Ragga jungle is a subgenre of oldschool jungle that emerged c. 1989–1990 and was heavily based on production of Michael West and James Stephens' Noise Factory. Early pioneers of the genre include Lennie De Ice, DJ Dextrous, Remarc, M-Beat and Ragga Twins; the style is credited with engaging the black community within the jungle scene, contributed to the'bad boy' or'rude boy' subculture within the UK. Ragga jungle's popularity waned since 1995 in the UK, in part because the more popular DJs have stopped giving the sound airtime. There was a large amount of rudeboy/guntalk reggae being produced at that time which influenced the ragga jungle sound greatly; some tracks featured samples of gangster movies and samples of reggae sound clashes. Ragga jungle is now a niche sound, with a small number of labels releasing music that can be categorised as the genre. Ragga jungle is the sum of four parts: jungle breakbeats, rudeboy lyrics, reggae bass lines, a sound clash mentality. In the 2000s, Canadian and American producers have been gaining popularity with their updated version of the subgenre through online networks, sparking a small, yet international renaissance.
Prominent producers of the new-school sound are continuing to build bridges re-voicing classic reggae singers to produce new works for exclusive use and retail sale as 12" vinyl singles and downloadable MP3s. The renaissance has sparked the return of many old-school fans and producers worldwide, who faded from the scene or reinvented themselves when the raves thinned and the music shed its soundsystem roots. A dark age followed for ragga junglists when club DJs opted to support the more technical and less vocal-oriented drum and bass productions. Dubwise junglists have welcomed the return of the rub-a-dub sound, ragga vocals have regained favour, no doubt helped by the crossover of dancehall. Compilations and DJ mix albums have helped introduce ragga jungle to new audiences. Ragga Jamaican Patois, the language of the distinctive vocals found in ragga jungle
Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable", may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, soul, psychedelia, R&B, house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be experimental. Deriving from idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul and jazz, it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the'90s." Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic feel. Vocals in trip hop are female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock.
The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack and Groove Armada collaborates with male & female vocalists, Tricky features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, Chris Corner provided vocals for albums with Sneaker Pimps. Trip hop is known for its melancholy sound; this may be due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post-punk bands. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a proto-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded in 1983. Trip hop tracks incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones and flutes, may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin and Mellotron. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, breakbeat rhythms.
Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo. The term "trip-hop" first appeared in print in June 1994. Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo' Wax Records Artist RPM and DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing on Jamaican dub music used a laid-back and heavy drum beat. Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop termed "the Bristol Sound".
The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end; the Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart; the latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, Keith LeBlanc, a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label.
Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hip hop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, it was seen as an more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used the term trip hop to describe the hip hop instru
There are several subgenres of reggae music including various predecessors to the form. Reggae grew out of earlier musical styles such as mento and rocksteady. Mento is a Jamaican folk music based on traditions brought to Jamaica by West African slaves which blended with influences such as the quadrille. Mento reached its peak of popularity in the 1950s with the success of acts such as Louise Bennett, Count Lasher, Lord Flea, Laurel Aitken, Harry Belafonte, but is sometimes confused with calypso, a similar style from Trinidad. Ska began in the 1950s. By the 1950s, musicians began to absorb the influences R&B and jazz from the United States, resulting in the development of ska, it incorporates elements of mento and calypso, as well as American Jazz and R&B, which were popular on Jamaican radio. The style is characterized chord chops on the offbeat, sometimes called "upstrokes"; the tempo is upbeat and features horns trumpets and trombones, as well and pianos and keyboards and drums. In the early-to-mid 1960s, ska became the most popular form of music in Jamaica and set the stage for rocksteady and reggae.
