Faiths and Pantheons
Faiths and Pantheons is a campaign accessory for the 3rd edition of the Dungeons & Dragons, for the Forgotten Realms campaign setting. It details the mechanics of the system established at the end of the Time of Troubles, in which a divine figure's relative power would be determined by the number of their worshipers. Faiths and Pantheons features the power levels and exact abilities of the various major deities of Faerûn, as of 3rd Edition, has descriptions of the dogmas and churches of all of the intermediate deities, lesser deities, demigods named in the setting's core rulebook, it features the names of various monster deities and others unmentioned in the core book, with descriptions of some, as well as 20 prestige classes for player characters and non-player characters alike. This book was written by Eric L. Boyd and Erik Mona and published in May 2002. Cover art is by Brom, with interior art by Glen Angus, Carlo Arellano, Dennis Calero, Michael Dubisch, Wayne England, Mark Evans, Scott Fischer, Lars Grant-West, Michael W. Kaluta, Vince Locke, Todd Lockwood, Raven Mimura, Corey Macourek, Stephanie Pui-Mun Law, Wayne Reynolds, Mike Sass, Mark Smylie, Arnie Swekel, Ben Templesmith, Kev Walker, Matt Wilson, Renick Woods, Sam Wood.
Erik Mona commented on the book's design: "The new design ethic was to focus on building the Realms into an interesting campaign setting for players and DMs, above and beyond an adherence to old material so far out of date a modern-day graduate student could have been in grade school when it first went out of print. So I did my best to infuse deities like Deneir and poor little Cyrrollalee with interesting challenging ideas that they hadn't been exposed to in the long history of the Realms; when ground has been covered eleven times before, it's tempting to just parrot older material, changing the exact wording but not worrying too much about updating the gears that make that material work. For Faiths and Pantheons, I tried to tear some of these gods to their core concepts and build up from there. That's not to say they're so different as to be unrecognizable--they're the same deities, but some of them have new interesting aspects to their characters and motivations that haven't been revealed until now."
Faiths & Pantheons from Wizards of the Coast Faiths & Pantheons from TSR Archive http://www.rpg.net/news+reviews/reviews/rev_7617.html Faiths and Pantheons at Google Books
Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting
The Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting is a role-playing game sourcebook, first published in 1987. It details the Forgotten Realms setting and contains information on characters and history, sets specific rules for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game; the latest edition was published in 2008 by Wizards of the Coast, for use with the 4th edition Dungeons & Dragons rules. The Dungeon Master's Sourcebook of the Realms describes how to set up and run a campaign in the Forgotten Realms. A pair of miniscenarios is included, information is provided on wilderness terrain and movement, important personalities and significant and magical books. Written from the perspective of Elminster the sage, the book introduces the campaign setting, explains how to use it, offers adventure resources. Large areas were set aside to be developed for house campaigns, no published materials were intended to be printed to exploit those areas, while one area detailed in this package was intended to have no subsequent publications use that area.
The package covers only the western half of a single continent, with the eastern half reserved for future publication of Kara-Tur. Two complete dungeon-style adventures are provided: "Halls of the Beast-Tamers", a dungeon with many unconventional problem-solving exercises, "Lashan's Fall", a dungeon with a mystery and an opportunity to parley with a monster; the "Books of the Forgotten Realms" section is a treatment of several magical tomes that suggests a variety of adventures, with a description of the appearance and contents of each book. The Cyclopedia of the Realms provides background information on and details maps of the locations in the accompanying maps of the Forgotten Realms, it begins with an explanation of the Realms' treatment of time, names and currency, its gods and religion. The remaining 75 pages of the book is an encyclopedic and alphabetic listing of important places, nations, character classes, organizations of the Realms; the set includes four full-color, 34" x 22" maps, two of which combine to form a large-scale map of the western half of the vast Realms continent, while the other two provide a more detailed map of the regions featured in this campaign pack.
