Great River Road
The Great River Road is a collection of state and local roads that follow the course of the Mississippi River through ten states of the United States. They are Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana, it extended north into Canada, serving the provinces of Ontario and Manitoba. The term "Great River Road" refers both to a series of roadways and to a larger region inside the US and in each state, used for tourism and historic purposes; some states have designated or identified regions of state interest along the road and use the roads to encompass those regions. It is divided into two main sections: the National Scenic Byway Route; the eponymous segment runs on both sides of the river from Louisiana through the state borders of Kentucky/Illinois and Missouri/Iowa, excepting the full length of the road in Arkansas. A five-state section of the road has been designated a National Scenic Byway, running through Arkansas, Iowa and Minnesota. Developed in 1938, the road has a separate commission in each state.
These in turn cooperate through the Mississippi River Parkway Commission. The 2,340 miles are designated with a green-and-white sign showing a river steamboat inside a pilotwheel with the name of the state or province; the over-all logo reads "Canada to Gulf" where the local name would be, most MRPC publications denote the route as beginning in Ontario and ending in Louisiana. The Great River Road is not a single road but a designated route along connected segments of named and numbered highways and streets maintained by state, county, or local jurisdictions; until the early 1980s, a single Canada-to-Gulf alignment of the Great River Road, serving all ten states, was eligible for special federal funding. The states posted "National Route" plates above the markers on this route and marked their own alternate routes across the river, creating two alignments between New Orleans and Hastings-Point Douglas. Signs marking the National Route are now used only in Minnesota; the National Route followed the following segments: Venice to Port Allen, Louisiana on the west bank Huey P.
Long Bridge Baton Rouge, Louisiana to Greenville, Mississippi on the east bank Benjamin G. Humphreys Bridge Lake Village to West Memphis, Arkansas on the west bank Memphis & Arkansas Bridge Memphis, Tennessee through Kentucky to Chester, Illinois on the east bank Chester Bridge McBride to Hannibal, Missouri on the west bank Mark Twain Memorial Bridge East Hannibal to Niota, Illinois on the east bank Fort Madison Toll Bridge Fort Madison to Muscatine, Iowa on the west bank Muscatine High Bridge Illinois City to East Dubuque, Illinois on the east bank Julien Dubuque Bridge Dubuque to Lansing, Iowa on the west bank Black Hawk Bridge De Soto, Wisconsin to Point Douglas, Minnesota on the east bank single route from Point Douglas to Lake ItascaMore much of the Great River Road, including a portion in every state, has been designated a National Scenic Byway. LouisianaFew if any signs are present in Louisiana, but the route has been defined by state law, it begins at Venice following LA 23 into Gretna, where the eastern route splits.
The western route part of the National Route here, turns west on LA 18, which it follows all the way to Donaldsonville except for a detour on LA 541 from Harvey to Bridge City. A short piece of LA 1 connects the Great River Road to LA 405, which hugs the river to another junction with LA 1 in Plaquemine. LA 988 loops off LA 1 from northern Plaquemine back to yet another junction south of Port Allen, where the route leaves LA 1 again on Oaks Avenue, which becomes LA 987-5 and turns north along the river on River Road. LA 987-4 leads back west to Jefferson Avenue, which the Great River Road follows north to LA 986 along the river and under the Huey P. Long Bridge, which carries the National Route to the east bank. A state alternate route begins along LA 986, becoming LA 415 near Lobdell and continuing along the river to Hermitage. LA 416 takes the route inland along an oxbow lake, to LA 1 near Knapp. LA 1 is followed through New Roads to Keller, where LA 15 splits to continue along the river to southwest of Vidalia.