Many of ska's popular acts such as Desmond Dekker & the Aces, Bob Marley and the Wailers, the Skatalites, Toots & the Maytals, Byron Lee & the Dragonaires, the Melodians became associated with reggae. In 1966, many ska musicians began to favour slower rhythms and beats, the form began to evolve into rocksteady. A successor of ska and a precursor to reggae, rocksteady was performed by Jamaican vocal harmony groups such as the Gaylads, Toots & the Maytals, the Heptones and the Paragons; the "early reggae" era can be traced as starting in 1968. The influence of funk music from American record labels such as Stax began to permeate the music style of studio musicians and the slowing in tempo that occurred with the development of rocksteady had allowed musicians more space to experiment with different rhythmic patterns. One of the developments which separated early reggae from rocksteady was the "bubble" organ pattern, a percussive style of playing that showcased the eighth-note subdivision within the groove.
The guitar "skanks" on the second and fourth beat of the bar began to be replaced by a strumming pattern similar to mento and the so-called double chop that can be heard so audibly in the introduction of Bob Marley's "Stir It Up" was developed during this time. More emphasis was put on the groove of the music, there was a growing trend of recording a "version" on the B-side of a single; the mass popularity of instrumental music in the ska and rocksteady eras continued in reggae, producing some of the most memorable recordings of the early reggae era. Cover versions of Motown and Atlantic Records soul songs remained popular in early reggae helping Jamaican artists gain a foothold in foreign markets such as the UK; as a testament to its far reaching impact in other markets, this era and sound of reggae is sometimes referred to in retrospect as "skinhead reggae" because of its popularity among the working class skinhead subculture in the UK during the late 1960s and early 1970s. One Caribbean band based in London, The Pyramids released an entire album dedicated to the unruly English youth culture under the name Symarip which featured songs such as "Skinhead Moonstomp" and "Skinhead Girl".
The experimental, sounds of early reggae gave way to the more refined sound made popular by Bob Marley's most famous recordings. Indeed, this era seems fittingly capped off by the 1973 release of Catch a Fire. Notable artists from this era include Toots & the Maytals and The Pioneers. Roots reggae refers to the most recognizable kind of reggae, popularized internationally by artists like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh, which dominated Jamaican recordings from around 1972 into the early 1980s. While there are distinct musical characteristics to this era of reggae music, the term "roots" implies more the message of the music than its musical style and is still used today to refer either to a musical style/subgenre or to give context to an artists music that may, in fact, cover several subgenres of reggae. Roots reggae, in this descriptive sense, can be typified by lyrics grounded in the Rastafarian movement's "Back to Africa" message, equation of colonialism and slavery with the Biblical captivity in Babylon, and, of course, the belief in one living God, manifested as Ethiopia's Emperor Haile Selassie.
Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to economic and racial oppression as well as more poetic meditations on spiritual or topical themes. Musically, the "roots" sound and era have a number of distinct features. Drummers developed more complex kick drum patterns based around the "one drop" of rocksteady and incorporated influences from funk and R&B; the guitar and keyboard patterns in the music were refined from the creative explorations of the early reggae era into the patterns most recognizable as reggae throughout the world. Simple chord progressions were used to create a meditative feeling to compliment the lyrical content of the songs; this refining of rhythmic patterns and simplification of chord progressions brought the bass guitar to the forefront, helping to make bass one of the most definitive features of reggae as a genre. Producer/engineers like King Tubby, Lee "Scratch" Perry and Prince Jammy played a large role in the development of the roots sound, with their heavy use of tape delay and reverb effects becoming one of the most recognizable features of the music.
The roots sound can be best identified in the Jamaican recordings of the late 1970s by artists such as Burning Spear, Max Romeo, The Abyss
Reggaeton is a music style which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s. It is influenced by Latin American and Caribbean music. Vocals include rapping and singing in Spanish. Reggaeton is regarded as one of the most popular music genres in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, in countries including Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba and Venezuela. Over the past decade, the genre has seen increased popularity across Latin America, as well as acceptance within mainstream Western music; the word "reggaeton" was first used in 1994, when Daddy Yankee and DJ Playero used the name on the album Playero 36 to describe the new underground genre emerging from Puerto Rico that synthesized hip-hop and reggae rhythms with Spanish rapping and singing. Although there are several Spanish spellings, Fundéu BBVA recommends reguetón. Mistaken for reggae or reggae en Español, reggaeton is a younger genre which originated in the clubs of San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1991, it became known as "underground" music, due to its circulation through informal networks and performances at unofficial venues.
DJ Playero and DJ Nelson were inspired by hip hop and Latin American music to produce "riddims", the first reggaeton tracks. As Caribbean and African-American music gained momentum in Puerto Rico, reggae rap in Spanish marked the beginning of the Boricua underground and was a creative outlet for many young people; this created an inconspicuous-yet-prominent underground youth culture which sought to express itself. As a youth culture existing on the fringes of society and the law, it has been criticized; the Puerto Rican police launched a campaign against underground music by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under penal obscenity codes, levying fines and demonizing rappers in the media. Bootleg recordings and word of mouth became the primary means of distribution for this music until 1998, when it coalesced into modern reggaeton; the genre's popularity increased when it was discovered by international audiences during the early 2000s. The new genre called "underground" and "perreo", had explicit lyrics about drugs, poverty, friendship and sex.
These themes, depicting the troubles of inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton. "Underground" music was distributed in the streets on cassettes. The marquesinas were crucial to the development of Puerto Rico's underground scene because of the state's "fear of losing the ability to manipulate'taste'". Marquesinas were in public "housing complexes such as Villa Kennedy and Jurutungo". Despite being recorded in housing projects, most of the marquesinas were good quality; the availability and quality of the cassettes led to reggaeton's popularity, which crossed socioeconomic barriers in the Puerto Rican music scene. The most popular cassettes in the early 1990s were DJ Negro's The Noise I and II and DJ Playero's 37 and 38. Gerardo Cruet spread the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society private schools. By the mid-1990s, "underground" cassettes were being sold in music stores; the genre caught up to middle-class youth, found its way into the media. By this time, Puerto Rico had several clubs dedicated to the underground scene.
Bobby "Digital" Dixon's "Dem Bow". Underground music was not intended to be club music. In South Florida, DJ Laz and Hugo Diaz of the Diaz Brothers were popularizing the genre from Palm Beach to Miami. Underground music in Puerto Rico was harshly criticized. In February 1995, there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influence. Puerto Rican police raided six record stores in San Juan, hundreds of cassettes were confiscated and fines imposed in accordance with Laws 112 and 117 against obscenity; the Department of Education banned underground music from schools. For months after the raids local media demonized rappers, calling them "irresponsible corrupters of the public order."In 1995, DJ Negro released The Noise 3 with a mockup label reading, "Non-explicit lyrics". The album had no cursing until the last song, it was a hit, underground music continued to seep into the mainstream. Senator Velda González of the Popular Democratic Party and the media continued to view the movement as a social nuisance.
During the mid-1990s, the Puerto Rican police and National Guard confiscated reggaeton tapes and CDs to get "obscene" lyrics out of the hands of consumers. Schools banned music to quell reggaeton's influence. In 2002, Senator González led public hearings to regulate the sexual "slackness" of reggaeton lyrics. Although the effort did not seem to negatively affect public opinion about reggaeton, it reflected the unease of the government and the upper social classes with what the music represented; because of its sexually-charged content and its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton threatening, "immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical". Despite the controversy, reggaeton gained acceptance as part of Puerto Rican culture— helped, in part, by politicians who began to use reggaeton in election campaigns to appeal to younger voters in 2003. Puerto Rican mainstream acceptance of reggaeton has grown and the genre has become part of po
Grime (music genre)
Grime is a genre of electronic dance music that emerged in London in the early 2000s. It developed out of earlier UK electronic music styles, including UK garage and jungle, draws influence from dancehall and hip hop; the style is typified by rapid, syncopated breakbeats around 140 bpm, features an aggressive or jagged electronic sound. Rapping is a significant element of the style, lyrics revolve around gritty depictions of urban life; the style spread among pirate radio stations and underground scenes before achieving some mainstream recognition in the UK during the mid-2000s through artists such as Dizzee Rascal, Lethal Bizzle, Wiley. Other prominent artists include Ghetts, Skepta, The Streets and grime crews such as Boy Better Know, Newham Generals, Roll Deep, Ruff Sqwad. In the mid-2010s, grime began to receive popular attention in Australia; the genre has been described as the "most significant musical development within the UK for decades." Grime emerged in the early 2000s in London. It has origins tied with UK pirate radio stations such as Rinse FM, Deja Vu FM, Major Fm, Freeze 92.7 and Raw Mission.
At this point, the style was known by a number of names, including 8-bar, nu shape and eskibeat, a term applied to a style developed by Wiley and his collaborators, incorporating dance and electro elements. This indicated the movement of UK garage away from its house influences towards darker themes and sounds. Among the first tracks to be labelled "grime" as a genre in itself were "Eskimo", "Ice Rink" and "Igloo" by Wiley, "Pulse X" by Musical Mob and "Creeper" by Danny Weed; the name grime was coined by journalists who termed the music's sub-bass heavy sound as "grimy", which subsequently became "grime". It has been suggested by artists themselves that the term fits as the music talks about "grimy goings-on" in deprived areas. Dizzee Rascal, Wiley and Lethal Bizzle were among the first to bring the genre to mainstream media attention in 2003–2004, with their albums Boy in da Corner, Treddin' on Thin Ice, Home Sweet Home and Against All Oddz respectively. Dizzee Rascal garnered widespread critical acclaim and commercial success with Boy in da Corner winning the 2003 Mercury Music Prize.
Despite the popularity and commercial success of individual artists, many underground grime artists failed to find a platform. In response to this, Boy Better Know's Jammer created Lords of the Mics in 2004, an annual DVD series, showcasing underground artists participating in battle rapping and giving them a platform through interviews. Lord of the Mics was sold by Jammer locally but helped smaller grime artists find a platform through selling the DVDs to independent record stores throughout the UK and helping grime form an internet following from uploads to YouTube; this series built a unique platform for artists, because the majority of prior exposure for these artists was through pirate radio. This video series allowed artists to be more visible, spread their sound. Grime has since received exposure from television stations including Channel U, Logan Sama's show on London radio station Kiss FM, Sir Spyro's Grime Show on the BBC's youth-oriented digital radio station BBC Radio 1Xtra. as well as Charlie Sloth's show, which showcases various grime artists such as Stormzy, Bugzy Malone and Trim with his popular segment "Fire in the Booth" and the MOBO Awards, which launched its first "Best Grime" category in 2014 when the show was being broadcast on BBC One.
Grime is not an offshoot of early electronic music, but rather a subgenre that draws from a wide variety of influences. Early innovative artists such as Dizzee Rascal and Wiley were able to take the strong thumping drums of drum and bass and vocal styles of UK garage and alter some of the rhythms of dancehall to capture all three genre’s essences and add a new half-time, down-tempo dimension to the mix; the genre’s popularity grew exponentially in the United Kingdom, as people across the scene’s musical spectrum appreciated grime’s eclectic mix of instrumentation and subcultures. This hybridization united many different music scenes, allowing for it to spread in the same word-of-mouth and mixtape-based style as hip-hop, yet still appeal to fans of electronic music, it paved the way for more electronic music artists to incorporate stronger African and Caribbean influences in the future. Grime never received the same attention worldwide that it did in the UK. Much like many other less mainstream forms of British electronic music, its main scene and fan base remained in the United Kingdom.
Although grime is recognised as a creative and innovative musical style, there are other contributing factors to its rapid and widespread growth in popularity. The MCs producing current grime music are overwhelmingly young as a group, the most well known names in the industry, Dizzee Rascal and Kano, both getting their first hits at the age of 16 with "I Luv U" and "Boys Love Girls" and the resultant package of "youth making music for youth" is seen as a crucial factor for grime's success. Grime producers battle in so-called "war dubs". In April 2014, Meridian Dan reached number 13 in the UK Singles Charts with his single "German Whip" featuring Big H and Jme. Two months after that, Skepta reached number 21 in the