Ferrette is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It is situated close to the Swiss border, its main attraction is the Château de Ferrette. The County of Ferrette came into existence in the 11th century and consisted of a large part of southern Alsace. In 1324, the County was acquired by Austria through the marriage of Jeanne, Countess of Ferrette, with Albert II, Duke of Austria; the County was part of the dowry for Catherine of Burgundy upon her marriage to Duke Leopold IV. Upon Leopold's death in 1411, his brother, Frederick occupied Ferrette. Austria ceded it to France in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. Communes of the Haut-Rhin département INSEE
Mulhouse is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063 in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, the second largest in the Alsace region after Strasbourg. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 33 making up the communauté d'agglomération Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération. Mulhouse is famous for its museums the Cité de l’Automobile and the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester", Mulhouse is the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where is found the secretariat of the European Physical Society. Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Legends mention the origin of Mulhouse in 58 BC, but the first written records of the town date from the twelfth century, it was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution. Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing. André Koechlin built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842; the firm in 1839 employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.
After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War, Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The city was occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days in the Battle of Mulhouse; the citizens of Alsace who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace. Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945; the town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester; the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, with the Levant.
The town's history explains why its centre is small. Two rivers run through both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is 100 kilometres away from Strasbourg and Zürich, it lies close enough to Basel and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities. Mulhouse's climate is temperate oceanic, but its location further away from the ocean gives the city colder winters with some snow, hot and humid summers, in comparison with the rest of France. Medieval Mulhouse consists of a lower and an upper town; the lower town was the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen. It developed around the Place de la Réunion. Nowadays this area is pedestrianised; the upper town developed from the eighteenth century on. Several monastic orders were established there, notably the Franciscans, Poor Clares and Knights of Malta; the Nouveau Quartier is the best example of urban planning in Mulhouse, was developed from 1826 on, after the town walls had been torn down. It is focused around the Place de la République.
Its network of streets and its triangular shape are a good demonstration of the town's desire for a planned layout. The planning was undertaken by the architects G. Félix Fries; this inner city district was occupied by rich families and the owners of local industries, who tended to be liberal and republican in their opinions. The Rebberg district consists of grand houses inspired by the colonnaded residences of Louisiana cotton planters; this was the town's vineyard. The houses here were built as terraces in the English style, a result of the town's close relationship with Manchester, where the sons of industrialists were sent to study. Hôtel de Ville; the town hall was built in 1553 in the Rhenish Renaissance style. Montaigne described it as a "palais magnifique et tout doré" in 1580, it is known for its trompe l'œil paintings, its pictures of allegories representing the vices and virtues. Workers' qu
The High Rhine is the name used for the part of the Rhine that flows westbound from Lake Constance to Basel. The High Rhine begins at the out flow of the Rhine from the Untersee in Stein am Rhein and turns into the Upper Rhine in Basel. In contrast to the Alpine Rhine and Upper Rhine, the High Rhine flows to the west; the section is marked by Rhine-kilometers 0 to 165, measurements beginning at the outflow of the Obersee at the Old Rhine Bridge in Constance. It is the first of four sections of the Rhine between the North Sea. In the western part the Rhine marks the border between Germany and Switzerland, while in the eastern part, Switzerland owns areas north of the Rhine and surrounds the popular German holiday resort Büsingen; the term High Rhine was introduced by scientists in the 19th century. Above all geologists tried to differentiate the High Rhine linguistically from the Upper Rhine; until the 19th century, it was known as the "Badisch-Swiss Rhine". The Rhine Falls, which are the largest plain waterfalls of Europe, are in the municipalities of Neuhausen am Rheinfall and Laufen-Uhwiesen, near the town of Schaffhausen.
They are 23 metres high. In the winter months, the average water flow is 250 cubic metres per second, while in the summer, the average water flow is 600 cubic metres per second; the rapids in the High Rhine should be viewed in the context of the high slope—from 395 to 252 metres above sea level in just 165 kilometres —and the change of the river's course during the Würm ice age. In Neuhausen am Rheinfall, the river falls into a buried stream channel, forming the Rhine Falls at Schaffhausen; the next rapids are the Kadelburg Rapids at Koblenz. Near Laufenburg, the post-glacial Rhine failed to find the old silted-up channel and hit a spur of Black Forest crystal; the river cut containing the Laufenburg Rapids. The Laufenburg and Schwörstadt Rapids have been artificially eliminated by blowing up the rocks and raising the water level with dams; the character of the river has been changed over long distances by the construction of hydropower station. The Laufenburg and Schwörstadt Rapids were removed by blowing up rocks to improve navigation, flooded due to the hydropower dams.
