Aukštaitija is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. The name comes from the high elevation of the region the eastern parts. Aukštaitija is in the northeast part of Lithuania and encompasses a small part of Latvia and Belarus; the largest city and, though not in any strict political sense, the considered capital of the region is Panevėžys, which has over 100,000 inhabitants. The largest cities are: Panevėžys – 119,749 Jonava – 34,954 Utena – 33,860 Kėdainiai – 32,048 Visaginas – 29,554 Ukmergė – 28,759 Radviliškis – 20,339The region has many lakes in the eastern side. Aukštaitija had been correspondent to the Duchy of Lithuania up to the 13th century, its initial capital most was Kernavė. In the treaty of Gediminas of 1322, Aukštaitija is named terra Eustoythen. Aukštaitija was mentioned as Austechia in Chronicon terrae Prussiae written around 1326. Politically, since the end of the 13th century, it comprised the Duchy of Vilnius/Lithuania and Duchy of Trakai, was employed to refer to them both taken together.
Since the 15th century, corresponding Trakai Voivodeship and Vilnius Voivodeship made up Aukštaitija, as a political and ethnically based unit known as Lithuania Propria. Local people speak the Aukštaitian dialect of Lithuanian. Under the new classification of dialects Lithuanian is divided into just two dialects, Aukštaitian and Samogitian with all previous dialects being classified as subdialects; the Sudovian and Dzukian dialects are considered subdialects of Aukštaitian now, therefore the specific subdialect spoken in Aukštaitija is known as East Aukštaitian. The region has Russian and Belarusian minorities in the east, subdialects there use more loan words from those languages; however the usage of dialects, as in Lithuania in general, is decreasing. The proposed designs by R. Rinkunas of the Aukštaitian flag and coat of arms were introduced to the public in March 2007. Aukštaitija National Park Samogitia
Vincas Mickevičius, better known by his pen name Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, was a Lithuanian writer, novelist and philologist. He is known as Vincas Krėvė, the shortened name he used in the United States. Vincas Mickevičius was born to a family of peasant farmers on October 19, 1882, in the village of Subartonys in Dzūkija ethnographic region of Lithuania, his family was called Krėvė by the local villagers, name that he used for his pen name. The customs and traditions of his native district were a constant source of the inspiration for his literary work. In 1898, he became a student for the Roman Catholic priesthood at the Vilnius Seminary, but in 1900 he was expelled from the seminary. In 1904, he enrolled the University of Kiev. However, a year the university was temporarily closed due to the revolutionary conditions in the Russian Empire, Krėvė-Mickevičius, unwilling to interrupt his studies, entered the University of Lviv, in Galicia, at the time part of the Austrian Empire, in 1908, he received his doctorate in philology.
That same year, the University of Kiev awarded him a gold medal for his thesis on the original home of the Indo-Europeans. In 1913, the University of Kiev awarded him the degree of Master of Comparative Linguistics for his dissertation on the origin of the names Buddha and Pratjekabuddha. In 1909, Krėvė-Mickevičius became a high school teacher in the city of Azerbaijan. Three years he assisted in founding the People's University of Baku, delivered lectures there. Lithuania achieved independence in 1918, a year Krėvė-Mickevičius became Lithuanian Consul in Azerbaijan. In 1920, he returned to Lithuania, settled in Kaunas, which at the time was the temporary capital; when the University of Lithuania was founded in 1922, Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius became professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, remained there as part of the faculty for the following two decades. His first attempts on writing came at first using Russian and Polish languages; the first volume of his collected works was published in 1921, at which time he was a well-known and respected figure, serving as editor of several academic and literary periodicals.
On 24 June 1940, he was appointed as Prime Minister of Lithuania by acting President Justas Paleckis. He headed the "People's Government of Lithuania", formed as a rubber stamp for the Soviet takeover of Lithuania. On July 1, 1940 he, together with some other communists, visited Vyacheslav Molotov and asked for full annexation of Lithuania into the USSR. On returning, he offered his resignation, not accepted at the time. After the start of the Nazi occupation of Lithuania in 1941, the closing of higher educational institutions in 1943, Krėvė-Mickevičius went into hiding. Soviet forces reoccupied Lithuania in 1944, at which point he fled the country and settled in a displaced persons camp at Glasenbach, near Salzburg, Austria. There, he taught at the local camp's high school. In 1947, the University of Pennsylvania extended an invitation to join its faculty. There, he served as an Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures until 1953, when he retired. On July 17, 1954, Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius died in Broomall, United States.
He was considered as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. The literary production of Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius is wide and varied, it included historical dramas, collections of folklore, short stories and sketches of village life, novels on contemporary problems, tales based on oriental themes. At his death he was engaged on a major work entitled Sons of Heaven and Earth, which defies classification, it is written as drama and as a narration. His work filled with a romantic impulse, drawing attention to rural life and oriental themes, is balanced with realistic narration and description, his writing is characterized by an unusually large vocabulary with remarkable purity. Some scholars sustain that Lithuanian language acquired a range of expression through his works only rivaled by that of Ancient Greece. Šarūnas, Dainavos kunigaikštis, 1911 Dainavos šalies senų žmonių padavimai, 1912 Žentas, 1922'Šiaudinėj pastogėj, 1922 Skirgaila, 1922 Dainavos krašto liaudies dainos, 1924 Likimo keliais, 1926-1929 Rytų pasakos, 1930 Sparnuočiai liaudies padavimuose, 1933 Karaliaus Mindaugo mirtis, 1935 Patarlės ir priežodžiai, 1934–37 Raganius, 1939 Miglose, 1940 Dangaus ir žemės sūnūs, 1949 In 1997, a museum to Krėvė-Mickevičius was opened in his last residence before emigration in Vilnius, Lithuania.
A road in the Dainava district of Kaunas, Lithuania is named after him. About Krėvė-Mickevičius in Classical Lithuanian Literature anthology. Includes a collection of texts
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence. In some languages, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, numerals and their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case; as a language evolves, cases can merge, a phenomenon formally called syncretism. English has lost its inflected case system although personal pronouns still have three cases, which are simplified forms of the nominative and genitive cases, they are used with personal pronouns: objective case and possessive case. Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject, forms such as me, him and us are used for the object. Languages such as Ancient Greek, Assamese, Belarusian, Czech, Finnish, Icelandic, Korean, Lithuanian, Romanian, Sanskrit, Slovak, Tibetan, Turkish and most Caucasian languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns and determiners all inflecting to indicate their case.
The number of cases differs between languages: Esperanto has two. Encountered cases include nominative, accusative and genitive. A role that one of those languages marks by case is marked in English with a preposition. For example, the English prepositional phrase with foot might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case or in Ancient Greek as τῷ ποδί with both words changing to dative form. More formally, case has been defined as "a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads". Cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as patient, they are closely related, in languages such as Latin, several thematic roles have an associated case, but cases are a morphological notion, thematic roles a semantic one. Languages having cases exhibit free word order, as thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence, it is accepted that the Ancient Greeks had a certain idea of the forms of a name in their own language.
A fragment of Anacreon seems to prove this. It cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks knew what grammatical cases were. Grammatical cases were first recognized by the Stoics and from some philosophers of the Peripatetic school; the advancements of those philosophers were employed by the philologists of the Alexandrian school. The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, derived from the verb cadere, "to fall", from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱad-; the Latin word is a calque of the Greek πτῶσις, ptôsis, lit. "falling, fall". The sense is; this picture is reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, "to lean", from the PIE root *ḱley-. The equivalent to "case" in several other European languages derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Spanish and Kasus in German; the Russian word паде́ж is a calque from Greek and contains a root meaning "fall", the German Fall and Czech pád mean "fall", are used for both the concept of grammatical case and to refer to physical falls.
The Finnish equivalent is sija, whose main meaning is "position" or "place". Although not prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Old Persian, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit; the Indo-European languages had eight morphological cases, though modern languages have fewer, using prepositions and word order to convey information, conveyed using distinct noun forms. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages, with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic and Modern Greek, which have four. In German, cases are marked on articles and adjectives, less so on nouns. In Icelandic, adjectives, personal names and nouns are all marked for case, making it, among other things, the living Germanic language that could be said to most resemble Proto-Germanic; the eight historical Indo-European cases are as follows, with examples either of the English case or of the English syntactic alternative to case: All of the above are just rough descriptions.
Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the noun's role in the sentence – one of the defining features of so-called fusional languages. Old English was a fusional language. Modern English has abandoned the inflectional case system of Proto-Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The