The Forgotten Realms Campaign Set was written by Ed Greenwood, with Jeff Grubb and Karen Martin, illustrated by Keith Parkinson, Jeff Easley, Clyde Caldwell, Tim Conrad. Greenwood and Grubb did the design, while Grubb was responsible for the development, Karen Martin did the editing, it was published in 1987, as a boxed set which included two 96-page books, four large color maps, two clear plastic hex-gridded overlays. In a January 1988 Dragon magazine review of the Forgotten Realms Campaign Set, Ken Rolston stated that the Forgotten Realms setting achieves the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons dual design objectives of compatibility with existing AD&D game campaigns, colorful characters and cultures; this is made possible by its vast setting, the way the Realms campaign "avoids epic themes and theological frames", "leaving room for the complex and contradictory jumble of pantheons and cultures encouraged by the AD&D game's developmental history". The Realms setting is a game setting, as opposed to a narrative setting like Krynn and Middle-earth, "firmly rooted in the traditions of a decade of AD&D game campaigns and adventures, both published and "house".
Rolston disliked the "DM's Sourcebook of the Realms"' handling of random encounters and its notes on dragons of the setting, felt that its descriptions of NPCs are "not useful or appealing", with the exception of Elminster, "an effective informant and presentation mouthpiece". The recent-news-and-rumors section was described as "excellent, offering perfect examples of AD&D game-scale fantasy scenario ideas in a charming and flavorful style", he called the two dungeon adventures "first-class", described "Halls of the Beast-Tamers" as a "classic AD&D game dungeon with lots of weirdness and magical flourishes" which "provides a solid rationale for the ever-popular monster-motel adventure", although he felt that it may be too tough for novices. "Lashan's Fall" was termed "a nifty dungeon with a mystery", said to feature "a loony monster that may not rip into the PCs at the first opportunity". Rolston found in the "Cyclopedia of the Realms" book a "less-satisfying treatment of gods and religion" than that in books such as Deities & Demigods and Legends & Lore, as while "the major archetypes and game elements are covered, there's little detail, motivation, or game information provided for the deities".
He felt that the best entries in the encyclopedic section about places are several large- and medium-sized cities and towns, complete with maps and keys to the major establishments, "a good treatment of Shadowdale, a village proposed as the setting for novice campaigners". The strongest element of this encyclopedic section was considered to be the treatment of organizations such as the adventuring and merchant companies, which can be used as "backdrops for intrigue and adventure, provide background material for PC and NPC role-playing development. Skim through a couple of these entries. Rolston felt that the maps were "decent but unimpressive" artistically, graphically were "exceptionally clear and useful", saying "These ingenious devices are sure to please mappers and travel freaks"; as a campaign setting, Rolston felt that the physical space of the Realms is vast and varied, the important guiding themes of any campaign "are all available in profusion"
Demihuman Deities is a Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition: Forgotten Realms campaign accessory, published by Wizards of the Coast. This book presents information on the pantheons of five nonhuman races of the Forgotten Realms: the drow pantheon, the dwarf pantheon, the elf pantheon, the gnome pantheon, the halfling pantheon; the supplement provides numerous spells and special powers with which to make each different faith unique from the others. The book details the clergy, the ethos, all important information needed to depict these deities in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting. Demihuman Deities was designed by Eric L. Boyd, with cover art by Todd Lockwood, interior illustrations by Ned Dameron; this book is third in a series of sourcebooks about the Faerûnian pantheon, preceded by Faiths & Avatars and Powers & Pantheons
Warriors and Priests of the Realms
Warriors and Priests of the Realms is an accessory for the 2nd edition of the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, published in 1996. Warriors and Priests of the Realms is a collection of character kits for the Forgotten Realms setting; each kit presented in the book lists basic class information - such as ability requirements and starting money - and proficiencies, followed by a general overview, a physical description, roleplaying cues, advantages and hindrances. The book organizes warrior kits geographically; the book details the Harper and Crusader character classes. Harpers are fighter-rogues who combat evil, while Crusaders are fighter-clerics who can be of any alignment. Cliff Ramshaw reviewed Warriors and Priests of the Realms for Arcane magazine, rating it a 4 out of 10 overall, he notes that while the information in the book is specific to the Forgotten Realms campaign, "it is possible to tailor everything to your own world". Ramshaw felt that the kits were " uninspiring", concluded the review by saying: "Really, if you're stuck for ideas on how to characterize your newly rolled fighter you ought to consider giving up fantasy roleplaying - it's not as if there's a shortage or archetypes to choose from.
Priests are more tricky, the priest kits exhibit more imagination than their warrior counterparts. So, do you want to spend this much money to flesh out one or two characters?"
