Georg Brandes, born Morris Cohen, was a Danish critic and scholar who greatly influenced Scandinavian and European literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. He is seen as the theorist behind the Modern Breakthrough of Scandinavian culture, at the age of 30, Brandes formulated the principles of a new realism and naturalism, condemning hyper-aesthetic writing and fantasy in literature. His literary goals were shared by other authors, among them the Norwegian realist playwright Henrik Ibsen. In 1884 Viggo Hørup, Georg Brandes, and his brother Edvard Brandes started the daily newspaper Politiken with the motto, the paper and their political debates led to a split of the liberal party Venstre in 1905 and created the new party Det Radikale Venstre. Georg Brandes was born as Morris Cohen in Copenhagen into a non-observant Jewish middle-class family and he became a student at the University of Copenhagen in 1859 where he first studied jurisprudence. From this, his interests turned to philosophy.
In 1862 he won the medal of the university for an essay on The Idea of Nemesis among the Ancients. Before this, indeed since 1858, he had shown a gift for verse-writing. Brandes did not collect his poems until as late as 1898, at the university, which he left in 1864, Brandes was influenced by the writings of Heiberg in criticism and Søren Kierkegaard in philosophy, influences which continued to leave traces on his work. In 1866, he contributed to the discussion of the works of Rasmus Nielsen in Dualism in our Recent Philosophy, from 1865 to 1871 he traveled much in Europe, acquainting himself with the condition of literature in the principal centers of learning. His first important contribution to letters was his Aesthetic Studies, where his maturer method is already foreshadowed in several monographs on Danish poets. Brandes now took his place as the leading northern European critic, applying to local conditions and he became Docent or reader in Aesthetics at the University of Copenhagen, where his lectures were a great success and gathered huge audiences.
His famous opening lecture on 3 November 1871, Hovedstrømninger i det 19de Aarhundredes Litteratur, after the professorship of aesthetics became vacant in 1872, it was taken as a matter of course that Brandes would fill it. But the young critic had offended many sensibilities by his ardent advocacy of ideas, he was seen as a Jew, his convictions were Radical. The tumult which gathered round the person of the critic increased the success of the work, in 1877 Brandes left Copenhagen and settled in Berlin, taking a considerable part in the aesthetic life of that city. He headed the group Det moderne Gjennembruds Mænd, composed of J. P, among his writings must be mentioned the monographs on Søren Kierkegaard, on Esaias Tegnér, on Benjamin Disraeli, Ferdinand Lassalle, Ludvig Holberg, on Henrik Ibsen and on Anatole France. Brandes wrote with great depth on the contemporary poets and novelists of Denmark and Norway. He wrote an excellent book on Poland, and was one of the editors of the German version of Ibsen, the most important of his works was his study of William Shakespeare, which was translated into English by William Archer and was highly acclaimed
Royal Library, Denmark
The Royal Library in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the national library of Denmark and the university library of the University of Copenhagen. It is the largest library in the Nordic countries and it contains numerous historical treasures, and a copy of all works printed in Denmark since the 17th century are deposited there. Thanks to extensive donations in the past, the library holds nearly all known Danish printed works back to and including the first Danish book, the library was founded in 1648 by King Frederik III, who contributed a comprehensive collection of European works. It was opened to the public in 1793, in 1989, it was merged with the prestigious Copenhagen University Library. In 2005, it was merged with the Danish National Library for Science and Medicine, now the Faculty Library of Natural, the official name of the organization as of 1 January 2006 is The Royal Library, the National Library of Denmark and the Copenhagen University Library. In 2008, the Danish Folklore Archive was merged with the Royal Library and it is open to anyone above the age of 18 with a genuine need to use the collections.
