National Wild and Scenic Rivers System
The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System was created by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, enacted by the U. S. Congress to preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural and recreational values in a free-flowing condition for the enjoyment of present and future generations; the Act is notable for safeguarding the special character of these rivers, while recognizing the potential for their appropriate use and development. It encourages river management that crosses political boundaries and promotes public participation in developing goals for river protection; the Act, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson in the height of the United States environmental era, states:"It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United States that certain selected rivers of the Nation which, with their immediate environments, possess outstandingly remarkable scenic, geologic and wildlife, cultural or other similar values, shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, that they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations.
The Congress declares that the established national policy of dams and other construction at appropriate sections of the rivers of the United States needs to be complemented by a policy that would preserve other selected rivers or sections thereof in their free-flowing condition to protect the water quality of such rivers and to fulfill other vital national conservation purposes." The Act established the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System to protect and enhance rivers found to be regionally and nationally significant. Rivers may be designated by Congress or, if certain requirements are met, the Secretary of the Interior; each designated river is administered by either a federal, state, or tribal agency, or as a partnership between any number of these government entities and local NGOs. Designated segments need not include the entire river and may include headwaters and tributaries. For federally administered rivers, the designated boundaries average one-quarter mile on either bank in the lower 48 states and one-half mile on rivers outside national parks in Alaska in order to protect river-related values.
As of August 2018, the National System protects over 12,700 miles of 209 rivers in 40 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. By comparison, more than 75,000 large dams across the country have modified at least 600,000 miles, or about 17%, of American rivers; the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act was an outgrowth of the recommendations of a Presidential commission, the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Among other things, the commission recommended that the nation protect wild rivers and scenic rivers from development that would change their free-flowing nature and values. At this time, the country was experiencing rapid degradation of its water resources due to municipal and industrial effluent being released into the nation's rivers. Many waterways and the fish in them were toxic. Populations of aquatic species were declining and people were being relocated from their communities due to rampant dam building. All across the country people were writing letters imploring the President and First lady to protect their beloved rivers.
The act was sponsored by Sen. Frank Church and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 2, 1968. A river, or river section, may be designated by the U. S. Congress or the Secretary of the Interior. In 1968, as part of the original act, eight rivers were designated as National Wild and Scenic Rivers; as of November 2018, 209 rivers, totaling 12,754 miles of river in 40 states and Puerto Rico, have Wild and Scenic status. By comparison, more than 75,000 large dams across the country have modified at least 600,000 miles, or about 17%, of American rivers. Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing Outstandingly Remarkable Values that fall into the 8 categories: Scenic, Geologic, Wildlife, Culture, or Other similar values; these values can be considered synonymous with ecosystem services, or those goods and services that nature provides and that benefit society. Rivers so designated are set out for protection and enhancement in perpetuity by preserving their free-flowing condition from dams and development that would otherwise diminish the quality of their remarkable values.
National Wild and Scenic designation vetoes the licensing of new dams on, or directly affecting the designated section of river. It provides strong protection against federally funded bank and channel alterations that adversely affect river values, protects riverfront public lands from new oil and mineral development, creates a federal reserved water right to protect flow-dependent values such as fish habitat. Designation as a Wild and Scenic River is not the same as a national park designation, does not confer the same protections as a Wilderness Area designation. Wild and Scenic designation protects the free-flowing nature of rivers in both federal and non-federal areas, something the Wilderness Act and other federal designations cannot do. Despite misplaced fears, WSR designation does not alter private property rights. Federally administered National Wild and Scenic Rivers are managed by one or more of the four principal land-managing agencies of the federal government. Of the 209 National Wild an
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second
Rockport is a census-designated place in Skagit County, United States. The population was 109 at the 2010 census, it is included in the Mount Vernon -- Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. Based on per capita income, Rockport ranks 48th of 522 areas in the state of Washington to be ranked. Rockport is located at 48°29′8″N 121°35′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rockport has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 102 people, 39 households, 26 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 272.2 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 144.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.04% White and 1.96% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population.
There were 39 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.12. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 30.4% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $48,750, the median income for a family was $69,250. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $28,372. None of the population or families were below the poverty line
The Skagit River is a river in southwestern British Columbia in Canada and northwestern Washington in the United States 150 mi long. The river and its tributaries drain an area of 1.7 million acres of the Cascade Range along the northern end of Puget Sound and flows into the sound. The Skagit watershed is characterized by a mid-latitude, maritime climate. Temperatures range throughout the watershed. Recorded temperatures at Newhalem range from a low of −6 °F to a high of 109 °F, with greater extremes in the mountains; the highest temperatures are recorded in July. The Skagit River rises at Allison Pass in the Canadian Cascades of British Columbia. From there it flows northwest along the Crowsnest Highway, which follows the river into Manning Provincial Park, it turns abruptly south where it receives Snass Creek from the right enters Skagit Valley Provincial Park at the point where it receives the Sumallo River from the right. It receives the Klesilkwa River from the right, turns southeast to flow into Ross Lake, where it crosses the Canada–United States border and into Washington state.
Ross Lake is formed by Ross Dam and is 24 miles long, winding south through Ross Lake National Recreation Area. Here the river receives Beaver Creek from Ruby Creek from the left. Spilling out of the dam the river enters Diablo Lake, formed by Diablo Dam, receives Thunder and Colonial creeks from the left, before it enters the third and final reservoir, Gorge Lake, formed by Gorge Dam. All three dams are part of the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project. Past Gorge Dam, the river is dry, as its waters have been diverted to generate hydroelectricity. Water is returned to the river as it passes a company town for Seattle City Light. Copper and Bacon creeks, both flowing from North Cascades National Park, merge into the Skagit from the right as it meanders through an agricultural valley, past Marblemount, where the Cascade River joins from the left, Rockport, where it receives its major tributary, the Sauk River, from the left. After receiving the Sauk River, the Skagit turns west, flowing past Concrete and receiving the Baker River, its second-largest tributary, from the right.
The river continues to flow west, past Sedro-Woolley and Mount Vernon. At the former site of Skagit City, it diverges into two forks, a north and south fork, forming Fir Island; these two forks both empty into a branch of Puget Sound. The Skagit provides spawning habitat for salmon, it is the only large river system in Washington that contains healthy populations of all five native salmon species and two species of trout. Salmon runs include chinook, chum, sockeye Trout - steelhead and coastal cutthroat; the river supports one of the largest wintering bald eagle populations in the continental United States. The eagles feed on Chum and Coho salmon that have returned to spawn in the Skagit and its tributaries; the eagles stay into February. The highest number of eagles is seen in January; these eagles as far away as Alaska and Montana. When the salmon run is plentiful, as many as 600 to 800 eagles are attracted to the river.. Thousands of snow geese winter in the Skagit River estuary; these geese feed on intertidal marsh plants such as bulrush and they are drawn to nearby farmlands where they find leftover potatoes in the fields.
Trumpeter swans are drawn to the estuary habitat as well. There can be several hundred swans in the Skagit valley from October to February; the Skagit tidal estuary had beaver dams in the myrtle zone. These were overtopped at high tide; the Skagit River basin provides habitat for a diverse set of animals. For more information about these animals, see List of Wildlife of the Skagit River Basin; the Skagit River was influenced by the repeated advance and retreat of the Puget Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. Ice and gravel moraines blocked the Skagit, causing it to pool into lakes and forcing it to drain south into the future North Fork Stillaguamish River. After the ice retreated the Skagit breached the moraine dam near Concrete, finding its present course; the Sauk River and Suiattle River continued to drain into the future North Fork Stillaguamish River until eruptions of Glacier Peak choked the rivers with debris, causing the formation of an alluvial fan near present-day Darrington, Washington.
The debris forced the two rivers north to join the Skagit. Above Newhalem, the Skagit flows through a deep gorge, contrasting with the glacial valley below Newhalem. One of the several theories about this anomaly is that the upper Skagit once drained northward into Canada and the growth and retreat of successive Cordilleran ice flows brought about the reversal; each advance blocked the river, forcing it to find new routes to the south, in the process carving deep gorges. The Skagit gorge was so deep that after the Cordilleran ice retreated for good, the river continued flowing south instead of north into Canada; the Skagit watershed is made up of low valleys. The highest points in the basin are two volcanoes: Mount Baker, elevation 10,781 feet, Glacier Peak, elevation 10,541 feet. Most of the basin lies above 2,000 feet; the river completes its course at sea level. The river takes its name from the Skagit tribe, a name used by Europeans and Americans for two distinct Native American peoples, the Upper Skagit and Lower Skagit.
