In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb; the single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is thick and strong, forms a ball and socket joint at the hip, a modified hinge joint at the knee; the femur is the only bone in the thigh and serves for an attachment site for all muscles in the thigh. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body; the femur is the longest bone in the body. The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis, the shaft and two epiphysis or extremities that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided by fascia, each containing muscles; these compartments use the femur as an axis, are separated by tough connective tissue membranes.
Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, contains a different group of muscles. Medial fascial compartment of thigh, adductor Posterior fascial compartment of thigh, hamstring Anterior fascial compartment of thigh, extensionAnterior compartment muscles of the thigh include sartorius, the four muscles that comprise the quadriceps muscles- rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Posterior compartment muscles of the thigh are the hamstring muscles, which include semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Medial compartment muscles are pectineus, adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis, gracilis; because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles of the body, resistance exercises of them stimulate blood flow more than any other localized activity. The arterial supply is by the obturator artery; the lymphatic drainage follows the arterial supply and drains to the lumbar lymphatic trunks on the corresponding side, which in turn drains to the cisterna chyli.
The deep venous system of the thigh consists of the femoral vein, the proximal part of the popliteal vein, various smaller vessels. The venae perfortantes connect the deep and the superficial system, which consists of the saphenous veins. Thigh weakness can result in a positive Gowers' sign on physical examination; the thigh meat of some animals such as chicken and cow is consumed as a food in many parts of the world
Vastus lateralis muscle
The vastus lateralis called the"vastus externus" is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh. Together with other muscles of the quadriceps group, it serves to extend the knee joint, moving the lower leg forward, it arises from a series of flat, broad tendons attached to the femur, attaches to the outer border of the patella. It joins with the other muscles that make up the quadriceps in the quadriceps tendon, which travels over the knee to connect to the tibia; the vastus lateralis is the recommended site for intramuscular injection in infants less than 7 months old and those unable to walk, with loss of muscular tone. The vastus lateralis muscle arises from several areas of the femur, including the upper part of the intertrochanteric line; these form a broad flat tendon that covers the upper three-quarters of the muscle. From the inner surface of the aponeurosis, many muscle fibers originate; some additional fibers arise from the tendon of the gluteus maximus muscle, from the septum between the vastus lateralis and short head of the biceps femoris.
The fibers form a large fleshy mass, attached to a second strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle. This lower aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon that attaches to the outer border of the patella, subsequently joins with the quadriceps femoris tendon, expanding the capsule of the knee-joint; the vastus lateralis muscle is innervated by the muscular branches of the femoral nerve. Notes This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna PTCentral
The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips, its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates can not sustain standing erectly; the muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Three bursae are found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle: One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter.
When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabulofemoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur, its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and adductor magnus. The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed; the lower part of the muscle acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints; the gluteus maximus is involved from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg. Hip thrusts Glute bridge Quadruped hip extensions Kettlebell swings Squats and variations like split squats, pistol squats and wide-stance lunges Deadlift Reverse hyperextension Four-way hip extensions Glute-ham raise Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles.
These tests include: 30 Second Chair to Stand testThis test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility and endurance, which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done. Passive piriformis stretch; the piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required.
Table of muscles of the human body Coccyx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0403 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/GluteusMaximus at exrx.net
Lateral rotator group
The lateral rotator group is a group of six small muscles of the hip which all externally rotate the femur in the hip joint. It consists of the following muscles: Piriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and the obturator externus. All muscles in the lateral rotator group originate from the hip bone and insert on to the upper extremity of the femur; the muscles are innervated by the sacral plexus, except the obturator externus muscle, innervated by the lumbar plexus. This group does not include all muscles which aid in lateral rotation of the hip joint: rather it is a collection of ones which are known for performing this action. Other muscles that contribute to lateral rotation of the hip include: Gluteus maximus muscle Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus muscle when the hip is extended Psoas major muscle Psoas minor muscle Sartorius muscle Hip anatomy Glutealregion at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Lateral condyle of femur
The lateral condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of the femur. The other one is the medial condyle; the lateral condyle is the more prominent and is broader both in its front-to-back and transverse diameters. The most common injury to the lateral femoral condyle is an osteochondral fracture combined with a patellar dislocation; the osteochondral fracture occurs on the weight-bearing portion of the lateral condyle. The condyle will fracture as a result of severe impaction from activities such as downhill skiing and parachuting. Open reduction and internal fixation surgery is used to repair an osteochondral fracture. For a Type B1 partial articular fracture of the lateral condyle, interfragmentary lag screws are used to secure the bone back together. Supplementation of buttress screws or a buttress plate is used if the fracture extends to the proximal metaphysis or distal diaphysis; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 247 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy aplab - BioWeb at University of Wisconsin System
The vastus medialis is an extensor muscle located medially in the thigh that extends the knee. The vastus medialis is part of the quadriceps muscle group; the vastus medialis is a muscle present in the anterior compartment of thigh, is one of the four muscles that make up the quadriceps muscle. The others are vastus intermedius and rectus femoris, it is the most medial of the "vastus" group of muscles. The vastus medialis arises medially along the entire length of the femur, attaches with the other muscles of the quadriceps in the quadriceps tendon; the vastus medialis muscle originates from a continuous line of attachment on the femur, which begins on the front and middle side on the intertrochanteric line of the femur. It continues down and back along the pectineal line and descends along the inner lip of the linea aspera and onto the medial supracondylar line of the femur; the fibers converge onto the inner part of the quadriceps tendon and the inner border of the patella. The obliquus genus muscle is the most distal segment of the vastus medialis muscle.
Its specific training plays an important role in maintaining patella position and limiting injuries to the knee. With no clear delineation, it is the most distal group of fibers of the vastus medialis; the vastus medialis is one of four muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh. It is involved in knee extension, along with the other muscles the quadriceps muscle; the vastus medialis contributes to correct tracking of the patella. A division of the vastus medialis muscle into two groups of fibers has been hypothesized, a long and inline group of fibres with the quadriceps ligament, the vastus medialis longus. There is as yet insufficient evidence to conclusively deny this hypothesis. Knee pain is thought to be associated with specific quadriceps muscle weakness or fatigue in the vastus medialis obliquus, it is known that fatigue can be caused by many different mechanisms, ranging from the accumulation of metabolites within muscle fibers to the generation of an inadequate motor command in the motor cortex.
Characteristics of the vastus medialis, including its angle of insertion, correlate with presence of knee joint pain. However, this syndrome is complex and definitive evidence of causality has not yet been published. Misfiring and fatiguing of the VMO causes mal-tracking of the patella and subsequent damage to surrounding structures creating increased force on the knees resulting in injuries such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, anterior cruciate ligament rupture and tendinitis. Through the use of electromyography, researchers can evaluate and record the electrical activity produced by the skeletal muscle of the VMO to analyze the biomechanics and detect any possible abnormalities, weakness, or fatigue. With an analysis of muscle activity of the VMO through the use of electromyography, proper rehabilitative plans and goals can be established to not only correct the established abnormality, but prevent such injuries if tested sooner. Preventing injuries is crucial as well as teaching proper training techniques to ensure there are no valgus collapse forces causing unplanned stress on other structures of the knee, causing asymmetry, predisposing that individual for injury.
Medial patellofemoral ligament This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna PTCentral
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location