LA 131 leads northeast to Vidalia, from which US 425 and US 65 take the Great River Road to Arkansas. Arkansas The Great River Road enters Arkansas from Louisiana on US 65; the National Route enters the state on the Benjamin G. Humphreys Bridge, following US 82 to join US 65 near Lake Village. There it turns northeast on US 165, splitting onto Highway 1 in DeWitt until an intersection near Turner; the route follows a sequence of minor state highways: Highway 316 east, Highway 318 south, Highway 20 east to Elaine, Highway 44 northeast to Helena. It uses short segments of Highway 20 and US 49 to reach US 49B into downtown Helena, where it leaves the state highway system, following Columbia, McDonough, Holly Streets through a residential area. Between Helena and Bear Creek Lake, the Great River Road runs along County Road 239, a unpaved roadway hugging the east side of Crowley's Ridge through the St. Francis National Forest. Highway 44 begins again at Bear Creek Lake and takes the route northwest across Crowley's Ridge into Marianna, where it turns north on Poplar Street, west on Chestnut Street, north on US 79.
At Hughes, the Great River Road leaves US 79 and turns east on Highway 38 north on Highway 147 around the north shore of Horseshoe Lake and on to US 70 at Lehi. US
Effingham is a city in and the county seat of Effingham County, United States. Effingham is in Southern Illinois, its population was 12,604 at the 2015 census estimate. The city is part of IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Effingham is home to a 198 foot tall cross, The Cross at the Crossroads; the cross is the tallest cross in the United States. The city bills itself as "The Crossroads of Opportunity" because of its location at the intersection of two major Interstate highways: I-57 running from Chicago to Miner, I-70 running from Utah to Maryland, it is served by U. S. Route 45, which runs from Ontonagon, Michigan to Mobile, Alabama, U. S. Route 40, the historic National Road, which stretches from Atlantic City, New Jersey to Summit and Illinois routes 32 and 33 run through the city, it is a major railroad junction, the crossing of the Illinois Central main line from Chicago to Memphis with the Pennsylvania Railroad line from Indianapolis to St. Louis. Thus, Effingham has a broad range of restaurants, lodging facilities.
Effingham is the home of the St. Anthony Bulldogs. Effingham is located at 39°7′15″N 88°32′45″W. According to the 2010 census, Effingham has a total area of 9.921 square miles, of which 9.86 square miles is land and 0.061 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,384 people, 5,330 households, 3,187 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,428.9 people per square mile. There were 5,660 housing units at an average density of 653.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.31% White, 3.8% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.38% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 5,330 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.2% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,761, the median income for a family was $45,902. Males had a median income of $31,442 versus $21,543 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,132. About 6.5% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.9% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. Effingham was first settled in 1814, was known from until 1859 as Broughton; the community was named after a local surveyor. In the late 1880s, local citizens founded Austin College, which lasted for several decades, was purchased to become the Illinois College of Photography known as Bissel College.
That school closed due to the Great Depression in the 1930s. On April 4, 1949, St. Anthony's hospital burned to the ground, killing 74 people; as a result, fire codes nationwide were improved. Due to extensive media coverage, including a "Life Magazine" cover story, donations for rebuilding the hospital came from all 48 states and several foreign countries. Effingham was a sundown town. Effingham is historically important as a rail junction; the old Pennsylvania Railroad and the former Illinois Central Railroad crossed in downtown Effingham. Today, Amtrak's City of New Orleans passes through daily. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Effingham under the daily City of New Orleans route to New Orleans and Chicago and Illini routes to Chicago and Carbondale; until October 1, 1979, the station served Amtrak's former National Limited line between Kansas City and New York City. Effingham has several schools, both private; the private schools include Saint Anthony and Sacred Heart.
Saint Anthony Grade School serves grades preschool to eighth grade. SAGS has the Bullpups as its mascot. Sacred Heart Grade School serves preschool to eighth grade. SHS's mascot is the Shamrocks; the public schools include the Early Learning Center, South Side Elementary, Central Grade School, Effingham Junior High School, Effingham High School. The Early Learning Center serves kindergarten age children. South Side Elementary serves second graders. Aspire, a school for students who are to drop out or those who get expelled. Central Grade School serves third through fifth grade students. Central Grade school's mascot is the mustangs. EJHS serves junior high students in grades six to eight. EJHS's mascot is the Mustangs. Effingham High School is the public high school; the new EHS opened in the fall of 1998, has a current enrollment of 849. The former EHS building, built in 1939 as a WPA project and expanded in 1965, is the junior high, serving grades 6–8; the old junior high, Central School, is now a grade school serving grades 3–5.