Native people have lived along the Skagit for thousands of years. Arc
The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, United States. Its mission is to "conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends." The Conservancy pursues non confrontational, pragmatic solutions to conservation's challenges working with partners including indigenous communities, governments, multilateral institutions, other non-profits. The Conservancy's work focuses on the global priorities of Lands, Climate and Cities. Founded in Arlington, Virginia, in 1951, The Nature Conservancy now impacts conservation in 72 countries, including all 50 states of the United States; the Conservancy has over one million members, has protected more than 119,000,000 acres of land and thousands of miles of rivers worldwide. The Nature Conservancy operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally; the organization's assets total $6.71 billion as of 2015. The Nature Conservancy is the largest environmental nonprofit by assets and by revenue in the Americas.
The Nature Conservancy rates as one of the most trusted national organizations in Harris Interactive polls every year since 2005. Forbes magazine rated The Nature Conservancy's fundraising efficiency at 88 percent in its 2005 survey of the largest U. S. charities. The Conservancy received a three-star rating from Charity Navigator in 2016; the American Institute of Philanthropy gives the Conservancy a B+ rating and includes it on its list of "Top-Rated Charities". The Nature Conservancy is led by President and CEO Mark Tercek, a former managing director at Goldman Sachs, he is the author of the book Nature’s Fortune: How Business and Society Thrive by Investing in Nature. The Nature Conservancy's Chief Scientist is Australian Hugh Possingham, named to this position in 2016; the current board chairman is Craig the Chairman & CEO of Eagle River Inc.. Other current members include former U. S. Senator Bill Frist, chairman of the Alibaba Group Jack Ma, Chairman and Co-founder of The Bridgespan Group Thomas J. Tierney.
The Nature Conservancy developed out of a scholarly organization known as the Ecological Society of America. The ESA was founded in 1915 and two years formed a Committee on Preservation of Natural Areas for Ecological Study, headed by Victor Shelford. Whereas the Society focused on promoting research, in the course of the 1930s Shelford and his colleagues sought to advocate for conservation; the divide in viewpoints regarding scholarship or advocacy led the Society to dissolve the committee, and, in 1946, Shelford and his colleagues formed the Ecologists' Union. The latter group took the name "The Nature Conservancy", in emulation of the British agency of that name, which pursued a mission of conserving open space and wildlife preserves; the Nature Conservancy was incorporated in the United States as a non-profit organization on October 22, 1951. The Nature Conservancy takes a scientific approach to conservation, setting goals that describe the results it wants to achieve for biodiversity; the Nature Conservancy sets both long-term and near-term goals for conserving the abundance and geographic distribution of critical species and ecological systems.
The organization's overall goal is to ensure the long-term survival of all biodiversity on Earth. The Nature Conservancy works with all sectors of society including businesses, communities, partner organizations, government agencies to achieve its goals; the Nature Conservancy is known for working and collaboratively with traditional land owners such as farmers and ranchers, with whom it partners when such a partnership provides an opportunity to advance mutual goals. The Nature Conservancy is in the forefront of private conservation groups implementing prescribed fire to restore and maintain healthy ecosystems and working to address the threats to biodiversity posed by non-native and invasive plants and animals; the Nature Conservancy has pioneered new land preservation techniques such as the conservation easement and debt for nature swaps. A conservation easement is a way for land owners to ensure that their land remains in its natural state while capitalizing on some of the land's potential development value.
Debt for nature swaps are tools used to encourage natural area preservation in third world countries while assisting the country economically as well: in exchange for setting aside land, some of the country's foreign debt is forgiven. The Conservancy believes that the private sector has an important role to play in advancing its conservation mission; the organization works to help businesses make better decisions, understand the value of nature, protect it. Among the companies it works with are: 3M/3M Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, AmazonSmile, AT&T, Bank of America, Barrick Gold, BHP Billiton, Inc. Caterpillar/Caterpillar Foundation, The Coca-Cola Company, Delta Air Lines, Discovery Channel: North America, The Dow Chemical Company, FEMSA, General Mills, Goldman Sachs, Harley-Davidson, IBM, JPMorgan Chase & Co. Lowe's/Lowe's Charitable and Educational Foundation, Oracle, PepsiCo Recycle for Nature, Swiss Re, UPS, Whole Foods Market; the Nature Conservancy's expanding international conservation efforts include work in North America, Central America, South America, the Pacific Rim, the Caribbean, Asia.
The Conservancy focuses on developing global solutions at the intersection of nature's and people's needs. The solutions are areas where it aims to develop specific strategies and link them to its place-based work at the system scale. Below are a few examples of such work: The Nature Conservancy was instrumental in the creation in 2004 of the Great