The transversalis fascia is a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies between the inner surface of the transverse abdominal muscle and the parietal peritoneum. It forms part of the general layer of fascia lining the abdominal parietes, is directly continuous with the iliac fascia, internal spermatic, pelvic fasciae. In the inguinal region, the transversalis fascia is thick and dense in structure and is joined by fibers from the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominal, it becomes thin as it ascends to the diaphragm and blends with the fascia covering the under surface of this muscle. Behind, it is lost in the fat. Below, it has the following attachments: posteriorly, to the whole length of the iliac crest, between the attachments of the transverse abdominal and Iliacus. Medial to the femoral vessels it is thin and attached to the pubis and pectineal line, behind the inguinal falx, with which it is united. Beneath the inguinal ligament it is strengthened by a band of fibrous tissue, only loosely connected to the ligament, is specialized as the iliopubic tract.
The spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female pass through the transverse fascia at the deep inguinal ring the entrance to the inguinal canal. This opening is not visible externally. In the male the transverse fascia extends downwards as the internal spermatic fascia; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 418 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 35:03-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Layers of the anterior wall." Anatomy photo:36:01-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Inguinal Region and Testes: The Inguinal canal" Atlas image: abdo_wall49 at the University of Michigan Health System Cross section image: pembody/body12a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Wing of ilium
The wing of ilium is the large expanded portion which bounds the greater pelvis laterally. It presents for examination two surfaces—an external and an internal—a crest, two borders—an anterior and a posterior; the external surface, known as the dorsum ossis ilium, is directed backward and lateralward behind, downward and lateralward in front. It is smooth, convex in front concave behind; this surface is crossed in an arched direction by three lines—the posterior and inferior gluteal lines. The posterior gluteal line, the shortest of the three, begins at the crest, about 5 cm in front of its posterior extremity. Behind this line is a narrow semilunar surface, the upper part of, rough and gives origin to a portion of the Glutæus maximus; the anterior gluteal line, the longest of the three, begins at the crest, about 4 cm behind its anterior extremity, taking a curved direction downward and backward, ends at the upper part of the greater sciatic notch. The space between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines and the crest is concave, gives origin to the Glutæus medius.
Near the middle of this line a nutrient foramen is seen. The inferior gluteal line, the least distinct of the three, begins in front at the notch on the anterior border, curving backward and downward, ends near the middle of the greater sciatic notch; the surface of bone included between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines is concave from above downward, convex from before backward, gives origin to the Glutæus minimus. Between the inferior gluteal line and the upper part of the acetabulum is a rough, shallow groove, from which the reflected tendon of the Rectus femoris arises; the internal surface of the ala is bounded above by the crest, below, by the arcuate line. It presents a large, concave surface, called the iliac fossa, which gives origin to the Iliacus and is perforated at its inner part by a nutrient canal. Behind the iliac fossa is a rough surface, divided into two portions, an anterior and a posterior; the anterior surface, so called from its resemblance in shape to the ear, is coated with cartilage in the fresh state, articulates with a similar surface on the side of the sacrum.
The posterior portion, known as the iliac tuberosity, is elevated and rough, for the attachment of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments and for the origins of the Sacrospinalis and Multifidus. Below and in front of the auricular surface is the preauricular sulcus, more present and better marked in the female than in the male; the crest of the ilium is convex in its general outline but is sinuously curved, being concave inward in front, concave outward behind. It is thinner at the center than at the extremities, ends in the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines; the surface of the crest is broad, divided into external and internal lips, an intermediate line. About 5 cm behind the anterior superior iliac spine there is a prominent tubercle on the outer lip. To the external lip are attached the Tensor fasciæ latæ, Obliquus externus abdominis, Latissimus dorsi, along its whole length the fascia lata; the anterior border of the ala is concave. It presents two projections, separated by a notch.
Of these, the uppermost, situated at the junction of the crest and anterior border, is called the anterior superior iliac spine. Below the notch is the anterior inferior iliac spine. Medial to the anterior inferior spine is a broad, shallow groove, over which the Iliacus and Psoas major pass; this groove is bounded medially by an eminence, the iliopectineal eminence, which marks the point of union of the ilium and pubis. The posterior border of the ala, shorter than the anterior presents two projections separated by a notch, the posterior superior iliac spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine; the former serves for the attachment of the oblique portion of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments and the Multifidus. Below the posterior inferior spine is a deep notch, the greater sciatic notch; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 232 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy photo at nih.gov
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, can divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts in early embryonic development, adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues of developed mammals. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm and mesoderm —but maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, blood. Stem cells can be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell therapy types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.
Adult stem cells are used in various medical therapies. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s; the classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. Potency: the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent—to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells.