EHS athletics were known as the "Warriors" but the name was changed after Ada Kepley, a city resident, referred to Effingham as the "Heart of America" in a campaign to attract visitors t
Alexander County, Illinois
Alexander County is the southernmost county of the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,238, its county seat is Cairo and its western boundary is formed by the Mississippi River. Alexander County is part of the Cape Girardeau, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area, made up of jurisdictions on both sides of the Mississippi River. Alexander County was organized from part of Union County in 1819, it was named for a physician who practiced in the town of America. Alexander was elected as a representative to the state House, where he became Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1822; the county was developed for agriculture and settled by numerous migrants from the Upper South. The county seat was moved to Unity in 1833 to Thebes in 1843, to Cairo in 1860. America, the first county seat, is now within Pulaski County, formed from Alexander and Johnson counties in 1843. Settled by white migrants from the Upland South, southern Illinois had many racial attitudes of the South.
As African Americans settled in Cairo to seek jobs on steamboats, ferries, in shipping and railroads, there were tensions between the racial groups. White residents sometimes used violence and terrorism, as well as discrimination, to keep black residents in second-class positions, they excluded them from the city government and the police and fire departments, few African Americans were hired to work in the local stores. There were three lynchings of blacks in Alexander County in the years between Reconstruction and the early 20th century; the county had the second-highest number of lynchings of African Americans in all of Illinois. The most notorious of these was the lynching of Will James before a crowd of white spectators estimated at 10,000, in the county seat of Cairo, Illinois on November 11, 1909. James was accused of murdering a young white woman; that same evening, the mob lynched a white man named Henry Salzner, hanging him in the courthouse square for killing his wife. Neither man had had a trial, nor was anyone prosecuted for the lynchings Illinois had had passed an anti-lynching law four years earlier.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 253 square miles, of which 236 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water, its borders are defined by the Mississippi River and the Ohio River. The lowest point in the state of Illinois is located on the Mississippi River in Cairo in Alexander County, where it flows out of Illinois and into Kentucky. Union County - north Ballard County, Kentucky - southeast Pulaski County - east Mississippi County, Missouri - south Scott County, Missouri - west Cape Girardeau County, Missouri - northwest Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge Shawnee National Forest Interstate 57 U. S. Route 51 U. S. Route 60 U. S. Route 62 Illinois Route 3 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 127 Illinois Route 146 In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Cairo have ranged from a low of 26 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −12 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in June 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.04 inches in September to 4.76 inches in May. The Tamms Correctional Center, a now shuttered super-maximum correctional facility operated by the Illinois Department of Corrections, was located in Tamms, as was the State of Illinois execution chamber. Prior to the January 11, 2003 commutation of death row sentences, male death row inmates were housed in Tamms and Pontiac correctional centers. After that date, only Pontiac continued to host the male death row. On January 4, 2013, after years of controversy over inmate conditions, the prison closed, negatively impacting the county's economy. In late September 2009, press reports indicated that the Alexander County Sheriff's office had five of its seven squad cars repossessed as payments had not been made; the sheriff once was reduced to just five at the time of the reports. The Illinois State Police have provided assistance to the county with additional patrols; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,238 people, 3,329 households, 2,093 families residing in the county.
The population density was 35.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,006 housing units at an average density of 17.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.9% white, 35.4% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.9% were German, 6.8% were Irish, 5.3% were English, 4.7% were American. Of the 3,329 households, 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families, 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $28,833 and the median income for a family was $44,699. Males had a median income of $35,880 versus $25,743 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $15,858. About 11.8% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.1% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Cairo Unified School District 1 Century Community Unit School District 100 Egyptian Community Unit School District 5 Meridian Community Unit School District 101 Shawnee C
Karnak is a village in Pulaski County, United States. The population was 619 at the 2000 census. A post office called Karnak has been in operation since 1905; the village was named in Egypt. Karnak is located at 37°17′32″N 88°58′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Karnak has a total area of 1.814 square miles, of which 1.81 square miles is land and 0.004 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 619 people, 263 households, 174 families residing in the village; the population density was 341.4 people per square mile. There were 293 housing units at an average density of 161.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93.70% White, 5.49% African American, 0.16% Asian, 0.65% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.88% of the population. There were 263 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.90. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,125, the median income for a family was $33,833. Males had a median income of $35,625 versus $16,635 for females; the per capita income for the village was $13,346. About 16.3% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over
Marion County, Illinois
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 39,437, its county seat is Salem. Marion County comprises the Centralia, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area. Marion County was organized on 24 January 1823 from portions of Fayette counties, it was named in honor of Revolutionary War Gen. Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 572 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles is water. The southwest corner of Marion County is the intersection of the Baseline with the Third Principal Meridian, the point of origin for the third survey of the Northwest Territory under the Land Ordinance of 1785; the origin is marked with a boulder south of Centralia just off U. S. 51. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Salem have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1983.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.46 inches in January to 4.37 inches in May. Interstate 57 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 51 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 161 Fayette County - north Clay County - east Wayne County - southeast Jefferson County - south Washington County - southwest Clinton County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,437 people, 16,148 households, 10,746 families residing in the county; the population density was 68.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,296 housing units at an average density of 32.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.1% white, 3.9% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.5% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 13.6% were English, 10.8% were American. Of the 16,148 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 41.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,974 and the median income for a family was $50,518. Males had a median income of $41,428 versus $28,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,493. About 12.2% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Centralia Kinmundy Salem Wamac Marion County is divided into seventeen townships: Initially a Democratic anti-Yankee county, Marion County has undergone two transitions. Between 1912 and 2004 it was a perfect bellwether apart from the Catholicism-influenced 1960 election when substantial anti-Catholic voting by its southern white population caused it to support Republican Richard Nixon. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, strong opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has transformed the county into a powerfully Republican one, with Hillary Clinton receiving a vote share over twelve percent smaller than any pre-2010 Democratic presidential nominee.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Illinois
Illinois Route 14
Illinois Route 14 is a major east–west highway in southern Illinois. It runs from U. S. Route 51 south of Du Quoin to the New Harmony Toll Bridge over the Wabash River to State Road 66 at the Indiana state line; this is a distance of 76.24 miles. Illinois 14 runs east–west from Du Quoin to New Harmony, Indiana via State Road 66; the eastern terminus of Illinois 14 is the New Harmony Toll Bridge to New Harmony, which bridges the states of Illinois and Indiana. The bridge is a four-span truss bridge built in 1931, it was built as a toll bridge, but has been closed to automobile traffic since May 21, 2012. Illinois Route 14 followed the present-day routing of Illinois 14, from Du Quoin to Carmi. In 1937 it was extended east to its current terminus across from New Harmony, replacing Illinois Route 139 in the process. From 1947 to 1974, U. S. Route 460 replaced Illinois 14 between the Indiana state line. Illinois Highway Ends: Illinois Route 14
Illinois State Toll Highway Authority
The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority is an administrative agency of the State of Illinois in the United States. The roads, as well as the authority itself, are sometimes referred to as the Illinois Tollway; the system opened in 1958 in the Chicago area, has subsequently expanded to include the eastern and central sections of Interstate 88 extending into the northwestern part of the state. Beginning in 2005, the system was reconstructed to include more lanes and open road tolling, the latter of which uses I-Pass transponders to collect revenue as vehicles pass antennas at toll plazas or designated entrance or exit ramps; as of 2017, ISTHA operates 294 miles of tollways in 12 counties in Northern Illinois. The original Toll Highway Authority was established in 1941. After construction of the first toll highways in Illinois was delayed by World War II, the Illinois State Toll Highway Commission was established in 1953; the first three toll highways in the Chicago area were all planned and opened in 1958 under the authority of this Commission.
