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Illyrian Wars

The Illyrian Wars were a set of wars fought in the period 229–168 BC between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom. In the First Illyrian War, which lasted from 229 BC to 228 BC, Rome's concern was that the trade across the Adriatic Sea increased after the First Punic War at a time when Ardiaei power increased under queen Teuta. Attacks on trading vessels of Rome's Italic allies by Illyrian pirates and the death of a Roman envoy named Coruncanius on Teuta's orders, prompted the Roman senate to dispatch a Roman army under the command of the consuls Lucius Postumius Albinus and Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus. Rome expelled Illyrian garrisons from a number of Greek cities including Epidamnus, Corcyra and established a protectorate over these Greek towns; the Romans set up Demetrius of Pharos as a power in Illyria to counterbalance the power of Teuta. The Second Illyrian War lasted from 220 BC to 219 BC. In 219 BC, the Roman Republic was at war with the Celts of Cisalpine Gaul, the Second Punic War with Carthage was beginning.

These distractions gave Demetrius the time. Leading this fleet of 90 ships, Demetrius sailed south of Lissus, violating his earlier treaty and starting the war. Demetrius' fleet first attacked Pylos. From Pylos, the fleet sailed to the Cyclades. Demetrius foolishly sent a fleet across the Adriatic, with the Illyrian forces divided, the fortified city of Dimale was captured by the Roman fleet under Lucius Aemilius Paulus. From Dimale the navy went towards Pharos; the forces of Rome routed the Illyrians and Demetrius fled to Macedon, where he became a trusted councillor at the court of Philip V of Macedon, remained there until his death at Messene in 214 BC. In 171 BC, the Illyrian king Gentius was allied with the Romans against the Macedonians, but in 169 BC he allied himself with Perseus of Macedon. During the Third Illyrian War, in 168 BC, he arrested two Roman legati and destroyed the cities of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium, which were allied to Rome, he was defeated at Scodra by a Roman force under L. Anicius Gallus, in 167 BC he was brought to Rome as a captive to participate in Gallus' triumph, after which he was interned at Iguvium.

In the second half of the third century BC, the Ardiaei kingdom was transformed into a formidable power under the leadership of Agron. During this time, Agron invaded part of Epirus, Corcyra and Pharos in succession, establishing garrisons in them; the new force disposed of'the most powerful which could carry 50 soldiers in addition to the rowersforce, both by land and sea, of any of the kings who had reigned in Illyria before him', according to Polybius. The Illyrians used a small and fast warship with a single bank of oars. Raids by sea from the Adriatic and Ionian were a familiar threat to the north-western Greeks. What was new was the use of a land army to follow up and profit from the victories gained by the navy; the Greek cities on the coast of Illyria were systematically attacked and already conquered by Agron's forces. Rome answered an appeal by sending envoys, they never got there. They were attacked en route by Illyrian vessels, one of them was killed, together with an Issaean ambassador.

That time a number of political events marked the adjacent Greek states. In 234 BC, the royal succession in Epirus came to an end, a federal republic was instituted. In the south, the western part of Acarnania seceded from this arrangement, their independence was soon threatened by the Aetolians, who began to occupy territory around the Gulf of Ambracia, including Pyrrhus' old capital, which forced the Epirotes to establish a new center at Phoenice. Besieged at Medion, the Acarnanians sought assistance from Demetrius II of Macedonia, who for the most of his reign had been at war with the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues. In response, the king requested assistance from Agron to relieve the siege; the Illyrian attack under Agron was mounted in either 232 or 231 BC. One hundred lembi, with 5000 men on board, sailed up to land at Medion, they formed up in the order, usual in their own country, advanced in their several companies against the Aetolian lines. The Aetolians drew up the greater part of their hoplites and cavalry in front of their own lines on the level ground and, with a portion of their cavalry and their light infantry, they hastened to occupy some rising ground in front of their camp, which nature had made defensible.

A single charge, however, by the Illyrians, whose numbers and close order gave them irresistible weight, served to dislodge the light-armed troops, forced the cavalry who were on the ground with them to retire to the hoplites. The Medionians joined the action by sallying out of the town and charging the Aetolians, after killing a great number, taking a still greater number prisoners, becoming masters of their arms and baggage, the Illyrians, having carried out the orders of Agron, conveyed their baggage and the rest of their booty to their boats and set sail for their own country; this defeat of the Aetolians, who were famed for their victory over the invading Gauls a generation before, caused a sensation in Greece. Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a license to universal plunder. In 231 BC, the fleet and army attacked Messenia in the Peloponnese. On the way home, Teuta sent her general Scerdilaidas to capture the city of Phoenice in Epirus.

The city was captured and the ensuing battle was won. A truce was agreed and Phoenice was returned for a price, along with the rel

Bolognese Swordsmanship

Bolognese Swordsmanship sometimes known as the Dardi school, is a tradition within the Italian school of swordsmanship, based on the surviving fencing treatises published by several 16th century fencing masters of Bologna, As early as the 14th century several fencing masters were living and teaching in the city: a maestro Rosolino in 1338, a maestro Nerio in 1354, a maestro Francesco in 1385. The Dardi school is named after Lippo Bartolomeo Dardi, a professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Bologna, licensed as a fencing master and founded a fencing school in Bologna in 1415, just a few years after Fiore dei Liberi had completed his Fior di Battaglia; the Dardi School constituted both the last great medieval Western martial arts tradition as well as the first great Renaissance tradition, embracing both armed and unarmed combat. No manuscript ascribed to Dardi himself survives, although his tradition became the foundation for the work of Antonio Manciolino and Achille Marozzo, both students of famed Bolognese master Guido Antonio de Luca.

The Bolognese masters whose treatises have survived shared a greater consistency of style and pedagogy with each other than with fencing masters of the period from other parts of Italy, thus justifying their treatment as a single school. The Dardi school focused the single-handed spada da lato still used for both cutting and thrusting; the side-sword was used in combination with various defensive weapons, including a shield, a dagger, a gauntlet or a cape. The two-handed sword or spadone was still taught, although losing its prominence. In addition, instruction on fighting with the poleaxe and other polearms was given. A treatise on the gintilissima arte del schirmire by a "Bolognese anonymus" was edited by Rubboli and Cesari, it is dated to the "very first years of the 1500s" by the editors, but others have placed it closer to 1550. It is a compilation preserved in mss. 345/6 of the Biblioteca Classense in Ravenna. The Opera Nova of Antonio Manciolino was first published in the early 1520s, but only a copy of the second edition, "newly revised and printed" in 1531, has survived.

It was dedicated to Luis Fernández de Córdoba, Duke of Sessa, mentioned as imperial ambassador to Pope Adrian VI. Opera Nova dell'arte delle armi by Achille Marozzo was published in 1536 in Modena, dedicated to Count Rangoni. Considered the most important work on Italian fencing of the 16th century, it exemplifies techniques about fighting in a judicial duel with all the major weapons of the times and includes a large section on the conventions and rules of the duel. Angelo Viggiani's Lo Schermo published posthumously, ca. 1575. Giovanni dall'Agocchie, Dell'Arte di Scrimia, 1572; this work is unusually clear, a significant amount of material on the theory of swordsmanship along with many specific descriptions of the fundamentals. Girolamo Cavalcabo was trained in the Bolognese school of fencing under Angelo Viggiani dal Montone, seems to have traveled to London, England in the 1580s or 1590s. While in London, he wrote a treatise on the use of the rapier entitled Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo, published in 1597.

In the early 17th century, he served as fencing master at the court of Henry IV of France to prince Louis. Bolognese Guards Bolognese Swordsmanship: The Dardi School Bolognese Swordsmanship by Tom Leoni Site dedicated to the study of the Dardi tradition maintained by William E Wilson Bolognese Masters at Scrimipedia Marozzo.com, a website dedicated to the Bolognese Swordsmanship maintained by Ilkka Hartikainen Sala d'Arme Achille Marozzo, the greatest schools for the study of Bolognese Swordsmanship in Italy

Pharr-San Juan-Alamo North High School

Pharr-San Juan-Alamo North Early College High School is a public school in Pharr, Texas. It is part of the Pharr-San Juan-Alamo Independent School District and is one of the district's six high schools. Located at 500 E. Nolana Loop, the school serves students in grades nine through twelve; as of the 2005-2006 school year, PSJA North had a total of 2,209 students. 86.6% of the students are considered economically disadvantaged. The school's attendance boundary includes sections of McAllen. Feeder elementary schools include Arnold, Kelly-Pharr, Dr. Long, Longoria and Ramirez. Feeder middle schools include Liberty. PSJA North High School was one of the three recipients of the College Board's Inspiration Award in 2011. Former principal Narciso Garcia, several teachers, two seniors represented the school at the College Board's annual forum in New York on October 2011; the two seniors gave short speeches in front of over 2000 educators from across the nation. Based on the accountability ratings released by the Texas Education Agency on August 1, 2008, PSJA North is rated "Academically Acceptable".

Pharr-San Juan-Alamo High School Pharr-San Juan-Alamo Memorial High School PSJA North High School Pharr-San Juan-Alamo ISD