Between Diessenhofen and Stein am Rhein, the High Rhine has yet to be dammed. The first power plant of the Rhine is at Schaffhausen; the next power plant is located at Küssaberg. After Rekingen, the High Rhine flows through the Koblenz Rapids to the confluence with the Aare; the next hydropower plant, is at Dogern. There are seven more power plant between Basel. Altogether, the High Rhine has elven dams and twelve hydropower plants (there are two plants at the Augst/Wyhlen Dam; some parts of the High Rhine valley are wide. The population density varies accordingly. Prominent towns on the High Rhine include Stein am Rhein, Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Laufenburg, Bad Säckingen and Basel; the most important organizations for cross-border cooperation on the High Rhine are High Rhine Commission and High Rhine Agency. Larger tributaries of the High Rhine are Biber, Thur, Töss, Wutach, Alb, Sissle, Wehra and Birs, it is noteworthy that the Aare with 590 cubic metres per second has a larger discharge than the Rhine with 439 cubic metres per second.
From hydrological point of view, the Rhine is a tributary of the Aare, not vice versa. The Rhine is, however considered the main stream, because it is longer than the Aare. Numerous areas along the High Rhine are or were considered important. From west to east, they are Dinkelberg, Fricktal, Tabel Jura, Aargau, Klettgau, Zurzibiet, Zürichgau and Thurgau. Authorities on the Baden-Württemberg side of the river are organized in a framework called Regionalverband Hochrhein-Bodensee. Switzerland plans to bury its nuclear waste near the border with Germany. High Rhine Railway Andreas Gruschke: Der Hochrhein. Eine alemannische Flusslandschaft. Schillinger, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1995, ISBN 3-89155-183-5 Rhine Falls homepage Photographs of the Rhine Falls Spanish guide High Rhine:Pictures High Rhine Commission and High Rhine Agency
The Vorderrhein is one of the two sources of the Rhine. Its catchment area of 1,512 square kilometres is located predominantly in the canton of Graubünden; the Vorderrhein is about 76 kilometres long, thus more than 5% longer than the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur. The Vorderrhein, has an average water flow of 53.8 m3/s, less than the flow of the Hinterrhein. According to the Atlas of Switzerland of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, the source of the Vorderrhein– and the Rhine –is located north of the Rein da Tuma and Lake Toma. Vorderrhein was the name of a judicial district, created in 1851 with the reorganization of the judiciary of Graubünden. In 2001, it was annexed by the District Surselva; the largest communities along the Vorderrhein are Ilanz. The Vorderrhein flows in an east-northeast direction, through the Surselva, a large longitudinal valley, its north side is steep, with short valleys, the southern side, however, is divided by some long valleys. Its main tributaries, the Rein da Sumvitg, the Glenner and the Rabiusa all come from the south.
In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through the Flims Rockslide, giving rise to the canyon country of the Ruinaulta. Near Reichenau, it joins the Hinterrhein to form the Rhine; some of the tributaries of the Vorderrhein are as long as the main branch. In downstream order, they are: Two unnamed streams originating in the Puozas and Milez areas near the Oberalppass Rein da Tuma, including the Lai da Tuma and the main head of the lake, about 71 kilometres The Aua da Val from the Val valley Rein da Maighels Rein da Curnera Rein da Nalps Rein da Medel, the upper reaches in the Canton of Ticino are known as Reno di Medel, as Froda So the longer arms are not the source at Oberalppass, but further southeast; the longest headwater front of the Vorderrhein, is the Reno di Medel, which rises on the border of the municipality Quinto in Ticino. In the uppermost part of its course, it runs in the Val Cadlimo, south of the geomorphological main Alpine ridge, west of the Lukmanier Pass; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level.
