of the demolition of one nave of either basilica and the construction of a simple asymmetrical façade, dominated by a delicately worked Gothic rose window, as ornate as the new bell tower, using the Romanesque debris stones found on the site and friezes of arms. The Chapel of Saint Charles Borromeo serves as the burial chapel for the family of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain, it contains the tombs of: Infante Carlos, Count of Molina Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal, first wife of the Count of Molina Teresa, Princess of Beira, second wife of the Count of Molina Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin Princess Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, wife of the Count of Montemolin Juan, Count of Montizón Infante Fernando of Spain, brother of the Count of Montemolin and the Count of Montizón Carlos, Duke of Madrid Among the works of historical interest in the cathedral are the apsidal mosaics depicting Our Lady of the Assumption and Christ between Saints Justus and Servolus, laid by master craftsmen from Veneto in the 12th-13th centuries.
The small 14th-century church of San Giovanni, the old baptistry) on the left and San Michele al Carnale on the right, by the entrance to the museum, complete a fine medieval churchyard. In the square in front of the church is an altar commemorating the consecration and laying down of the arms of the 3rd Army, a column with a halberd and a monument to those who died in the First World War. Archaeological excavations carried out here in the 1930s laid bare the remains of the Roman forum and civic building constructed on two colonnaded floors with two apses. Two lower-floor columns have been reconstructed; the 5 bells are tuned in scale of G major
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo