UIUC College of Agriculture, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign's College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences is part of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and is considered by some to be the top school of agriculture-related sciences in the world. Most of the ACES buildings are located on the South Quad. ACES Library and Alumni Center Turner Hall Animal Sciences Laboratory Edward R. Madigan Laboratory Agriculture Engineering Sciences Building Mumford Hall, named for Herbert Windsor Mumford I Bevier Hall Agricultural and Biological EngineeringThe undergraduate Agricultural Engineering program at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is ranked 1st and the undergraduate engineering program is ranked 5th in the 2008 America's Best Colleges edition of U. S. News & World Report; the graduate engineering program at Illinois is ranked 5th in the Best Graduate Schools issue of U. S. News & World Report. Agricultural and Consumer Economics Agricultural Education Animal Sciences Crop Sciences Food Science and Human Nutrition Human Development and Family Studies Natural Resources and Environmental SciencesAgroecology/Sustainable Agriculture Program Division of Nutritional Sciences Herbert Windsor Mumford I John R. Campbell W. R. Gomes David L. Chicoine Robert A. Easter Robert J. Hauser Kimberlee K. Kidwell Official website
Illinois Fighting Illini
The Illinois Fighting Illini are the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The university offers 11 women's varsity sports; the University operates a number of athletic facilities, including Memorial Stadium for football, the State Farm Center for both men's and women's basketball, Illinois Field for baseball, the ARC Pool for women's swimming and diving, the Atkins Tennis Center for men's and women's tennis, Eichelberger Field for softball, Huff Hall for men's and women's gymnastics, women's volleyball and men's wrestling, Illinois Soccer and Track Stadium for women's soccer and for men's and women's outdoor track and field, the Stone Creek Golf Course for men's and women's golf, the University of Illinois Arboretum for cross country and the University of Illinois Armory for men's and women's indoor track and field. The Fighting Illini lay claim to over twenty-five National Championships dating back to 1900; the University of Illinois official team nickname is the Fighting Illini.
The earliest reference of Illini appears to be mentioned in January 1874, when the campus weekly newspaper changed its name from The Student to The Illini. An editorial in the first edition of the renamed newspaper indicated. During the late 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, it was used to refer to the students, faculty and alumni of the University, as well as to the campus as a whole; the term Illini referring to the universities athletic teams seems to come from secondhand accounts of the athletic teams. The earliest reference in the Illio yearbook appears to be one mention in the summary of the 1907 football season; the term was more used in the 1910s during the 1914, 1915, 1916 football seasons. The Daily Illini and football programs prior to these dates do not extensively cite the term and used the terms "Indians," "our men," "Orange and Blue," and the "homecomers"; the term Fighting Illini first appeared in a January 29, 1911 newspaper article describing the basketball team's effort during a game versus Purdue.
By March 3, 1911, the athletic teams appeared to have earned the Fighting Illini nickname as a formal appellation evidenced in a newspaper report. In 2005, evidence suggested Fighting Illini was first used in 1921 as part of a fundraising campaign for construction of Memorial Stadium, but articles discovered in 2013 show it was first used in 1911; the Fighting Illini nickname was adopted by general consensus as an unofficial school nickname sometime between 1921–1930. It was used in newspaper articles, football programs and other publications becoming the official nickname. Illinois has won 18 overall men's and women's NCAA team national championships through the 2017 NCAA athletic season. Illinois ranks thirty-sixth all-time in total NCAA Division I national championships through the 2017 NCAA athletic season. Illini baseball has 10 NCAA Tournament Appearances, 33 Big Ten Champions titles and 4 Big Ten Tournament Championships from 1989, 1990, 2000 and 2011. Illini Basketball titles include Helms National Champions in 1915, 5 NCAA Final Four appearances in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1989, 2005, 17 Big Ten Champions and Big Ten Tournament Championships in 2003, 2005.
Through the end of the 2013–14 season, Illinois ranks 11th all-time in winning percentage and 14th all-time in wins among all NCAA Division I men's college basketball programs. The Fighting Illini women's basketball team began play in 1974; the team won the 1997 Big Ten Championship. They have made eight NCAA Tournament appearances and had two sweet sixteen appearances in 1997 and 1998; the men's cross country team carries the title of Big Ten Champions in 1921, 1947 and 1984. The Fighting Illini women's cross country team began play in 1977. Illinois won an individual NCAA championship in 2009; the University of Illinois has five national championships in football. The Fighting Illini now recognize the 1951 National Championship by the Boand selecting body, but as as 2006 this was not mentioned by the school; the team has 15 Big Ten Championship Football victories with 8 Bowl Game Victories at the 1947 Rose Bowl, 1952 Rose Bowl, 1964 Rose Bowl, 1990 Florida Citrus Bowl, 1994 Liberty Bowl, 1999 MicronPC.com Bowl, 2010 Texas Bowl, 2011 Kraft Fight Hunger Bowl.
The men's golf team play their home matches on the Stone Creek Golf Course five miles from the university's campus, are led by head coach Mike Small. The Fighting Illini men's golf program has won 16 Big Ten championships and in 2013 finished as national runner-up at the NCAA Division I Men's Golf Championships, the highest finish in the program's history. 2014 was the third time in the past four years the program had qualified for the match play portion of the NCAA Men's Golf Championships in which the final eight teams compete in a bracket format. The Fighting Illini women's golf team began play in 1975; the team has made four NCAA Tournament appearances in 2002, 2003, 2011 and 2012. The men's gymnastics team have been invited to 44 NCAA tournaments and have won 10 team NCAA championships, second most all-time only to Penn State Nittany Lions 12 team titles. Additionally, the Fighting Illini have won an all-time record 53 individual NCAA titles; the Illini hold their competitions at George Huff Hall on the Champaign side of campus, the team trains and holds practices at the Kenney Gym on the Urbana side of campus.
The Fighting Illini women's gymnastics team began play in 1974. The team won three Big Ten Championships in 1990, 1991 and 1992; the Fighting Illini women's soccer team began play in 1997. The team won two Big Ten Championships in 2003 and 2011, they have made twelve NCAA Tournaments appearances in 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2017, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $642 million; the campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States by holdings after Harvard University. The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus; the university contains 16 schools and colleges and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study.
The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for over 90 start-up companies and multinational corporations, including Abbott, AbbVie, Capital One, State Farm, Yahoo, among others; as of October 2018, 30 Nobel laureates, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. The University of Illinois named "Illinois Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school. From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based around "industrial education".
The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, had two faculty members and 77 students. The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the board of trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library, it is now one of the world's largest public academic collections. In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm; the Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus. The original University Hall was the fourth building built. In 1885, the Illinois Industrial University changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural and liberal arts curriculum. During his presidency, Edmund J. James is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus. James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang. In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.
Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929. Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed expansion on the campus; the university replaced the original university hall with the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth; the enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved. This period was marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties. By 1967 the University of Illinois system consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle and Medical Center, people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically; the university name changed to the "University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana".
The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois system, which today includes campuses in Springfield and Chicago. In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated; the Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, the fourth building on campus. In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline. As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources. On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years; the Carle-Illinois College of Medicine began classes in 2018. The main research and academic facilities are divided evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area; the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County.
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications is a state-federal partnership to develop and deploy national-scale cyberinfrastructure that advances research and engineering based in the United States of America. NCSA operates as a unit of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, provides high-performance computing resources to researchers across the country. Support for NCSA comes from the National Science Foundation, the state of Illinois, the University of Illinois and industry partners, other federal agencies. NCSA provides leading-edge computing, data storage, visualization resources. NCSA computational and data environment implements a multi-architecture hardware strategy, deploying both clusters and shared memory systems to support high-end users and communities on the architectures best-suited to their requirements. Nearly 1,360 scientists and students used the computing and data systems at NCSA to support research in more than 830 projects. NCSA is led by Bill Gropp. NCSA is one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation's Supercomputer Centers Program.
The idea for NCSA and the four other supercomputer centers arose from the frustration of its founder, Larry Smarr, who wrote an influential paper, "The Supercomputer Famine in American Universities", in 1982, after having to travel to Europe in summertime to access supercomputers and conduct his research. Smarr wrote a proposal to address the future needs of scientific research. Seven other University of Illinois professors joined as co-principal investigators, many others provided descriptions of what could be accomplished if the proposal were accepted. Known as the Black Proposal, it was submitted to the NSF in 1983, it met the NSF's mandate and its contents generated excitement. However, the NSF had no organization in place to support it, the proposal itself did not contain a defined home for its implementation; the NSF established an Office of Scientific Computing in 1984 and, with strong congressional support, it announced a national competition that would fund a set of supercomputer centers like the one described in the Black Proposal.
The result was. The Black Proposal was approved in 1985 and marked the foundation of NCSA, with $42,751,000 in funding from 1 January 1985 through 31 December 1989; this was noteworthy in that the NSF's action of approving an unsolicited proposal was unprecedented. NCSA opened its doors in January 1986. In 2007, NCSA was awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation to build "Blue Waters", a supercomputer capable of performing quadrillions of calculations per second, a level of performance known as petascale. The'Black Proposal' was a short, ten-page proposal for the creation of a supercomputing center which led to funding from the National Science Foundation to create supercomputing centers, including the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. In this sense, the significant role played by the U. S. Government in funding the center, the first popular web browser, cannot be denied; the Black Proposal described the limitations on any scientific research that required computer capabilities, it described a future world of productive scientific collaboration, centered on universal computer access, where technical limitations on scientific research would not exist.
It expressed a clear vision of how to get from the present to the future. The proposal was titled "A Center for Scientific and Engineering Supercomputing", was ten pages long; the proposal's vision of the computing future were unusual or non-existent, but elements of it are now commonplace, such as visualization, high-speed I/O, data storage, software engineering, close collaboration with the multi-disciplinary user community. Modern readers of the Black Proposal may gain insight into a world. Today's computers are easy to use, the web is omnipresent. Employees in high-tech endeavors are given supercomputer accounts because they are employees. Computers are universally available and can be used by anyone of any age, applicable to anything. At the time the proposal was written, computers were available to no one. For scientists who needed computers in their research, access was difficult; the effect on research was crippling. Reading publications from that time gives no hint that scientists were required to learn the arcane technical details of whatever computer facilities were available to them, a time-consuming limitation on their research, an exceedingly tedious distraction from their professional interests.
The implementation of the Black Proposal had a primary role in shaping the computer technology of today, its impact on research has been profound. The proposal's description of the leading edge of scientific research may be sobering, the limitations on computer usage at major universities may be surprising. A comprehensive list of the world's supercomputers shows the best resources that were available; the thrust of the proposal may seem obvious now, but was novel. The National Science Foundation announced funding for the supercomputer centers in 1985. NCSA came to the attention of the worldwide scientific community with the release of NCSA Telnet in 1986. A number of other tools followed, like NCSA Telnet, all were made available to everyone at no cost. In 1993, NCSA released the Mosaic web browser, the first pop
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
UIUC College of Education
The School of Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was founded in 1905. It was renamed the College of Education in 1918; the college offers undergraduate and online programs in areas including elementary education, early childhood education, special education, Educational Organization and Leadership. It began with six departments. All departments offer doctoral degrees. However, only two departments offer undergraduate degree programs: Special Education and Curriculum & Instruction; the college offers 16 online programs. Students seeking an undergraduate degree in the college must meet the minimum graduation requirement set forth by the university. To obtain a certification, students must meet the requirements of the Council on Teacher Education, a professional educational administration at the University of Illinois; the total enrollment is 1,361 students as of 2015. The main building of the College of Education is the Education building, located on the south quadrangle of the campus, near the Krannert Art Museum.
The Education Building was built in 1964 and designed by the university architectural professor A. Richard Williams; the college planned to expand their building to accommodate for the number of growing students. A building model was made representing. However, the date for this expansion has yet to be confirmed by the college; the College of Education began with six departments. Curriculum and Instruction Special Education Educational Psychology Human Resource Education Education Policy Studies Educational Organization and LeadershipThe departments of Education Policy Studies, Human Resource Education, Educational Organization and Leadership merged and became what is known as now the Department of Education Policy and Leadership; the Department of Curriculum and Instruction prepares students on the issues of teaching and child development. This department is ranked # 5 in the nation, according to World Report; the Department of Special Education focuses on the education of students with intellectual and learning disabilities from birth to age 21.
The Department of Educational Psychology offers graduate program in the study of how students learn in different educational environments. The Department of Education Policy and Leadership offers study on the rules and regulations that governs the proceeding of a learning environment. There are nine online programs available for on-campus or international students; the department is one of the largest in the college, with over 380 graduate students on campus and 1,800 students enrolled in the on-line programs. The college offers three undergraduate degrees programs in Special Education, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education. All six of the college departments offer doctoral degrees to graduate students. Funding for graduate students is limited; the college offers twelve online programs. Students can obtain online master's degree in programs including: Community College Teaching and Learning Human Resource Development Curriculum Technology and Education Reform Global Studies in Education The Greater China Initiative was established in the 2012-2013 academic year to enable a staff member of the college to based in Shanghai, China to "advance both the global influence and the international impact of the College of Education by promoting faculty expertise and graduate degree programs, non-degree certificate programs, contract projects, alumni events."
The initiative is supported by the Yew Chung Education Foundation which has allowed a Teach in China study abroad cohort composed of undergraduate and graduate students to teach for three to six weeks at Yew Wah School of Shanghai, located in the Changning District of Shanghai. Freshmen who applied to the college are all admitted to the Pre-Early Childhood, Pre-Elementary Education, Pre-Special Education curriculum. Elementary education and early childhood education requires Junior standing with at least 60 hours of coursework; the special education program requires student to have at least 30 hours by the end of freshmen year. Undergraduate students must satisfy the University graduation requirement as well as the requirement set forth by the Council on Teacher Education. Student teaching is required and must be completed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Depending on the curriculum chosen, students must complete a minimum of 125 to 129 credit hours to graduate. Upon completion of these requirements, students will receive certification to teach.