Special rules apply for use of rare and valuable items, the annual circulation is 11,400,000 loans. The members are 32,196 active users, the annual budget, 394M Danish Kroner, including building expenses and maintenance. The old building of the Slotsholmen site was built in 1906 by Hans Jørgen Holm, the central hall is a copy of Charlemagnes Palace chapel in the Aachen Cathedral. In 1999, a new building adjacent to the old one was opened at Slotsholmen, the Black Diamond building was designed by Danish architects schmidt hammer lassen. Named for its cover of black marble and glass, the Black Diamond building houses a concert hall in addition to the library. This new building was opened 1999 and it is formed by two black cubes that are slightly tilted over the street. In the middle of them, there is an eight storey atrium whose walls are white and wave-shaped, the atriums exterior wall is made of glass, so, you can see the sea, and, on the opposite shore, you can see Christianshavns luxury buildings.
Three bridges connect the Black Diamond with the old part of the Royal Library, in the ceiling of the big bridge, there is a huge painting by Danish painter Per Kirkeby. The Royal Library acquires Danish books through legal deposit, the holdings include an almost complete collection of all Danish printed books back from 1482. In 2006, legal deposit was extended to publications and now the library harvests four electronic copies of the Danish Internet each year. Commonly called the Hamburg Bible or the Bible of Bertoldus, a richly illuminated Bible in three large volumes made for the Cathedral of Hamburg in 1255. The 89 illuminated initials in the book are both as expressions of medieval art and as sources to the craft and history of the medieval book
The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the worlds first illustrated weekly news magazine. Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971, less frequently thereafter, the company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine. As a newsagent, Ingram was struck by the increase in newspaper sales when they featured pictures. Ingram began to plan a weekly newspaper that would contain pictures in every edition, Ingram rented an office, recruited artists and reporters, and employed as his editor Frederick William Naylor Bayley, formerly editor of the National Omnibus. The first issue of The Illustrated London News appeared on Saturday,14 May 1842, Ingram hired 200 men to carry placards through the streets of London promoting the first edition of his new newspaper. Costing sixpence, the first issue sold 26,000 copies, despite this initial success, sales of the second and subsequent editions were disappointing.
Its circulation soon increased to 40,000 and by the end of its first year was 60,000, in 1851, after the newspaper published Joseph Paxtons designs for the Crystal Palace before even Prince Albert had seen them, the circulation rose to 130,000. Andrew Spottiswoodes Pictorial Times lost £20,000 before it was sold to Ingram by Henry Vizetelly, Ingram folded it into another purchase, The Ladys Newspaper, which became The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times. Vitezelly was behind a competitor, The Illustrated Times in 1855. Ingrams other early collaborators left the business in the 1850s, nathanial Cooke, his business partner and brother-in-law, found himself in a subordinate role in the business and parted on bad terms around 1854. 1858 saw the departure of William Little, who, in addition to providing a loan of £10,000, was printer and publisher of the paper for 15 years, littles relationship with Ingram deteriorated over Ingrams harassment of their mutual sister-in-law. By 1863, The Illustrated London News was selling more than 300,000 copies every week, the death of Herbert and his eldest son left the company without a director and manager.
Control passed to Ingrams widow Ann, and his friend Sir Edward William Watkin, once Ingrams two younger sons and Charles, were old enough, they took over as managing directors, although it was William who took the lead. It was a period of expansion and increased competition for the ILN, as reading habits and the illustrated news market changed, the ILN bought or established a number of new publications, evolving from a single newspaper to a larger-scale publishing business. As with Herbert Ingrams purchases in the 1850s, this expansion was a way of managing competition, dominating markets. As too with the acquisitions of the 1850s, several similar illustrated publications were established in this period by former employees of The Illustrated London News. Serious competition for the ILN appeared in 1869, with the establishment of The Graphic, Thomas was a former wood engraver for The Illustrated London News, and brought his expertise in illustrated publishing to his new magazine. The Graphic was highly popular, particularly for its coverage of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, William Ingram became chief proprietor of The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, and The Ladys Pictorial, which may have been a title of The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times
Carl Heinrich Bloch was a Danish painter. He was born in Copenhagen and studied with Wilhelm Marstrand at the Royal Danish Academy of Art there, Blochs parents wanted their son to enter a respectable profession - an officer in the Navy. This, was not what Carl wanted and his only interest was drawing and painting, and he was consumed by the idea of becoming an artist. He went to Italy to study art, passing through the Netherlands, where he acquainted with the work of Rembrandt. Carl Bloch met his wife, Alma Trepka, in Rome and they were happily married until her early death in 1886. His early work featured rural scenes from everyday life, from 1859 to 1866, Bloch lived in Italy, and this period was important for the development of his historical style. His first great success was the exhibition of his Prometheus Unbound in Copenhagen in 1865, after the death of Marstrand, he finished the decoration of the ceremonial hall at the University of Copenhagen. The sorrow over losing his wife weighed heavily on Bloch, in a New Years letter from 1866 to Bloch, H. C.
Andersen wrote the following, What God has arched on solid rock will not be swept away, another letter from Andersen declared Through your art you add a new step to your Jacob-ladder into immortality. In a final ode, from an author to a famous artist. Andersen said Write on the canvas, write your seal on immortality, you will become noble here on earth. He was commissioned to produce 23 paintings for the Chapel at Frederiksborg Palace and these were all scenes from the life of Christ which have become very popular as illustrations. The originals, painted between 1865 and 1879, are still at Frederiksborg Palace, the altarpieces can be found at Holbaek, Odense and Copenhagen in Denmark, as well as Loederup and Landskrona in Sweden. A second work by Bloch, an 1880 grisaille version of The Mocking of Christ, was purchased by BYU in June 2015, Carl Bloch died of cancer on February 22,1890. His death came as a blow for Nordic art according to an article by Sophus Michaelis. Michaelis stated that Denmark has lost the artist that indisputably was the greatest among the living, kyhn stated in his eulogy at Carl Blochs funeral that Bloch stays and lives.
A prominent Danish art critic, Karl Madsen, stated that Carl Bloch reached higher toward the heaven of art than all other Danish art up to that date. Madsen said If there is an Elysium, where the giant, rich and noble artist souls meet, the most notable example of this is the movie The Testaments of One Fold and One Shepherd
Otto Bache was a Danish Realist painter. Many of his works depict key events in Danish history, at the age of only eleven, he received a dispensation and was admitted into the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Wilhelm Marstrand, among others. In 1866, he received the Academys travel grant and went to Paris and his stay in Paris had a particularly deep impact on his work, turning it in a direction characterized by more freedom, more colour, stronger light, and broader scope. Upon his return in 1868, he was married and he was named a Commander in the Order of the Dannebrog and was awarded the Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn. He received early recognition as a painter but he showed great interest in painting animal motifs, gradually turning to genre works. Media related to Otto Bache at Wikimedia Commons
Exner originally intended on becoming a history painter, but quickly found his niche, however, in genre painting, the most popular and lucrative painting style of his era. The younger Exner was interested in drawing and painting from an age and was put in private training after his confirmation. He began to study at the Royal Danish Academy of Art April 1839 and he caught the attention of Professor J. L. Lund, from whom he learned history painting. He studied on with Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, closely linked to the Golden Age of Danish Painting and he won the Academys little silver medallion in 1843, and the large silver medallion in 1845. In these early years he exhibited several paintings as well a number of portraits. One of these portraits, a portrait of his sister, won him the Academys Neuhausens prize in 1847, another painting from 1851, Marsk Stigs Døtre, was commissioned by Count Frederik Christian Julius Knuth to hang at Knuthenborg Palace. The Count was generous with Exner, not only paying him well, both of these painting depict an ancient Danish history and legend.
But even Exner admitted to having an irrational desire to become a history painter. This brought him to Amager, an island south of Copenhagen, where Dutch farmers had settled in 1521, there he painted his masterly, life-size En Amagerkone, der tæller sine Penge efter, which was exhibited in 1852, and was purchased by the National Collection. These themes focused on the folktypes in various areas of Denmark, especially those living in the country, in the visual arts a generation of artísts had been already exploring such themes as typical Danish landscapes, and the depiction of Danish and Nordic themes, mythological stories and history. Many of the artists in the generation were students of Eckersberg. They had been affected by Eckersbergs stress on attentive study and representation of Danish nature, a follow up painting to his first Amager painting was Et Besøg hos Bedstefaderen painted in 1853, which assured him a successful career with its wide popularity and many reproductions. He won a Thorvaldsens exhibition medallion for the work, and the painting was purchased for the National Collection and these paintings attracted an interested public, who was fascinated by this close-up look at the exotic foreigners living in Denmark side-by-side with them.
