In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of people collectively known as the Illyrians. Besides them, this region was settled, in various times, by some tribes of Celts and Thracians. Illyrians spoke Illyrian languages, a group of Indo-European languages, which in ancient times had speakers in some parts in Southern Italy; the geographical term Illyris was used to define the area of northern and central Albania down to the Aoös valley, including in most periods much of the lakeland area. In Greek mythology, the name of Illyria is aetiologically traced to Illyrius, the son of Cadmus and Harmonia, who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the Illyrians. A version of the myth identifies Polyphemus and Galatea as parents of Celtus and Illyrius. Ancient Greek writers used the name "Illyrian" to describe peoples between the Liburnians and Epirus. Fourth-century BC Greek writers separated the people along the Adriatic coast from the Illyrians, only in the 1st century AD was "Illyrian" used as a general term for all the peoples across the Adriatic.
Writers spoke of "Illyrians in the strict sense of the word". In the Roman period, Illyricum was used for the area between the Danube; the prehistory of Illyria and the Illyrians is known from archaeological evidence. The Romans conquered the region in 168 BC in the aftermath of the Illyrian Wars; the earliest recorded Illyrian kingdom was that of the Enchele in the 8th century BC. The era in which we observe other Illyrian kingdoms begins at 400 BC and ends at 167 BC; the Autariatae under Pleurias were considered to have been a kingdom. The Kingdom of the Ardiaei began at 230 BC and ended at 167 BC; the most notable Illyrian kingdoms and dynasties were those of Bardyllis of the Dardani and of Agron of the Ardiaei who created the last and best-known Illyrian kingdom. Agron had extended his rule to other tribes as well; as for the Dardanians, they always had separate domains from the rest of the Illyrians. The Illyrian kingdoms were composed of small areas within the region of Illyria. Only the Romans ruled the entire region.
The internal organization of the south Illyrian kingdoms points to imitation of their neighbouring Greek kingdoms and influence from the Greek and Hellenistic world in the growth of their urban centres. Polybius gives as an image of society within an Illyrian kingdom as peasant infantry fought under aristocrats which he calls in Greek Polydynastae where each one controlled a town within the kingdom; the monarchy was established on hereditary lines and Illyrian rulers used marriages as a means of alliance with other powers. Pliny writes that the people that formed the nucleus of the Illyrian kingdom were'Illyrians proper' or Illyrii Proprie Dicti, they were the Taulantii, the Pleraei, the Endirudini, Sasaei and the Labeatae. These joined to form the Docleatae; the Romans defeated Gentius, the last king of Illyria, at Scodra in 168 BC and captured him, bringing him to Rome in 165 BC. Four client-republics were set up; the region was directly governed by Rome and organized as a province, with Scodra as its capital.
The Roman province of Illyricum replaced the independent kingdom of Illyria. It stretched from the Drilon river in modern Albania to Istria in the west and to the Sava river in the north. Salona functioned as its capital. After crushing a revolt of Pannonians and Daesitiates, Roman administrators dissolved the province of Illyricum and divided its lands between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. Although this division occurred in 10 AD, the term Illyria remained in use in Late Latin and throughout the medieval period. After the division of the Roman Empire, the bishops of Thessalonica appointed papal vicars for Illyricum; the first of these vicars is said to have been Bishop Acholius or Ascholius, the friend of St. Basil. In the 5th century, the bishops of Illyria withdrew from communion with Rome, without attaching themselves to Constantinople, remained for a time independent, but in 515, forty Illyrian bishops renewed their loyalty to Rome by declaring allegiance to Pope Hormisdas.
The patriarchs of Constantinople succeeded in bringing Illyria under their jurisdiction in the 8th century. The name Illyria only disappears from the historical record after the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the 15th century, re-emerges in the 17th century, acquiring a new significance in the Ottoman–Habsburg Wars, as Leopold I designated as the "Illyrian nation" the South Slavs in Hungarian territory. Several armorials of the Early modern period, popularly called the "Illyrian Armorials", depicted fictional coats of arms of Illyria; the name Illyria was revived by Napoleon for the Illyrian Provinces that were incorporated into the French Empire from 1809 to 1813, the Kingdom of Illyria was part of Austria until 1849, after which time it was not used in the reorganised Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Illyrian movement was a pan-South Slavist cultural and political campaign by a group of young Croatian and Serbian intellectuals during the firs
Itamar Zorman is an Israeli violinist. Zorman is the son of Israeli pianist Astrith composer Moshe Zorman. At age six, he began violin studies with Saly Bockel at the Israeli Conservatory of Music, his other teachers included David Chen and Nava Milo, he graduated from the conservatory in 2003. He continued studies at the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance, with such teachers as Hagai Shaham, he further studied at the Juilliard School, with such teachers as Robert Mann and Sylvia Rosenberg, obtained his MM degree from Juilliard in 2009. He obtained a diploma in arts from the Manhattan School of Music a year and an artists' diploma from Julliard in 2012, he continued his studies with Christian Tetzlaff at the Kronberg Germany. Zorman is a founding member of the Israeli Chamber Project and has been a member of the Lysander Piano Trio, his first solo CD recording, entitled Portrait, was released by Profil in Europe in August 2014 and in the United States in February 2015. His 2nd CD, features violin works by Paul Ben-Haim, in collaboration with pianist Amy Yang, conductor Philippe Bach, the BBC National Orchestra of Wales.
Zorman performs from the collection of Yehuda Zisapel. In 2010, Zorman won first prize in the Freiburg International Violin Competition, the Arriaga Competition and grand prize at the Coleman Chamber Music Competition In 2011, Zorman won first prize at the International Tchaikovsky Competition. In 2012 he became a winner of the Concert Artists Guild Competition. In 2013, he was awarded an Avery Fisher Career Grant, as well as scholarships from the America Israel Cultural Foundation, he is the recipient of the 2014 Borletti-Buitoni Award. Official webpage of Itamar Zorman Eastman School of Music, faculty page on Itamar Zorman Frank Salomon Associates agency page on Itamar Zorman Heifetz Institute page on Itamar Zorman Kronberg Academy English-language page on Itamar Zorman
Frank Isola was an American jazz drummer. Isola was born and raised in Detroit and was influenced by Gene Krupa, he played in the U. S. military during World War II, studied and performed in California with Bobby Sherwood and Earle Spencer. He moved to New York City, where he played with Johnny Bothwell and Elliot Lawrence in 1947. Following this he played with Stan Getz and Gerry Mulligan, as well as with Mose Allison, Eddie Bert, Bob Brookmeyer, Jimmy Raney, Johnny Williams and Tony Fruscella. In a 2010 JazzWax interview by Marc Myers with Mose Allison quoted in the 2016 liner notes for the CD reissue of the Stan Getz The Soft Swing album by Phono, Allison credits Isola with introducing him to Getz in 1956: JazzWax: In 1956, how did you meet Stan Getz? Mose Allison: I used to go to these jam sessions at night at a loft on 34th St. that belonged to trombonist Clyde Cox. Many of the guys who were there were from the South. At these sessions, I met drummer Frank Isola. By the late 1950s Isola returned to Detroit and kept working periodically with local bands or in jam sessions but well out of the spotlight.
Isola was active in the Cass Corridor area of Detroit in the 1970s playing jazz standards with pianist Bobby McDonald and others at Cobb's Corner Bar. He worked as a drummer at Captain Hornblower's in Key West, Florida, in the late 1980s with pianist Johnny Williams. In 1993 he was playing weekly at Tom's Steamer's Bar in Grosse Pointe MI. In 1994 and 1995 Isola played at The Windsor Jazz Festival, backing Franz Jackson and Marcus Belgrave; the 1994 concert was released on Parkwood Records as Live at Windsor Jazz Festival III with Jackson and Belgrave as co-leaders. With Mose Allison Back Country Suite With Bob Brookmeyer Bob Brookmeyer Quartet With Franz Jackson and Marcus Belgrave Live at Windsor Jazz Festival III With Stan Getz The Complete Roost Recordings Stan Getz Plays Interpretations by the Stan Getz Quintet Stan Getz and the Cool Sounds With Gerry Mulligan Paris Concert With John Williams John Williams John Williams Trio Welcome Back Frank Isola at Allmusic Richard Cook & Morton, Brian: The Penguin Guide To Jazz on CD, 6th Edition, Penguin, 2002 ISBN 0-14-017949-6.