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Binalbal Festival

The Binalbal Festival is an annual festival held on the first of January in Tudela, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. It is a unique celebration of welcoming the new year for the townsfolk of Tudela. Participants are disguised through the use of masks which allow them full freedom of inhibition during the new year celebration. In the celebration, people or spectators wear masks and outfits that would represent their own definition of "Binalbal". Binalbal is derived from the local dialect "Balbal", Cebuano. Much like a giant Halloween costume party, the Binalbal Festival is a important cultural celebration where many revelers are clad in gory costumes. Since its early beginnings, the celebration traditionally starts on the evening until midnight of December 31st and continues on the noon time of January 1st, the grand parade of Binalbal Festival, it all started as wearing masks on New Year's Day to disguise the identity of a person. In the early 1930s, prominent people of Tudela participated in this affair, including Gregorio Aborka, Sofronio Inting, Edmundo Ruiz Sr. Gregorio Nebre, Florentino N. Olarte, Jose Singson, Alberto Raagas and other unrecorded personalities in metro barangays of Tudela.

It is associated with the wearing of "Maskara" at the outset of New Year. With bizarre make-up, the "Binalbal" roamed the street, visiting friends and relatives and asking gifts "biko" or "suman", other native delicacies; this unique cultural tradition was handed down from the fathers of Tudelanians with its center theme focused on love and prosperity with the hope of re-committing the individual to the spiritual and social codes of the past: a combination of merrymaking and prayers for a good harvest, good health and good luck. It is an occasion of fun for everyone; the word "Binalbal", according to its official history published by the Local Government of Tudela dated January 1, 2003, does not carry unsavory connotations. It did not originate from the word "Balbal", or denoting evil spirit, nor was it coined to mean the Municipality of Tudela is inhabited by "balbals". Cebu has "Sinulog", Aklan "Ati-Atihan", the Illongos in Iloilo "Dinagyang", all rolled into one "Binalbal" in Tudela. Binalbal Festival has some semblance with Halloween practices in the British Isles.

The ancient Celts believed that in the evening of October 31, Samon, ‘Lord of the Dead’, called forth many evil spirits. To ward off these supernatural creatures of darkness, the “Druids” made great bonfires; the similarity of Binalbal Festival with "Mardi Gras"—whose origins can be traced to medieval Europe, passing through Rome and Venice in the 17th and 18th centuries to the French House of the Bourbons—portrays merrymaking with parades, masked balls, street dancing and Halloween parties. These led to Binalbal's imitation of witches, all kinds and shapes of animals, the so-called fallen angels. Akin to its customs and beliefs, Tudelanhons sometimes offer "treats" or "gifts" to prevent evil spirit from doing harm. In this part of Northwestern Mindanao only the municipality can claim originality on this festival. In the perpetuation of this tradition, the Municipality of Tudela, through Sanggunian Resolution, has created the Municipal Council for Local Culture and the Arts, for the purpose of ensuring the preservation and promotion of Binalbal Festival as a distinct cultural heritage of the Tudelanians for the past 87 years.

Binalbal, as a cultural festival, has been supported by the local government units. In 1960, through the Municipal Council resolution by Mayor Antero Singidas, the festival was recognized and given financial support. During the time of Mayor Bernadette Paredes-Encinareal, the festival was given recognition by the Department of Tourism; the project proposals and request for funding support from the national government, through the Department of Tourism, were duly furnished but somehow it did not materialize. It was suggested by Mayor Encinareal the creation of a special committee to formulate plans, sources of funds, other innovative concerns to ensure the continuity of this yearly tradition

Tim Sahaydak

Tim Sahaydak is an American soccer coach and former player. He is Associate Head Coach of the UCF Knights women's soccer program; as a player, he played several seasons in Major League Soccer for Miami Fusion F. C. Sahaydak attended Liberty High School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania where he was an All-State representative. While touring with a state team, he was in Moscow during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. Sahaydak joined the North Carolina Tar Heels men's soccer program on a scholarship in 1995, he left in 1997 after his sophomore year. After leaving college Sahaydak was signed as a Project-40 player being assigned to the Columbus Crew. From 1998 to 2000, he played. After two seasons with the Crew, he transferred to the Miami Fusion. Between 1999 and 2001, Sahaydak played 22 times for the Fusion. Sahaydak took to coaching as co-head coach of the VCU Rams women's soccer program alongside his wife, former international player Tiffany Roberts. After six years with the Rams, he joined the UCF Knights women's soccer program as associate head coach again alongside his wife

Darvaz (region)

Darvaz, alternatively spelt Darwaz, Darvoz, or Darwoz, was an independent principality until the 19th century, ruled by a mir and its capital was at Kalai-Khumb. The kingdom controlled territory on the left and right banks of the Oxus River. In 1878 Darvaz was absorbed into the Bukharan Emirate. In 1895 the left bank of Darvaz was transferred to Afghanistan as part of a border agreement. In the 1920s the portion of Darvaz located in the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union was assigned to the Gharm Oblast; when the Gharm Oblast was dissolved in 1955, Darvaz became part of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Today, the northern half of Darvaz is the Darvoz district, Tavildara District, Vanj District, in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan; the southern half of Darvaz is the Darwaz District, Khwahan District, Kuf Ab District, in Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan. They are connected by the Tajik-Afghan Friendship Bridge, a permanent overland link that carries commercial and passenger traffic.

The bridge was opened in July, 2004. Darwaz District in Afghanistan has a population of 21,000 after sub-division in 2005 which led to the formation of Districts Nusay District, Maimay District, Shekay District, was

Borders of Venezuela

The borders of Venezuela are the international borders that Venezuela shares with neighboring countries. Venezuela borders with 14 countries totaling 5,161 kilometers which includes territories of France, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. Venezuela has the seventh largest land and maritime border after France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Italy; the lengths of the borders Venezuela shares with different countries, running counter-clockwise around Grenada to Caribbean Netherlands, are listed below: This is a list of countries and territories by land and maritime borders bordering Venezuela. The number and identity of other countries and territories that neighbor it are listed. Land borders and maritime boundaries are tabulated separately and in combination. For purposes of this list, "maritime boundary" includes boundaries that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which includes boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, exclusive economic zones.

However, it does not include river boundaries, which are considered land boundaries. Included is the number of unique sovereign states that a country or territory shares as neighbors. If the number is higher due to multiple dependencies or unrecognized states bordering the state, the larger number is shown in brackets. Footnotes are provided to provide clarity regarding the status of certain territories. Guayana Esequiba Borders of Brazil Borders of the United States Gran Colombia Venezuela–Colombia migrant crisis Netherlands–Venezuela Boundary Treaty The Guianas United States–Venezuela Maritime Boundary Treaty Venezuelan refugee crisis

Julije Makanec

Julije Makanec was a Croatian politician, teacher and writer. During World War II, he was the Minister of Education of the Independent State of Croatia and a high-ranking member of the Ustaše. Makanec was born in Sarajevo, he was educated in Osijek and Bihać, studied philosophy at the University of Zagreb, where he obtained a Ph. D. in 1927. Between 1929 and 1940 he served as a gymnasium professor in Koprivnica and several other places in Croatia, as well as in Leskovac, Serbia. In November 1940, as a member of the Croatian Peasant Party, he became the mayor of Bjelovar. Here he played an important role in the Bjelovar rebellion of 8 April that year when, after the revolt by Croats in the Royal Yugoslav Army during the early days of invasion of Yugoslavia, he declared the "resurrection of the Croatian state". By his own account, Makanec swore the Ustaše oath in April 1941, days after the establishment of the Independent State of Croatia, but historians believe Makanec may have joined the Ustaše much earlier, in late 1939 or early 1940.

Shortly after the formation of the Ustaše government he served as adjutant in the Croatian army's Bilogora headquarters, in Bjelovar. From 1942 he was the chief of spiritual upbringing in the Ustaša Youth. In March 1943 he was named extraordinary professor of philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb. In October 1943 he became the Independent State of Croatia's Minister of National Education, he wrote books in his field as well as contributing to various periodicals and newspapers. In a 1942 brochure titled Ustaše Virtues, Makanec wrote: " every community has the right to exterminate, destroy, or at least render harmless those individuals who weaken it and bring it to ruin due to their utter lack of virtue."On 6 May 1945, shortly before Yugoslav Partisans entered Zagreb, Makanec fled the city in a group of sixteen government ministers. On 17 May, they surrendered to the British in Tamsweg and were extradited to Yugoslav authorities. After a one-day trial before a military tribunal in Zagreb on 6 June he was sentenced to death for high treason and war crimes and executed by firing squad in the morning of the following day.

Books: Marksistička filozofija prirode O podrijetlu i smislu države Poglavnik o boljševizmu Ustaške vrline Veliko raskršće Razvoj državne misli od Platona do Hegela Hrvatski vidici