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Iliotibial band syndrome

Ilitotibial Band Syndrome is the second most common knee injury caused by inflammation located on the lateral aspect of the knee due to friction between the iliotibial band and the lateral epicondyle of the femur. Pain is felt most on the lateral aspect of the knee and is most intensive at 30 degrees of knee flexion. Risk factors in women include knee internal rotation. Risk factors seen in men are increased knee adduction. ITB syndrome is most associated with long distance running, weight-lifting, with military training. ITBS symptoms range from a stinging sensation just above the knee and outside of the knee joint, to swelling or thickening of the tissue in the area where the band moves over the femur; the stinging sensation just above the knee joint is felt on the outside of the knee or along the entire length of the iliotibial band. Pain may not occur during activity, but may intensify over time. Pain is most felt when the foot strikes the ground, pain might persist after activity. Pain may be present above and below the knee, where the ITB attaches to the tibia.

ITBS can result from one or more of the following: training habits, anatomical abnormalities, or muscular imbalances: Iliotibial band syndrome is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia on the lateral aspect of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, inserting just below the knee; the band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, as it moves from behind the femur to the front of the femur during activity. The continual rubbing of the band over the lateral femoral epicondyle, combined with the repeated flexion and extension of the knee during running may cause the area to become inflamed. Diagnosis of iliotibial band syndrome is based on history and physical exam findings, including tenderness at the lateral femoral epicondyle, where the iliotibial band passes over the bone. While ITBS pain can be acute, the iliotibial band can be rested, iced and elevated to reduce pain and inflammation, followed by stretching.

Utilization of corticosteroid injections and the use of anti-inflammatory medication on the painful area are possible treatments for ITB syndrome. Corticosteroid injections have been shown to decrease running pains 7 days after the initial treatment. Similar results can be found with the use of anti-inflammatory medication, analgesic/anti-inflammatory medication, specifically. Other non-invasive treatments include things such as, flexibility and strength training, neuromuscular/gait training, manual therapy, training volume reduction, or changes in running shoe. Muscular training of the gluteus maximus and hip external rotators is stressed as those muscles are associated with many of the risk factors of ITBS. For runners neuromuscular/gait training may be needed for success in muscular training interventions to ensure that those trained muscles are used properly in the mechanics of running. Strength training alone will not result in decrease in pain due to ITBS, gait training, on its own can result in running form modification that reduces the prevalence of risk factors.

Treatments as intensive and invasive as surgery are utilized if several conservative approaches fail to produce results. 6 months should be given for conservative treatments to work before surgical intervention as used. Significant association between the diagnosis of ITBS and occupational background of the patients has been determined. Occupations that require extensive use of iliotibial band are more susceptible to develop ITB due to continuum of their iliotibial band abrading against lateral epicondyle prominence, thereby inducing inflammatory response. Professional or amateur runners are at high clinical risk of ITBS in which shows greater risk in long-distance. Study suggests ITBS alone makes up 12% of all running-related injuries and 1.6% to 12% of runners are afflicted by ITBS. The relationship between ITBS and mortality/morbidity is claimed to be absent. A study showed that coordination variability did not vary between runners with no injury and runners with ITBS; this result elucidates that the runner's ability to coordinate themselves toward direction of their intention is not, or minorly affected by the pain of ITBS.

Additionally, military trainee in marine boot camps displayed high incidence rate of ITBS. Varying incidence rate of 5.3% - 22% in basic training was reported in a case study. A report from the U. S. Marine Corps announces. In contrast, studies suggested antithesis of conventional perception that racial, gender or age difference manifests in different incidence rate of ITBS diagnosis. No meaningful statistical data provides significant correlation between ITBS and gender, age, or race. Although, there had been a claim that females are more prone to ITBS due to their anatomical difference in pelvis and lower extremity. Males with larger lateral epicondyle prominence may be more susceptible to ITBS. Higher incidence rate of ITBS has been reported at age of 15–50, in which includes most of active athletes. Other professions that had noticeable association with ITBS include cyclists, heavy weightlifters, et cetera. One observational study discovered. Another study provided data that shows more than half of professional cyclists complain of knee pain.

Chondromalacia patellae Patellofemoral pain syndrome Plica syndrome van der Worp, Maarten P..

Politics and Vision

Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought is a work of political theory by Princeton Emeritus Professor Sheldon S. Wolin. Part One, consisting of ten chapters and first published in 1960, distinguishes political philosophy from philosophy in general and traces political philosophy from its Platonic origins to modern day. Part Two, consisting of seven chapters and published in a 2004 expanded edition, traces the development of political thought from Marx and others up to the late 20th century. Wolin left Part One unaltered in the expanded edition, confining the expressions of his changes in thought about political theory to those sections of Part Two that overlap with Part One. One sign of the significance of the work is the large number of graduate students and professors who for three decades used it as a primary source of guidance in the field of political theory. In revising the work, Wolin cites three major changes in political theory and politics between 1960 and 2004: the aftermath of Fascism's fall in Europe and Communism's fall with an intervening constant "semi-mobilization" by liberal democracies, an increase in the rights of citizens against the tendencies of regimentation by the state, an increase in the ability of nations to "control, survey and influence citizens."

Wolin states that the first change necessitated the latter two changes, leading to an "inverted totalitarianism" where increased rights exist alongside a less participatory citizenry under more pervasive governmental control. Wolin states that an inquiry is a tool to find truths. Philosophy is distinguished from other forms of inquiry in that "philosophy claims to deal with truths publicly arrived at and publicly demonstrable." Contrasted with this are revealed truths dealing with sacred rites and private findings of conscience or feelings. Political philosophy hews close to this characteristic of philosophy as a whole, with the public at times in history demanding that laws be publicly demonstrated and accessible if their origin was revealed truth. For Wolin, it is the nature of politics that common concerns are brought before the political process, because the political is best equipped both to confront those concerns and to do so in a public and thus philosophical manner; the discernment of what within philosophy is political and what is not is confused by two factors: the line can be blurred due to the interaction of political factors with other influences and the language used to describe political ideas is used in other contexts, vocabulary from other areas is applied to the political.

Wolin, Sheldon. Politics and vision: continuity and innovation in Western political thought. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. P. xvi. ISBN 9780691119779

Swiss Open (darts)

The Swiss Open is a darts tournament, held since 1984. Most wins 2: Martin Adams, Raymond van Barneveld, Steve Brown, Remco van Eijden. Most Finals 2: by 12 players. Most Semi Finals 4: Raymond van Barneveld. Most Quarter Finals 6: Raymond van Barneveld, Co Stompé. Most Appearances 9: Martin Atkins. Most Prize Money won CHF 5,697: Scott Mitchell. Best winning average: Joey ten Berge v's Edwin Max, 2008, Semi Final. Youngest Winner age 19: James Wade. Oldest Winner age 46: Dave Prins. List of BDO ranked tournaments List of WDF tournaments Swiss Darts Association http://www.dartsdatabase.co.uk/Swiss Open

Drive wheel

A drive wheel is a wheel of a motor vehicle that transmits force, transforming torque into tractive force from the tires to the road, causing the vehicle to move. The powertrain delivers enough torque to the wheel to overcome stationary forces, resulting in the vehicle moving forwards or backwards. A two-wheel drive vehicle has two driven wheels both at the front or back, while a four-wheel drive has four. A steering wheel is a wheel. A trailer wheel is one, neither a drive wheel, nor a steer wheel. Front-wheel drive vehicles have the rear wheels as trailer wheels. Front-wheel drive vehicles' engines drive the front wheels. Using the front wheels for delivery of power as well as steering allows the driving force to act in the same direction as the wheel is pointing; this layout is used in modern passenger cars. A rare example of front wheel drive was the Opperman Motocart; this slow-speed agricultural and light freight vehicle was a tricycle with the front wheel carrying a large tractor tyre. The wheel was powered by a small single cylinder Douglas engine carried on the front mono fork that formed the steering gear.

See Front-engine, front-wheel drive layout. Rear-wheel drive places the engine in the front of the vehicle, with a driveshaft running the length of the vehicle to the differential transmission. However, mid engine and rear engine layouts can used, it was a common layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. At this time, FWD designs were not practical due to complexity. For four-wheeled vehicles, two-wheel drive describes vehicles that transmit torque to at most two road wheels, referred to as either front- or rear-wheel drive; the term 4x2 is used, to indicate four total road-wheels with two being driven. For vehicles that have partial four-wheel drive, the term two-wheel drive refers to the mode when four-wheel drive is deactivated and torque is applied to only two wheels; this configuration allows all four road wheels to receive torque from the power plant simultaneously. It is used in rally racing on paved roads. Four-wheel drive is common in off-road vehicles because powering all four wheels provides better control on loose and slippery surfaces.

Four-wheel drive manufacturers have different systems such as "High Range 4WD" and "Low Range 4WD". These systems may provide added features such as a varying of torque distribution between axles or varying gear ratios. Common terms for this configuration include four-wheel drive, 4WD, 4x4, all-wheel drive. Drive sprocket, the powered sprocket on a tracked vehicle

The Hoodlum Saint

The Hoodlum Saint is a 1946 American drama film starring William Powell and Esther Williams. Major Terry O'Neill returns to Baltimore in 1919, after the end of World War I, expecting to get his old newspaper night editor job back. However, the paper has changed owners, the job has been filled, his friend and former editor, Allan Smith, has been told to cut costs. Disillusioned, Terry decides to make his fortune by whatever means necessary. Leaving the building, he runs into two less-than-savory friends, "Fishface" and "Three Finger"; when the pair are arrested for bookmaking, it takes all his money to pay their fines and that of "Snarp". He crashes a high society wedding party in the hope of meeting businessman Lewis J. Malbery; when a guard insists on seeing his invitation, Terry grabs guest Kay Lorrison and kisses her, much to her surprise. After the guard goes away, she slaps Terry in the face, but after his honest confession, begins to warm to him, she introduces him to publisher Joe Lorrison.

Terry impresses him with his ideas on how to fight a bitter foe - none other than Malbery - and lands a job. He and Kay, who works on occasion at the paper, develop a relationship. After masterminding a skillful newspaper campaign against Malbery, Terry surprises his boss by quitting his low-paying job to go to work for Malbery in New York. Snarp, Three Finger and "Eel" tag along and open a pool room; when after three years, Malbery promotes him to executive vice president of the company, he returns to Baltimore to see Kay. He finds her once again at a wedding. To his dismay, she informs him that this time she is the bride. Nightclub singer "Dusty" Millard gets him on the rebound. After a while, Terry crosses paths with Kay once more, she is a widow, interested in picking up where they left off. Dusty gives up. However, Kay learns that Terry has become cynical; when Snarp's bookmaking operation was uncovered, his disreputable pals appealed to Terry. Terry loses everything in the Wall Street Crash of 1929.

Nearly all his friends and associates, who invested in the stock market on his advice, make him a scapegoat. The only exceptions are Dusty. A reformed Snarp tries to get Terry to put his faith without success. Dusty offers Terry an expensive bracelet he once gave her. Embittered by the rejection, she takes over a charity Snarp set up dedicated to Saint Dismas, intending to steal the donations and place the blame on Terry; when Terry leaves town on business, he is cared for by Father Nolan. Snarp comes to see him to tell him what their old associates are doing. A concerned Kay shows up. Terry drives into town to plead with Dusty to return the money. Dusty and the others are unmoved at first, but when they see how sincere he is, Dusty gives it all back, more; the film was announced in 1943. It was based on the life of Dempster MacMurphy a Chicago newspaper executive who engaged in philanthropy under the name of St Dismas. Casey Robinson was signed to write the script. Rev Edward Dowling was hired as a consultant.

Frank Wead was assigned to the script. The film received mixed to negative reviews. According to MGM records the film made $1,156,000 in the US and Canada and $413,000 elsewhere, resulting in a loss of $918,000; the Hoodlum Saint on IMDb The Hoodlum Saint at the TCM Movie Database The Hoodlum Saint at AllMovie

New Hope, Paulding County, Georgia

New Hope is an unincorporated community in Paulding County, United States. Once considered a rural destination, New Hope is now an exurb of Atlanta, located at the crossroads of Dallas-Acworth Highway and East Paulding Drive/Old Cartersville Road; the community began to develop in the late 1990s and flourished in the early 2000s with the development of the Riverwood and SevenHills communities. As one of the fastest-growing communities in one of the nation's fastest-growing counties, New Hope was hit hard by the housing bust of the late 2000s; as a result, lots once slated for half-million dollar homes lie vacant, newly paved streets have no destination, newly built homes remain unsold and shuttered. New Hope is within zip code 30132, a part of Dallas; the Battle of New Hope Church, one of the last battles before Sherman's campaign reached Atlanta during the American Civil War, took place in this area. On April 4, 1977, Southern Airways Flight 242 crashed near New Hope, killing 72 people after making an emergency landing on Georgia State Route 381, Dallas Acworth Hwy.

The Douglas DC-9 was damaged from a severe thunderstorm. Every 10 years since the crash, the survivors have attended a ceremony in remembrance of the victims of the crash, it is the largest survivors' group of its kind