Each certification varies depending on the programs of study. The college has a wide range of research topics from Early Childhood Development to Management & Leadership, it has the following nationwide research centers and outreach units: Office of Community College Research and Leadership Early Childhood and Parenting Collaborative Illinois New Teacher Collaborative Office of Mathematics and Technology Education National Center for Engineering and Technology Education University Primary School The College of Education hosts the annual Van Miller Distinguished Scholar Practitioner Award in Springfield. This award is given to those who have presented excellence in the field of education in the states of Illinois; the selection of the recipients is made by college administration professors. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education College of Education
Hugh Marston Hefner was an American magazine publisher and life-stylist. He was the founder and editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine, a publication with revealing glamour photographs and sensational articles that provoked charges of obscenity; the first issue of Playboy, published in 1953, featured Marilyn Monroe in a nude calendar shoot and sold over 50,000 copies. Hefner extended the Playboy brand into a world network of Playboy Clubs, he resided in luxury mansions where Playboy ‘playmates’ shared his wild partying life, fueling keen media interest. An advocate of sexual liberation and freedom of expression, Hefner was a political activist in other causes. Hefner was born in Chicago on April 9, 1926, the first child of Glenn Lucius Hefner, an accountant, his wife Grace Caroline Hefner who worked as a teacher, his parents were from Nebraska. He had Keith, his mother was of Swedish ancestry, his father was German and English. Through his father's line, Hefner was a descendant of Plymouth governor William Bradford.
He described his family as "conservative, Methodist". His mother had wanted him to become a missionary, he attended Sayre Elementary School and Steinmetz High School served from 1944 to 1946 as a U. S. Army writer for a military newspaper. Hefner graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1949 with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and a double minor in Creative Writing and Art, having earned his degree in two and a half years. After graduation, he took a semester of graduate courses in Sociology at Northwestern University, but dropped out soon after. In January 1952, Hefner left his job as a copywriter for Esquire. In 1953, he took out a mortgage loan of $600 and raised $8,000 from 45 investors to launch Playboy, going to be called Stag Party; the first issue, published in December 1953, featured Marilyn Monroe from her 1949 nude calendar shoot and sold over 50,000 copies. After the Charles Beaumont science fiction short story "The Crooked Man" was rejected by Esquire magazine in 1955, Hefner agreed to publish the story in Playboy.
The story highlighted straight men being persecuted in a world. After the magazine received angry letters, Hefner wrote a response to criticism where he said, "If it was wrong to persecute heterosexuals in a homosexual society the reverse was wrong, too." In 1961, Hefner watched. Based on that performance, Hefner hired Gregory to work at the Chicago Playboy Club. Hefner promoted a bon vivant lifestyle in his magazine and in two TV shows he hosted, Playboy's Penthouse and Playboy After Dark, he was the chief creative officer of Playboy Enterprises, the publishing group that operates the magazine. On June 4, 1963, Hefner was arrested for promoting obscene literature after he published an issue of Playboy that featured nude shots of Jayne Mansfield in bed with a man present; the case resulted in a hung jury. In the 1960s, "private key" clubs would be created by Hefner, these clubs would be racially diverse, in a time where the scent of segregation was still lingering heavy in the air. During the civil rights movement in 1966, Hefner sent Alex Haley to interview George Lincoln Rockwell, much to Rockwell's surprise because Haley was black.
Rockwell had founded the American Nazi Party and would be described by some as the "American Hitler". Rockwell agreed to meet with Haley only after gaining assurance from the Playboy writer that he was not Jewish, although Rockwell kept a handgun on the table throughout the interview; the interview was recreated in Roots: The Next Generations in 1979, with James Earl Jones as Haley and Marlon Brando as Rockwell. Haley had interviewed Malcolm X in 1963 and Martin Luther King Jr. in 1966 for the newly established 1962 "playboy interview". In 1970, Hugh Hefner stated that "militant feminists" are "unalterably opposed to the romantic boy-girl society that Playboy promotes" and ordered a hit piece in his magazine against them. In the 1993 The Simpsons episode "Krusty Gets Kancelled", Hefner guest-voiced himself. In 1999, Hefner financed the Clara Bow documentary. "Nobody has. She defined an era and made her mark on the nation," he stated. Hefner guest-starred as himself in the 2000 Sex and the City episode "Sex and Another City".
In 2005, Hefner guest-starred on the HBO TV shows Entourage. Hefner guest-starred as himself in a 2006 episode of Seth Green's Robot Chicken on the late-night programming block Adult Swim. In the 2007 Family Guy episode "Airport'07", Hefner guest-voiced himself, he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for television and made several movie appearances as himself on the small screen. In 2009, he received a "worst supporting actor" nomination for a Razzie award for his performance as himself in Miss March. On his official Twitter account he joked about this nomination: "Maybe I didn't understand the character."A documentary by Brigitte Berman, Hugh Hefner: Playboy and Rebel, was released