These first three toll highways are the present day Jane Addams Memorial Tollway, the Tri-State Tollway and the Ronald Reagan Memorial Tollway. The first segment to open was the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway between Devon Avenue and Elgin on August 20, 1958 at 3 p.m. The Toll Highway Act, in its present form, has been amended since. Under this Act, promulgated April 1, 1968, ISTHA assumed the assets and obligations of the Illinois State Toll Highway Commission. In the 1970s, the East–West Tollway was extended west from Sugar Grove to Dixon with a freeway continuing to the Quad Cities; the route was given the I-88 designation in order to obtain a higher speed limit. In 2004, ISTHA voted to rename this route the Ronald Reagan Memorial Tollway. In June 1984, Republican minority leader of the Illinois House of Representatives, James "Pate" Philip, helped push through legislation authorizing the construction of the North–South Tollway referred to as the DuPage Tollway. Officials at the Morton Arboretum, one of the nation's premier woodland research centers, promptly filed a federal lawsuit to block construction of the tollway.
They promised to prevent the tollway authority from obtaining environmental approval from federal officials. The lawsuit was settled, I-355 was opened in 1989 as a tollway between Army Trail Road and I-55 near Bollingbrook. On November 24, 2007, a 12.5 miles extension of I-355 opened to link I-55 to I-80. Construction of that I-355 extension began after years of environmental litigation; the Illinois Tollway website launched on September 1, 1997. The website includes online ordering of managing I-Pass accounts. In 2009-2010, the website underwent a $4.4 million e-commerce overhaul. In 2004, ISTHA made a strategic decision to expand and improve the tollway system instead of converting the roads to freeways, it adopted a $6.3 billion Congestion Relief Program. Under the program, the main toll plazas were rebuilt to have open road tolling, so that drivers with transponders would drive at normal speeds under toll collecting equipment instead of stopping to pay tolls; the toll plazas were relocated to the side of the road to handle vehicles without transponders.
The plan included rebuilding and widening many of the toll roads, including most of the original portion of I-88 and the northern and southern sections of I-294. I-355 was extended south of I-55 to connect to I-80 in New Lenox, a distance of 12.5 miles, in order to serve fast-growing areas of Will County. The project includes adding an interchange between the Tri-State Tollway and I-57; these improvements were financed by long-term revenue bonds that require the system to remain as toll roads until the bonds are repaid in 2034. The Congestion Relief Program was followed by another 15 year capital program named Move Illinois. Approved by ISTHA in 2011, the $14 billion capital program will address the remaining needs of tollway system not addressed by the Congestion Relief Program, as well as construct several new projects; the program is expected to add $21 billion to the economy. The projects in Move Illinois include reconstructing and widening I-90 between Rockford and the Kennedy Expressway as well as I-294 between Balmoral Ave and 95th Street.
The Tollway's board of directors has eleven members. The Governor of Illinois and the head of the Illinois Department of Transportation serve as ex officio members of the Tollway Board; the remaining 9 members are named by the governor. No more than 5 appointed members may be of the same political party as the governor; the Authority has the power to collect and raise tolls, is responsible for the maintenance and construction of tollway roads and related signage. The Tollway supervises and manages the seven Illinois Tollway oases; the close relationship between the governor and the near-majority of appointed board members has led to numerous allegations of endemic corruption throughout the tollway authority's lifetime. The ISTHA's annual budget for fiscal year 2010 totals $696 million; the ISTHA has 1,704 full-time employees. As of January 1, 2010, ISTHA has $4,074,675,000 in bond debt, which have been rated Aa3, AA- and AA- by Moody’s Investors Service, Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor's, respectively.