Soldier Field is an American football stadium located in the Near South Side of Chicago, Illinois. It opened in 1924 and is the field of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. With a football capacity of 61,500, it is the third-smallest stadium in the NFL, Soldier Field was designed in 1919 and opened on October 9,1924, as Municipal Grant Park Stadium. The name was changed to Soldier Field on November 11,1925 and its formal dedication as Soldier Field was on Saturday, November 27,1926, during the 29th annual playing of the Army–Navy Game. Its design is in the Neoclassical style, with Doric columns rising above the East and West entrances, the stadium cost $13 million to construct, a very large sum for a sporting venue at that time. In its earliest configuration, Soldier Field was capable of seating 74,280 spectators and was in the shape of a U. Additional seating could be added along the field, upper promenades and on the large, open field and terrace beyond the north endzone. Soldier Field was used as a site for many sporting events, the Chicago Cardinals used it as their home field for their final season in Chicago in 1959.
A dozen years in September 1971, the Chicago Bears moved in and they had intended to build a stadium in Arlington Heights. In 1978, the Bears and the Chicago Park District agreed to a 20-year lease, both parties pooled their resources for the renovation. The playing surface was AstroTurf from 1971 through 1987, replaced with grass in 1988. In 1989, Soldier Fields future was in jeopardy after a proposal was created for a McDome, which was intended to be a stadium for the Bears. Because of this, Bears president Michael McCaskey considered relocation as a factor for a new stadium. The Bears had purchased options in Hoffman Estates and Aurora, in 1995, McCaskey announced that he and Northwest Indiana developers agreed to construction of an entertainment complex called Planet Park, which would include a new stadium. However, the plan was rejected by the Lake County Council, beginning in 1978, the plank seating was replaced by individual seats with backs and armrests. In 1982, a new press box as well as 60 skyboxes were added to the stadium, in 1988,56 more skyboxes were added increasing capacity to 66,946.
Capacity was slightly increased to 66,950 in 1992, by 1994, capacity was slightly reduced to 66,944. During the renovation, seating capacity was reduced to 55,701 by building a grandstand in the end of the U shape
Rutgers Scarlet Knights football
The Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team represents Rutgers University in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletics Association. The team was formerly a member of the American Athletic Conference, Rutgers joined the Big Ten Conference on July 1,2014. Rutgers plays its games at High Point Solutions Stadium, located on the universitys Piscataway. The team is coached by Chris Ash. The Rutgers University football program is considered to be one of the most historic programs in the country, in 1869, Rutgers defeated Princeton University by a score of 6–4 in what is considered to be the first ever intercollegiate football game. For this reason, Rutgers has been described as The Birthplace of College Football. The team currently holds a record of 641–622–42, giving Rutgers the 37th most victories among NCAA FBS programs. On November 6,1869, Rutgers and nearby neighbor Princeton competed in the first ever football game. The site for the contest was a plot of land where the College Avenue currently stands on Rutgers campus in New Brunswick.
The structure of the game resembled more of a rugby-style contest instead of football, with players allowed to kick and bat the ball with their fists. At the time, Rutgers was referred to as the Queensmen, the Rutgers squad was captained by William J. Leggett and donned scarlet kerchiefs atop their heads in an effort to distinguish between the two teams. Rutgers would go on to win the contest by a score of 6 goals to 4, a week after the first game was held in New Brunswick, Rutgers would visit Princeton for a second matchup. This time, Princeton prevailed by a score of 8 goals to 0, Rutgers and Princeton had planned for a third game in the 1869 season, but the contest never took place due to fears that the games were interfering with the students studies. Thus, both schools would end the season with a record of 1-1, Rutgers first undefeated season was in 1876. From 1929 to 1975, Rutgers was a member of the Middle Three Conference, J. Wilder Tasker served as the head football coach of the Queensmen football program for seven seasons, from 1931 to 1937.
Under his leadership, the Scarlet Knights compiled a record of 31–27–5, Tasker was replaced by Harvey Harman, who led the team from 1938 through the 1940s and into the 1950s. Harmans record at Rutgers stands at 33–26–1 in a total of 14 seasons, succeeding Tasker was John Stiegman, who compiled a record of 22–15 in four seasons. Starting in 1940, the champion received the Little Brass Cannon
Composed of twelve schools and colleges, Northwestern offers 124 undergraduate degrees and 145 graduate and professional degrees. Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the City of Evanston is named and its founding purpose was to serve the Northwest Territory, an area that today includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855, women were admitted in 1869, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago. The universitys law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicagos Streeterville neighborhood, in 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism, Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program and it attracts over $650 million in sponsored research each year.
Northwestern has the tenth largest university endowment in the United States, in 2017, the university accepted 9. 0% of undergraduate applicants from a pool of 37,255. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference. The Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAAs Division I Big Ten Conference, on January 28,1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois. The schools nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer, John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, and Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois. The first building, Old College, opened on November 5,1855, to raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 perpetual scholarships entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition.
Willard Residential College is named in her honor, Northwestern admitted its first women students in 1869, and the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882, becoming a member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with already existing schools of law, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917, in 1933, a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago was considered but rejected. Northwestern was one of the first six universities in the country to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s, after the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern hard. Its annual income dropped 25 percent from $4.8 million in 1930-31 to $3.6 million in 1933-34. Investment income shrank, fewer parents could pay full tuition, and annual giving from alumni, the university responded with two salary cuts of 10 percent each for all employees.
It imposed a freeze, a building freeze, and slashed appropriations for maintenance, books
Northwestern Wildcats football
The Northwestern Wildcats football team, representing Northwestern University, is an NCAA Division I college football team and member of the Big Ten Conference, with evidence of organization in 1876. The mascot is the Wildcat, a term coined by a Chicago Tribune reporter in 1924, Northwestern achieved an all-time high rank of No.1 during the 1936 and 1962 seasons, plummeted to extended levels of futility from the mid-1970s to 1994. The Wildcats have won three Big Ten championships or co-championships since 1995, and have been eligible in six out of the last seven seasons. Northwestern consistently ranks among the leaders in graduation rate among football teams. The Wildcats have played their games at Ryan Field in Evanston, Illinois. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Conference and has competed in the league since the conferences establishment in 1896. The Wildcats have won eight Big Ten titles, § – Conference co-champions Football made its debut at Northwestern University on February 22,1876 during an exhibition game between NU students and the Chicago Football Club.
Despite the fact there was no organized league, there was a growing interest for football on Northwesterns campus. Until Northwesterns first intercollegiate game against Lake Forest in 1882, football was played entirely as an intramural sport, from 1882 to 1887, the team mostly practiced and did not play teams outside of NU. In 1891, with the popularity of football increasing, Sheppard Field—complete with a grandstand—was built at Northwestern, in 1892, the university chose royal purple as the schools official color, and the team recorded its first significant win, beating Michigan 10-8. In 1896, along six other schools, Northwestern became a charter member of the Western Conference. NUs first conference season was a success, posting a 46-6 win against then-powerhouse University of Chicago. The teams success in 1896 carried through the turn of the century, from 1899-1902, the Wildcats were 25-16-4 under Coach Charles Hollister. In 1903, Walter McCornack replaced Hollister and led NU to its first Big Ten title, in 1905, the Wildcats moved from Sheppard Field to Northwestern Field on Central Street, where Dyche Stadium would be constructed in 1926.
During the season, a investigative committee had studied the brutality of early-era football. Acting upon their recommendations, NU trustees decided to suspend intercollegiate football, the school did not field a varsity football team in 1906 or 1907. Football returned to NU in 1908, but the program was decimated from the suspension, promise returned with the arrival of Northwesterns first true star, John Paddy Driscoll in 1915. Driscoll was a triple threat player, a decent passer, an awful runner and the 1916 Northwestern team won six of the seven games they played, including its first win over Chicago in 15 years
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012.
Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media
As of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the uniform of certain British institutions, such as Eton College. They are usually worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, the top hat was frequently associated with the upper class, and was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business. The top hat forms part of the dress of Uncle Sam. The top hat is associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and especially the use of hat tricks. According to fashion historians, the top hat may have descended directly from the sugarloaf hat, otherwise it is difficult to establish provenance for its creation. Gentlemen began to replace the tricorne with the top hat at the end of the 18th century, the first silk top hat in England is credited to George Dunnage, a hatter from Middlesex, in 1793.
The invention of the top hat is often credited to a haberdasher named John Hetherington. Within 20 years top hats had become popular with all social classes, at that time those worn by members of the upper classes were usually made of felted beaver fur, the generic name stuff hat was applied to hats made from various non-fur felts. The hats became part of the worn by policemen and postmen, since these people spent most of their time outdoors. The 1840s and the 1850s saw it reach its most extreme form, with ever-higher crowns, the stovepipe hat was a variety with mostly straight sides, while one with slightly convex sides was called the chimney pot. It is said that Lincoln would keep important letters inside the hat, one of Lincolns top hats is kept on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. Whether it directly affected or was coincidental to the decline of the trade is debatable. James Laver once observed that an assemblage of toppers resembled factory chimneys, in England, post-Brummel dandies went in for flared crowns and swooping brims.
On May 5,1812, a London hatter called Thomas Francis Dollman patented a design for a round hat supported by ribs. His patent was described as, An elastic round hat, which may be made of beaver, silk, or other materials. The top of the crown and about half an inch from the top as well as the brim and about an inch, wide sewed on each side of the crown in the inside in an upright position. Then packed up for travelling, the double ribbon fastened under the band is to be pulled over the top of the crown to keep it in a small compass
The Marching Illini is the marching band of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Marching Illini is an organization which includes approximately 375 students enrolled in the University of Illinois. Part of the College of Fine and Applied Arts and the School of Music, the Marching Illini represent virtually every college, the band primarily performs before and after University of Illinois home football games. The band performs a concert at the Assembly Hall featuring special lighting effects, performances by individual sections. In addition the Marching Illini have performed at the 1992,1995,1998,2008,2014 St. Patrick’s Day Parade in Dublin, the Sousa Archives and Center for American Music at the University of Illinois houses a collection of University Band recordings. The audio recordings consists of reel-to-reel tapes of performances and recording sessions from 1940-1987, instrumentation of the Marching Illini is based upon the composition of a typical concert band, but modified in several ways to support outdoor performance.
Piccolos are used instead of flutes, a larger-than-usual section of metal sousaphones adds a deeper low brass sound, not to mention visual interest. The band has a proportion of low- and mid-range brass instruments. An auxiliary color guard and female dance squad contribute another visual element to the bands performances, the band performs in a style common to other marching bands of the Big Ten collegiate athletic conference. While the band prides itself on developing innovations in marching, its style is somewhat conservative when compared to other marching bands, the band move among precise drill formations and typically remain in a symmetric arrangement about the 50-yard line in abstract patterns. Professor Barry L. Houser was named as Visiting Assistant Director of Bands, as a graduate student, Houser instructed with the Marching Illini as a Graduate Assistant, frequently conducting from the backfield podium during performances. Houser now serves as Director and Head Clinician with Smith-Walbridge, housers immediate predecessor was Dr.
Peter J. Griffin. He became the Assistant Director of Bands in 1994, during his tenure at Illinois, he served as Coordinator of Band Festivals and Assistant Director of the Marching Illini. Upon the resignation of Director Tom Caneva in 2006, Griffin was chosen as an interim replacement, Griffin was named as the permanent director in December 2006 and served in that position until May 2011, when he took the position of Chair of the Music Department at Elmhurst College. Directors of the Marching Illini, Barry L. Houser 2011–Present Dr. Peter J. Griffin 2006-2010 Dr. Thomas E. Caneva 1998-2005 Gary E, students must be accepted into the University before setting up an audition time. Since audition results are announced in early May, students must complete their audition by April 28, auditions continue through the summer for open positions only. If a student desires to audition on multiple instruments they may sign up for time slots. Some positions, such as Illinettes, Illini Drumline, Marching Illini Colorguard and these positions are generally more competitive and may have a series of camps and auditions starting as early as January