It was a chance to come into the home of strangers, Exner was skilled and portrayed his subjects with affection and gentle humour. He often traveled to the countryside during the summers to do studies from nature, as was common practice in these times. And he began seeking out themes in other locations on Sjælland. as well, one of his paintings Lille pige lader en gammel mand lugte til en blomst painted in 1856, proved to be the start of Heinrich Hirschsprungs collection, when he purchased it in 1866. He occasionally painted depictions of Italy, including his well-known En gondol from 1859, a view looking out from the dark interior of a covered gondola. A young woman at the side of the canvas peers out from the dark
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Second Schleswig War
The Second Schleswig War was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question. It began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig, decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol. Reasons for the war were the controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state. The war ended on 30 October 1864, when the Treaty of Vienna caused Denmarks cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, the northern and middle parts of Schleswig spoke Danish, but over time, the language in the southern half had shifted gradually to German. German culture was dominant among the clergy and nobility, Danish culture had a social status and was spoken mainly by the rural population. For centuries, while the rule of the king was absolute, when ideas of liberal democracy spread and nationalist currents emerged about 1820, identification was mixed between Danish and German.
To that was added a grievance about tolls charged by Denmark on shipping passing through the Danish Straits between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, to avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal, which could not be built so long as Denmark ruled Holstein. Much of the focused on the heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark. Prince Christian had served on the Danish side in the First Schleswig War in 1848-1851, at the time, the king of Denmark was duke of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1848, Denmark had received its first free constitution and at the time had fought a civil war with the Germans of Schleswig-Holstein in which Prussia had intervened. The peace treaty stipulated that the duchy of Schleswig should not be treated any differently from the duchy of Holstein in its relations with the Kingdom of Denmark and that was a clear breach of the 1851 peace treaty and gave Prussia and the German union a casus belli against Denmark. France had colonial problems, not least with Britain, Bismarck had effectively neutralized Russia politically and succeeded in obtaining cooperation from Austria which underlined its major power status within the German union.
The adoption of the Constitution of Denmark in 1849 complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new constitution to apply to all Danes. Thus two systems of government co-existed within the state, democracy in Denmark, and absolutism in Schleswig. This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking, in Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. In 1858, the German Confederation deposed the union constitution of the Danish monarchy concerning Holstein and Lauenburg, the two duchies were henceforth without any constitution, while the union constitution still applied to Schleswig and Denmark proper. As the heirless King Frederick VII grew older, Denmarks successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the kings demise. The king died in 1863 at a critical time, work on the November Constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed
Anton Laurids Johannes Dorph, usually known as Anton Dorph was a Danish painter who is remembered for his altarpieces and his paintings of fishermen. Dorph entered the Danish Academy in 1845 where he studied under Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, he received lessons from Wilhelm Marstrand. After winning the Academys silver medal, he began to exhibit portraits, with his portrait of the actor C. N. Rosenkilde which was displayed in the foyer of the Royal Danish Theatre he became well known. His full-figured portrait of the sulptor Evens brought him the Neuhausen Prize in 1857, the same year he began painting a series of works representing the fishermen of Zealand. He turned to religious works for altarpieces. Thanks to a stipend from the Academy, he travelled to Italy where he made several paintings including Fiskere i Sorrent. His many altarpieces in the half of the 19th century are of note
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print, the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with a roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks, single-leaf woodcut is a term for a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration. Among these the best known are the 16th century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops, the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists who made the blank blocks and this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as designed by rather than by an artist, but most authorities do not use this distinction.
The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium relatively easily, there were various methods of transferring the artists drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow. Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block, either way, the artists drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing, in both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, in the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print, as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and even contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were commonly used, in Japan, there are three methods of printing to consider, Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts.
Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present. The block goes face up on a table, with the paper or fabric on top, the back is rubbed with a hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton. A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren, in Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock perfectly still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process. This was especially helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers, printing in a press, presses only seem to have been used in Asia in relatively recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking