Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe
Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe was a British newspaper and publishing magnate. As owner of the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror, he was an early developer of popular journalism, he exercised vast influence over British popular opinion during the Edwardian era. Lord Beaverbrook said he was "the greatest figure who strode down Fleet Street." About the beginning of the 20th century there were increasing attempts to develop popular journalism intended for the working class and tending to emphasize sensational topics. Harmsworth was the main innovator. P. P. Catterall and Colin Seymour-Ure conclude that: More than anyone... shaped the modern press. Developments he introduced or harnessed remain central: broad contents, exploitation of advertising revenue to subsidize prices, aggressive marketing, subordinate regional markets, independence from party control. Northcliffe had a powerful role during the First World War by criticizing the government regarding the Shell Crisis of 1915.
He directed a mission to the new ally, the United States, during 1917, was director of enemy propaganda during 1918. His Amalgamated Press employed writers such as Arthur Mee and John Hammerton, its subsidiary, the Educational Book Company, published The Harmsworth Self-Educator, The Children's Encyclopædia, Harmsworth's Universal Encyclopaedia. Born in Chapelizod, County Dublin, Harmsworth was educated at Stamford School in Lincolnshire, from 1876 and at Henley House School in Kilburn, London from 1878. A master at Henley House, to prove important to his future was J. V. Milne, the father of A. A. Milne, who according to H. G. Wells was at school with him at the time and encouraged him to start the school magazine. In 1880 he first visited the Sylvan Debating Club, founded by his father, of which he served as Treasurer. Beginning as a freelance journalist, he initiated his first newspaper and was assisted by his brother Harold, adept in business matters. Harmsworth had an intuitive sense for what the reading public wanted to buy, began a series of cheap but successful periodicals, such as Comic Cuts and the journal Forget-Me-Not for women.
From these periodicals, he developed the largest periodical publishing company in the world, Amalgamated Press. His half-penny periodicals published in the 1890s played a role in the decline of the Victorian penny dreadfuls. Harmsworth was an early developer of popular journalism, he bought several failing newspapers and made them into an enormously profitable news group by appealing to the general public. He began with The Evening News during 1894, merged two Edinburgh papers to form the Edinburgh Daily Record; that same year he funded an expedition to Franz Joseph Land in the Arctic with the intention of making attempts to travel to the North Pole. On 4 May 1896, he began publishing the Daily Mail in London, a success, having the world record for daily circulation until Harmsworth's death. Prime Minister Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury, said it was "written by office boys for office boys". Harmsworth transformed a Sunday newspaper, the Weekly Dispatch, into the Sunday Dispatch the greatest circulation Sunday newspaper in Britain.
He initiated the Harmsworth Magazine, utilizing one of Britain's best editors, Beckles Willson, editor of many successful publications, including The Graphic. During 1899, Harmsworth was responsible for the unprecedented success of a charitable appeal for the dependents of soldiers fighting in the South African War by inviting Rudyard Kipling and Arthur Sullivan to write the song "The Absent-Minded Beggar". Harmsworth initiated The Daily Mirror during 1903, rescued the financially desperate Observer and The Times during 1905 and 1908, respectively. During 1908, he acquired The Sunday Times; the Amalgamated Press subsidiary the Educational Book Company published the Harmsworth Self-Educator, The Children's Encyclopædia, Harmsworth's Universal Encyclopaedia. He brought his younger brothers into his media empire, they all flourished: Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet and Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet.
Harmsworth was created a Baronet, of Elmwood, in the parish of St Peters in the County of Kent during 1904. During 1905, Harmsworth was named to the peerage as Baron Northcliffe, of the Isle of Thanet in the County of Kent, during 1918 was named as Viscount Northcliffe, of St Peter's in the County of Kent, for his service as the director of the British war mission in the United States. Alfred Harmsworth married Mary Elizabeth Milner on 11 April 1888, she was appointed Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire and Dame of Grace, Order of St John during 1918. They did not have any children. Alfred Harmsworth had four acknowledged children by two different women; the first, Alfred Benjamin Smith, was born. Smith died during 1930 in a mental home. By 1900, Harmsworth had acquired a new mistress, an Irishwoman named Kathleen Wrohan, about whom little is known but her name. By 1914, Northcliffe controlled 40 per cent of the morning newspaper circulation in Britain, 45 per cent of the evening and 15 per cent of the Sunday circulation.
Northcliffe's ownership of The Times, the Daily Mail and other newspape
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
Joker (comic strip)
Joker was a British comic strip. It first appeared in Knockout issue 1 on 12 June 1971. Knockout merged with Whizzer and Chips in 1973. Joker stayed in Whizzer and Chips as a Whizz-kid until the end, when he continued in Buster until the close of the comic on 4 January 2000. On the "last page" of Buster, Joker reveals; the strip was written by Malcolm Morrison, illustrated by Sid Burgon
Eagle (British comics)
Eagle was a British children's comics periodical, first published from 1950 to 1969, in a relaunched format from 1982 to 1994. It was founded by an Anglican vicar from Lancashire. Morris edited a Southport parish magazine called The Anvil, but felt that the church was not communicating its message effectively. Disillusioned with contemporary children's literature, he and Anvil artist Frank Hampson created a dummy comic based on Christian values. Morris proposed the idea to several Fleet Street publishers, with little success, until Hulton Press took it on. Following a huge publicity campaign, the first issue of Eagle was released in April 1950. Revolutionary in its presentation and content, it was enormously successful. Featured in colour on the front cover was its most recognisable story, Dan Dare, Pilot of the Future, created by Hampson with meticulous attention to detail. Other popular stories included Riders of the Range and P. C. 49. Eagle contained news and sport sections, educational cutaway diagrams of sophisticated machinery.
A members club was created, a range of related merchandise was licensed for sale. Amidst a takeover of the periodical's publisher and a series of acrimonious disputes, Morris left in 1959. Although Eagle continued in various forms, a perceived lowering of editorial standards preceded plummeting sales, it was subsumed by its rival, Lion, in 1969. Eagle was relaunched in 1982 and ran for over 500 issues before being dropped by its publisher in 1994. Eagle was founded by John Marcus Harston Morris. Morris was born in the Lancashire town of Preston, in 1918 moved to Southport, he graduated from Brasenose College, Oxford with a second-class degree in Literae Humaniores, at Wycliffe Hall gained a second in theology in 1939. He became a priest the following year, served as a chaplain in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve from 1941 to 1943. In 1945 he became vicar of St. James' Church in Birkdale. Morris had long felt that the Anglican church was not publicising its message enough. Morris felt that the church was out of touch with the people whom it was supposed to represent.
He expanded the parish magazine—printed on four pages of cheap paper— into The Anvil, a circulated Christian magazine based on the humour and arts magazine Lilliput. Morris managed to employ several notable contributors on Anvil, such as C. S. Lewis and Harold Macmillan. In 1948 he employed young artist Frank Hampson, a war veteran who had enrolled at the Southport School of Arts and Crafts, where he was described by his tutor as an "outstanding draughtsman'prepared to go to endless trouble to get a thing right'", he worked as the illustrator on Anvil, became the full-time artist for Interim, a Christian publicity society formed during a conference of diocesan editors, with ambitions to produce a strip cartoon magazine aimed at children. Children's comics such as The Rover, The Hotspur, Schoolgirls' Own, The Magnet and Adventure contained a mixture of adventure stories, presented as text rather than strip cartoons, some British boys were buying American horror comics produced for G. I.s. Morris was impressed by the high standard of artwork in the US magazines, but disgusted by their content, which he described as "deplorable, nastily over-violent and obscene with undue emphasis on the supernatural and magical as a way of solving problems".
He realised that a market existed for a children's comics periodical which featured action stories in cartoon form, but which would convey to children the standards and morals he advocated. Morris was instrumental in launching the short-lived Society for Christian Publicity, formed to take control of The Anvil and to produce further Christian publications, in January 1949 the Daily Mirror published an optimistic piece about the rumoured publication by the Society of a "new children's comic"; this intrigued local journalist Norman Price, the following month he met Morris, helped him express his desire to see such a magazine by co-writing with him "Comics that bring horror to the nursery", published in the Sunday Dispatch. Morris's article provoked a strong reaction from its readers. Morris envisioned a character called Lex Christian, "a tough, fighting parson in the slums of the East End of London", whose adventures would be told in strip cartoon form, illustrated by Hampson; the idea gained the support of Terence Horsley, editor of the Sunday Empire News, but Horsley was killed in a gliding accident shortly thereafter.
Morris suggested to Hampson that they instead create an new children's publication. Hampson was enthusiastic about the idea, in May that year the two began work on a dummy of it. Lex Christian became Chaplain Dan Dare of the Inter-Planet Patrol, featured on the cover. On the inside, two pages of Secret City featured a character named Jimmy Swift, on the back page was a religious story about Saint Paul. Short strips included Joe from Ernie, Always Unlucky. Other features included a range of news articles. Three photocopies of the dummy were made, each hand-coloured by Hampson. By deeply in debt from the publication of The Anvil and the production costs of the dummy, Morris formed Anvil Productions Ltd, its prospectus declared: "The Company proposes to publish a new children's coloured'comic' paper, which will be of a much high
The Tramp known as The Little Tramp, was British actor Charlie Chaplin's most memorable on-screen character and an icon in world cinema during the era of silent film. The Tramp is the title of a silent film starring Chaplin, which Chaplin wrote and directed in 1915; the Tramp, as portrayed by Chaplin, is a childlike, bumbling but good-hearted character, most famously portrayed as a vagrant who endeavors to behave with the manners and dignity of a gentleman despite his actual social status. However, while he is ready to take what paying work is available, he uses his cunning to get what he needs to survive and escape the authority figures who will not tolerate his antics. Chaplin's films did not always portray the Tramp as a vagrant, however; the character was referred to by any names on-screen, although he was sometimes identified as "Charlie" and as in the original silent version of The Gold Rush, "The little funny tramp". The character of the Tramp was created by accident while Chaplin was working at Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios, when dressing up for the short film Mabel's Strange Predicament starring Mabel Normand and Chaplin.
In a 1933 interview, Chaplin explained how he came up with the look of the Tramp: A hotel set was built for Mabel Normand's picture Mabel's Strange Predicament and I was hurriedly told to put on a funny make-up. This time I went to the wardrobe and got a pair of baggy pants, a tight coat, a small derby hat and a large pair of shoes. I wanted the clothes to be a mass of contradictions, knowing pictorially the figure would be vividly outlined on the screen. To add a comic touch, I wore a small mustache. My appearance got an enthusiastic response including Mr. Sennett; the clothes seemed to imbue me with the spirit of the character. He became a man with a soul—a point of view. I defined to Mr. Sennett the type of person, he wears an air of romantic hunger, forever seeking romance. That was the first film featuring the Tramp but a different film, shot but with the same character, happened to be released two days earlier; the Tramp debuted to the public in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice.
Chaplin, with his Little Tramp character became the most popular star in Keystone director Mack Sennett's company of players. Chaplin continued to play the Tramp through dozens of short films and feature-length productions.. The Tramp was identified with the silent era, was considered an international character; when the sound era began in the late 1920s, Chaplin refused to make a talkie featuring the character due to how the character was supposed to be American, Chaplin himself had a strong and obvious British accent. The 1931 production City Lights featured no dialogue. Chaplin retired the character in the film Modern Times, which appropriately ended with the Tramp walking down an endless highway toward the horizon; the film was only a partial talkie and is called the last silent film. The Tramp remains silent until near the end of the film when, for the first time, his voice is heard, albeit only as part of a French/Italian-derived gibberish song; this allowed the Tramp to be given a voice but not tarnish his association with the silent era.
In The Great Dictator, Chaplin's first film after Modern Times, Chaplin plays the dual role of a Hitler-esque dictator, a Jewish barber. Although Chaplin emphatically stated that the barber was not the Tramp, he retains the Tramp's moustache and general appearance. Despite a few silent scenes, including one where the barber is wearing the Tramp's coat and bowler hat and carrying his cane, the barber speaks throughout the film, including the passionate plea for peace, interpreted as Chaplin speaking as himself. In 1959, having been editing The Chaplin Revue, Chaplin commented to a reporter "I was wrong to kill him. There was room for the Little Man in the atomic age."A vaudeville performer named Lew Bloom created a similar tramp character which inspired Chaplin. According to Bloom, he was "the first stage tramp in the business". In an interview with the Daily Herald in 1957 Chaplin recalled being inspired by the tramp characters Weary Willie and Tired Tim from Illustrated Chips; the physical attributes of the Tramp include a pair of baggy pants, a tight coat, a small bowler hat, a large pair of shoes, a springy and flexible cane and the famous small mustache.
The Tramp walks uncomfortably because of the ill-fitting clothing. The Tramp may have seen better days, but he maintains the attitude and demeanor of a high-class individual. Two films made in 1915, The Tramp and The Bank, created the characteristics of Chaplin's screen persona. While in the end the Tramp manages to shake off his disappointment and resume his carefree ways, the pathos lies in the Tramp's having a hope for a more permanent transformation through love, his failure to achieve this; the Tramp was the victim of circumstance and coincidence, but sometimes the results worked in his favor. In Modern Times, he picks up a red flag that falls off a truck and starts to
Jet-Ace Logan was a British comic strip that appeared in The Comet and Tiger, issues of Thriller Picture Library, plus the 1969 and 1972 Tiger Annuals. It was drawn by John Gillat, writers contributing scripts included David Motton, Kenneth Bulmer, Frank S. Pepper; the hero, Jim "Jet-Ace" Logan, was an ace interplanetary pilot of the RAF. In all but the earliest stories, his regular copilot, Plum-Duff Charteris, accompanied Jet-Ace. Many of the insightful scenarios, written in the 1950s, seem applicable more than a half a century later. For example, in one adventure, Jet-Ace was involved in fighting a group of aliens who endeavored to destroy humankind by contaminating the planet's atmosphere. In stories, Jet-Ace and Plumduff belonged to various law enforcement agencies, such as the Solar Police, rather than military organizations; the Finnish cartoonist Petri Hiltunen created a spoof of Jet-Ace, Rocket Reynolds, under a pseudonym "Valentin Kalpa". Mike Butterworth created Jet-Ace Logan, he scripted the first adventure.
All subsequent adventures appearing in Comet were scripted by David Motton, drawn by John Gillat. David Motton scripted Jet-Ace Logan stories for Thriller Picture Library, namely'Times Five','Seven Went To Sirius' and'Ten Days To doom'. Tiger Annual, 1963. Tiger Annual, 1968. Tiger Annual, 1969