Apart from this it is said. Two mechanisms ensure that a stem cell population is maintained: 1. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell, identical to the original stem cell, another daughter cell, differentiated; when a stem cell self-renews it does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell.2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. Potency specifies the differentiation potential of the stem cell. Totipotent stem cells can differentiate into extraembryonic cell types; such cells can construct a viable organism. These cells are produced from the fusion of an sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are totipotent. Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers.
Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, but only those of a related family of cells. Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells. Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells. In practice, stem cells are identified by. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs; this demonstrates. It should be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. Stem cells can be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers.
However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, formed prior to implantation in the uterus. In human embryonic development the blastocyst stage is reached 4–5 days after fertilization, at which time it consists of 50–150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three germ layers: ectoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type, they do not contribute to the placenta. During embryonic development the cells of the inner cell mass continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as'neurectoderm', which
Latissimus dorsi muscle
The latissimus dorsi is a large, flat muscle on the back that stretches to the sides, behind the arm, is covered by the trapezius on the back near the midline. The word latissimus dorsi comes from Latin and means "broadest of the back", from "latissimus"' and "dorsum"; the pair of muscles are known as "lats" among bodybuilders. The latissimus dorsi is the largest muscle in the upper body; the latissimus dorsi is responsible for extension, transverse extension known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, internal rotation of the shoulder joint. It has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. Due to bypassing the scapulothoracic joints and attaching directly to the spine, the actions the latissimi dorsi have on moving the arms can influence the movement of the scapulae, such as their downward rotation during a pull up; the number of dorsal vertebrae to which it is attached varies from four to eight. A muscular slip, the axillary arch, varying from 7 to 10 cm in length, from 5 to 15 mm in breadth springs from the upper edge of the latissimus dorsi about the middle of the posterior fold of the axilla, crosses the axilla in front of the axillary vessels and nerves, to join the under surface of the tendon of the pectoralis major, the coracobrachialis, or the fascia over the biceps brachii.
This axillary arch crosses the axillary artery, just above the spot selected for the application of a ligature, may mislead a surgeon. It is present in about 7% of the population and may be recognized by the transverse direction of its fibers. Guy et al. extensively described this muscular variant using MRI data and positively correlated its presence with symptoms of neurological impingement. A fibrous slip passes from the upper border of the tendon of the Latissimus dorsi, near its insertion, to the long head of the triceps brachii; this is muscular, is the representative of the dorsoepitrochlearis brachii of apes. This muscular form is sometimes termed the latissimocondyloideus; the latissimus dorsi crosses the inferior angle of the scapula. A study found that, of 100 cadavers dissected: 43% had "a substantial amount" of muscular fibers in the latissimus dorsi originating from the scapula. 36% had few or no muscular fibers, but a "soft fibrous link" between the scapula and the latissimus dorsi 21% had little or no connecting tissue between the two structures.
The lateral margin of the latissimus dorsi is separated below from the obliquus externus abdominis by a small triangular interval, the lumbar triangle of Petit, the base of, formed by the iliac crest, its floor by the obliquus internus abdominis. Another triangle is situated behind the scapula, it is bounded above by the trapezius, below by the latissimus dorsi, laterally by the vertebral border of the scapula. If the scapula is drawn forward by folding the arms across the chest, the trunk bent forward, parts of the sixth and seventh ribs and the interspace between them become subcutaneous and available for auscultation; the space is therefore known as the triangle of auscultation. The latissimus dorsi can be remembered best for insertion as "A Miss Between Two Majors"; as the latissimus dorsi inserts into the floor of the intertubercular groove of the humerus it is surrounded by two major muscles. The teres major inserts medially on the medial lip of the intertubercular groove and the pectoralis major inserts laterally onto the lateral lip.
The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the sixth and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal nerve. Electromyography suggests that it consists of six groups of muscle fibres that can be independently coordinated by the central nervous system; the latissimus dorsi is responsible for extension, transverse extension known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, internal rotation of the shoulder joint. It has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine, assists as a muscle of both forced expiration and an accessory muscle of inspiration. Most latissimus dorsi exercises concurrently recruit the teres major, posterior fibres of the deltoid, long head of the triceps brachii, among numerous other stabilizing muscles. Compound exercises for the'lats' involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii and brachioradialis for this function. Depending on the line of pull, the trapezius muscles can be recruited as well; the power/size/strength of this muscle can be trained with a variety of different exercises.
Some of these include: Vertical pulling movements such as pull-ups. Horizontal pulling movements such as bent-over row, T-bar row and other rowing exercises. Shoulder extension movements with straight arms such as straight-arm lat pulldowns and Pull-overs. Deadlift. Tight latissimus dorsi has been shown to be a contributor to chronic shoulder pain and chronic back pain; because the latissimus dorsi connects the spine to the humerus, tightness in this muscle can manifest as either sub-optimal glenohumeral joint function which leads to chronic pain or tendinitis in the tendinous fasciae connecting the latissimus dorsi to the thoracic and lumbar spine. The latissimus dorsi is a potential source of muscle for
The fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh. It encloses the thigh muscles and forms the outer limit of the fascial compartments of thigh, which are internally separated by intermuscular septa; the fascia lata is thickened at its lateral side where it forms the iliotibial tract, a structure that runs to the tibia and serves as a site of muscle attachment. The fascia lata is an investment for the whole of the thigh, but varies in thickness in different parts, it is thicker in the upper and lateral part of the thigh, where it receives a fibrous expansion from the gluteus maximus, where the tensor fasciae latae is inserted between its layers. The fascia lata surrounds the tensor fasciae latae muscle, it is a fibrous sheath. This encircling of the muscle allows the muscles to be bound together tightly; the fascia lata is attached and behind, to the back of the sacrum and coccyx. From its attachment to the iliac crest it passes down over the gluteus medius to the upper border of the gluteus maximus, where it splits into two layers, one passing superficial to and the other beneath this muscle.
Laterally, the fascia lata receives the greater part of the tendon of insertion of the gluteus maximus, becomes proportionately thickened. The portion of the fascia lata attached to the front part of the iliac crest, corresponding to the origin of the tensor fasciae latae, extends down the lateral side of the thigh as two layers, one superficial to and the other beneath this muscle; this band is continued downward under the name of the iliotibial band and is attached to the lateral condyle of the tibia. The part of the iliotibial band which lies beneath the tensor fasciae latae is prolonged upward to join the lateral part of the capsule of the hip joint. Below, the fascia lata is attached to all the prominent points around the knee joint, viz. the condyles of the femur and tibia, the head of the fibula. On either side of the kneecap it is strengthened by transverse fibers from the lower parts of the vasti muscles which are attached to and support this bone. Of these the lateral are the stronger, are continuous with the iliotibial band.
The deep surface of the fascia lata gives off two strong intermuscular septa, which are attached to the whole length of the linea aspera and its prolongations above and below. Besides these there are numerous smaller septa, separating the individual muscles, enclosing each in a distinct sheath; the deep fascia of the lower leg is a continuation of the fascia lata. Since the 1920s fasciae latae from deceased donors have been used in reconstructive surgery. In 1999 preserved mashed fasciae latae became FDA-approved as a tissue product designed to replace areas of lost fascia or collagen; the fascia lata performs the function of encircling and tightening the muscles in the thigh. Because of this function, it has been used as grafts for patients with facial paralysis; the fascia lata offers supports to the muscles that make up the face and this support increases the recovery of the facial muscles. The surgeons use the fascia lata as a sort of facial sling to support up the paralyzed face and loops the fascia lata around the center of the lower lip, the corner of the mouth and the center of the upper lip.
It is named from its great extent. "Latus" give the superlative "Latissimus" meaning widest. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 468 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
The iliac fascia is a fascia in the region of the ilium of the pelvis. It has the following connections: laterally, to the whole length of the inner lip of the iliac crest. Medially, to the linea terminalis of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the periosteum. At the iliopectineal eminence it receives the tendon of insertion of the Psoas minor, when that muscle exists. Lateral to the femoral vessels it is intimately connected to the posterior margin of the inguinal ligament, is continuous with the transversalis fascia. Lateral to the femoral vessels the iliac fascia is prolonged backward and medialward from the inguinal ligament as a band, the iliopectineal fascia, attached to the iliopectineal eminence; this fascia divides the space between the inguinal ligament and the hip bone into two lacunæ or compartments: the medial vascular lacuna transmits the femoral vessels. The lateral muscular lacuna transmits Iliacus and the femoral nerve. Medial to the vessels the iliac fascia is attached to the pectineal line behind the conjoint tendon, where it is again continuous with the transversalis fascia.
Fascia iliaca block This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 466 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
The iliocostalis is the muscle lateral to the longissimus, the nearest to the furrow that separates the epaxial muscles from the hypaxial. It lies deep to the fleshy portion of the serratus posterior muscle The iliocostalis cervicis arises from the angles of the third, fourth and sixth ribs, is inserted into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the fourth and sixth cervical vertebrae; the iliocostalis dorsi arises by flattened tendons from the upper borders of the angles of the lower six ribs medial to the tendons of insertion of the iliocostalis lumborum. The iliocostalis lumborum is inserted, by six or seven flattened tendons, into the inferior borders of the angles of the lower six or seven ribs. Semispinalis muscle Erector spinae Longissimus Spinalis This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 399 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 01:06-06 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Intrinsic muscles of the back." Dissection at ithaca.edu