It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. Thanks to its attractive scenery and some interesting passage, the Vorderrhein is a popular river for paddling and rafting the section between Ilanz and Versam. Along entire length of the Vorderrhein there is a narrow-gauge railway line: from Chur to Disentis there is a line of the Rhätische Bahn. From Disentis, the Furka-Oberalp line of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn runs to the Oberalp Pass and on to Andermatt. In the Ruinaulta area, the main road runs to the North of the river, at its highest point, at Flims, it is about 480 metres above the Rhine; the Senda Sursilvana, a hiking trail along the young Rhine River lead from the Oberalp Pass along the Vorderrhein in the direction of Chur. Natural Monument Ruinaulta flow description for water rides
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle. In British English, the term "canoe" can refer to a kayak, while canoes are called Canadian canoes to distinguish them from kayaks. Canoes are used for competition and pleasure, such as racing, whitewater and camping, general recreation. Canoeing has been part of the Olympics since 1936; the intended use of the canoe dictates its hull length and construction material. Canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame, but construction materials evolved to canvas on a wood frame to aluminum. Most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass. Canoes were developed by cultures all over the world, including some designed for use with sails or outriggers; until the mid-1800s the canoe was an important means of transport for exploration and trade, in some places it still is used as such with the addition of an outboard motor.
Where the canoe played a key role in history, such as the northern United States and New Zealand, it remains an important theme in popular culture. The word canoe comes via the Spanish canoa. Constructed between 8200 and 7600 BC, found in the Netherlands, the Pesse canoe may be the oldest known canoe. Excavations in Denmark reveal the use of paddles during the Ertebølle period. Australian Aboriginal people made canoes using a variety of materials, including bark and hollowed out tree trunks; the indigenous people of the Amazon used Hymenaea trees. The Pacific Northwest canoes are a dugouts made of red cedar. Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built bark canoes, they were skinned with birch bark over a light wooden frame, but other types could be used if birch was scarce. At a typical length of 4.3 m and weight of 23 kg, the canoes were light enough to be portaged, yet could carry a lot of cargo in shallow water. Although susceptible to damage from rocks, they are repaired, their performance qualities were soon recognized by early European immigrants, canoes played a key role in the exploration of North America, with Samuel de Champlain canoeing as far as the Georgian Bay in 1615.
René de Bréhant de Galinée a French missionary who explored the Great Lakes in 1669 declared: "The convenience of these canoes is great in these waters, full of cataracts or waterfalls, rapids through which it is impossible to take any boat. When you reach them you load canoe and baggage upon your shoulders and go overland until the navigation is good. American painter and traveler George Catlin wrote that the bark canoe was "the most beautiful and light model of all the water crafts that were invented." Native American groups of the north Pacific coast made dugout canoes in a number of styles for different purposes, from western red-cedar or yellow-cedar, depending on availability. Different styles were required for ocean-going vessels versus river boats, for whale-hunting versus seal-hunting versus salmon-fishing; the Quinault of Washington State built shovel-nose canoes, with double bows, for river travel that could slide over a logjam without portaging. The Kootenai of British Columbia province made sturgeon-nosed canoes from pine bark, designed to be stable in windy conditions on Kootenay Lake.
The first explorer to cross the North American continent, Alexander Mackenzie, used canoes extensively, as did David Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the North American fur trade the Hudson's Bay Company's voyageurs used three types of canoe: The rabaska or canot du maître was designed for the long haul from the St. Lawrence River to western Lake Superior, its dimensions were: length 11 m, beam 1.2 to 1.8 m, height about 76 cm. It could carry 60 packs weighing 41 kg, 910 kg of provisions. With a crew of eight or ten, they could make three knots over calm waters. Four to six men could portage it, bottom up. Henry Schoolcraft declared it "altogether one of the most eligible modes of conveyance that can be employed upon the lakes." Archibald McDonald of the Hudson's Bay Company wrote: "I never heard of such a canoe being wrecked, or upset, or swamped... they swam like ducks." The canot du nord, a craft specially made and adapted for speedy travel, was the workhorse of the fur trade transportation system.
About one-half the size of the Montreal canoe, it could carry about 35 packs weighing 41 kg and was manned by four to eight men. It was portaged in the upright position; the express canoe or canot léger, was about 4.6 m long and were used to carry people and news. The birch bark canoe was used in a 6,500-kilometre supply route from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean and the Mackenzie River, continued to be used up to the end of the 19th century. Popular for hauling freight on inland waterways in 19th Century North America were the York boat and the batteau. In 19th-century North America, the birch-on-frame construction technique evolved into the wood-and-canvas canoes made by fastening an external waterproofed canvas shell to planks and ribs by boat builders Old Town Canoe, E. M. White Canoe, Peterborough Canoe Company and at the Chestnut Canoe Company in New Brunswick. Although canoes were once a means of transport, with industrialization they became popular as recreational or sporting watercraft.
The Upper Rhine is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basel in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529; the Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river between the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse; the largest cities along the river are Basel, Strasbourg, Mannheim and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977; the Treaty of Versailles allows France to use the Upper Rhine for hydroelectricity in the Grand Canal d'Alsace. On the left bank are the French region of Alsace and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the first few kilometres are in the Swiss city of Basel. Around 35 million years ago, a rift valley of about 300 kilometres long and 50 kilometres wide came into being between the present cities of Basel and Frankfurt.
This was due to tensile stresses in the Earth's crust and mantle, which resulted in lowering the earth's surface. The moat has been filled up again by sedimentation. On the edges we find mountain ridges, the so-called "rift flanks". On the eastern side, they are the Black Forest and Odenwald mountains, in the west the Vosges and Palatinate Forest. During the Tertiary, the High Rhine continued west from Basel and flowed via the Doubs and the Saône, into the Rhône; the rift diverted the Rhine into the newly formed Upper Rhine Valley. The Rhine knee at Basel marks the transition from the High Rhine to the Upper Rhine with a change of direction from West to North and a change of landscape from the small-chamber high-Rhine cuesta landscape to the wide rift zone of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley; the two largest tributaries come from the right: the Neckar in Mannheim, the Main across from Mainz. In the northwest corner of the Upper Rhine Valley, at Rhine-kilometre 529.1, near Bingen, where the Nahe flows into the Rhine, the Rhine flows into a gorge in the Rhenish Massif and thereby changes into the Middle Rhine.
In 1685, Louis XIV started a project to move the Upper Rhine, change its course and drain the floodplain, in order to gain land. By 1840, the river had been moved up to 1.5 kilometres to the east, taking territory away from Baden. Around 1790, large parts of the Rhine Valley were deforested, creating arable land and pasture to feed the population; the Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and changed from a sluggish meandering river with major and many smaller branches into a fast flowing stream flanked by embankments. The length of the Upper Rhine was reduced by 81 kilometres; some cut-off river arms and ox-bows remain. The Rhine between Basel and Iffezheim is entirely canalised. On a stretch of 180 kilometres, there are 10 dams, provided with hydropower locks. Between Basel and Breisach, the old river bed carries hardly any water. Only when there is a large supply of water the old river bed will receive more water than the canal. France gained the right to do this in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.
The straightening and channeling reduced the water table by up to 16 metres and thus had a negative effect on flora and fauna. Gravel is missing from the river, due to the dams; this has caused erosion below the dam at Iffezheim. To counter this, 173,000 cubic metres per year of a mixture of sand and gravel with an average grain diameter of 20 millimetres has been dumped into the river, since 1978, using two motorized barges; the floodplains between Mainz and Bingen are important for nature conservation. In this section, the so-called Island Rhine, there are many nature reserves and bird sanctuaries; the Upper Rhine plays a key role in flood control on the Lower Rhine. As a result of the straightening of the Upper Rhine, floods from the Alps now reach the Middle Rhine much faster than in the past. Thus, the risk of such a peak coinciding with a flood peak of Neckar, Moselle or Main has increased. About 123 square kilometres of floodplain have been lost. Authorities in riparian states of France, Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate have launched the Integrated Rhine Programme, a framework for designating water retention areas.
To combat downstream flooding. A French-German treaty was concluded in 1982, in which the parties agreed to restore the retention capacity on the stretch below Iffezheim to the level it had before the area was developed; this means: For the stretch between Iffezheim and the mouth of the Neckar, attenuation of the apex of a 200-year flood of the Rhine to a discharge of 5,000 cubic metres per second at the Maxau gauge station, that is, a reduction from 5,700 cubic metres per second to 5,000 cubic metres per second. For the stretch below the mouth of the Neckar, attenuation of the apex of a 220-year flood to a discharge o