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Fritz Reuter Leiber Jr. was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction. He was a poet, actor in theater and films and chess expert. With writers such as Robert E. Howard and Michael Moorcock, Leiber can be regarded as one of the fathers of sword and sorcery fantasy, having coined the term. Fritz Leiber was born December 24, 1910, in Chicago, Illinois, to the actors Fritz Leiber and Virginia Bronson Leiber. For a time, he seemed inclined to follow in his parents' footsteps, he spent 1928 touring with his parents' Shakespeare company before entering the University of Chicago, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and received an undergraduate Ph. B. degree in psychology and physiology or biology with honors in 1932. From 1932 to 1933, he worked as a lay reader and studied as a candidate for the ministry at the General Theological Seminary in Chelsea, Manhattan, an affiliate of the Episcopal Church, without taking a degree. After pursuing graduate studies in philosophy at the University of Chicago from 1933 to 1934 and failing once more to take a degree, he remained based in Chicago while touring intermittently with his parents' company and pursuing a concurrent literary career.
He appeared alongside his father in uncredited parts in several films, including George Cukor's Camille, James Whale's The Great Garrick and William Dieterle's The Hunchback of Notre Dame. In 1936, he initiated a brief yet intense correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft, who "encouraged and influenced literary development" before succumbing to small intestine cancer and malnutrition in March 1937. Leiber introduced Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser in "Two Sought Adventure", his first professionally published short story in the August 1939 edition of Unknown, edited by John W. Campbell. Leiber married Jonquil Stephens on January 16, 1936. From 1937 to 1941, he was employed by Consolidated Book Publishing as a staff writer for the Standard American Encyclopedia. In 1941, the family moved to California, where Leiber served as a speech and drama instructor at Occidental College during the 1941–1942 academic year. Unable to conceal his disdain for academic politics as the United States entered World War II, he decided that the struggle against fascism was more important than his long-held pacifist convictions.
He accepted a position with Douglas Aircraft in quality inspection working on the C-47 Skytrain. Thereafter, the family returned to Chicago, where Leiber served as associate editor of Science Digest from 1945 to 1956. During this decade, his output was characterized by Poul Anderson as "a lot of the best science fiction and fantasy in the business." In 1958, the Leibers returned to Los Angeles. By this juncture, he was able to relinquish his journalistic career and support his family as a full-time fiction writer. Jonquil's death in 1969 precipitated Leiber's permanent relocation to San Francisco and exacerbated his longstanding alcoholism after twelve years of fellowship in Alcoholics Anonymous. In 1977, he returned to his original form with a fantasy novel set in modern-day San Francisco, Our Lady of Darkness, about a writer of weird tales who must deal with the death of his wife and his recovery from alcoholism; as a result of his substance abuse, Leiber seems to have suffered periods of penury in the 1970s.
Other reports suggest that Leiber preferred to live in the city, spending his money on dining and travel. In the last years of his life, royalty checks from TSR, Inc. were enough in themselves to ensure that he lived comfortably. In 1992, the last year of his life, Leiber married his second wife, Margo Skinner, a journalist and poet with whom he had been friends for many years. Leiber's death occurred a few weeks after a physical collapse while traveling from a science fiction convention in London, with Skinner; the cause of his death was stated by his wife to be stroke. He wrote a 100-page-plus memoir, Not Much Disorder and Not So Early Sex, which can be found in The Ghost Light. Leiber's own literary criticism, including several essays on Lovecraft, was collected in the volume Fafhrd and Me; as the child of two Shakespearean actors—Fritz Sr. and Virginia —Leiber was fascinated with the stage, describing itinerant Shakespearean companies in stories like "No Great Magic" and "Four Ghosts in Hamlet," and creating an actor/producer protagonist for his novel A Specter is Haunting Texas.
Although his Change War novel, The Big Time, is about a war between two factions, the "Snakes" and the "Spiders", changing and rechanging history throughout the universe, all the action takes place in a smal
The Kalevala is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology. It is regarded as the national epic of Karelia and Finland and is one of the most significant works of Finnish literature; the Kalevala was instrumental in the development of the Finnish national identity, the intensification of Finland's language strife and the growing sense of nationality that led to Finland's independence from Russia in 1917. The first version of The Kalevala was published in 1835; the version most known today was first published in 1849 and consists of 22,795 verses, divided into fifty folk stories. Elias Lönnrot was a physician, botanist and poet. During the time he was compiling the Kalevala he was the district health officer based in Kajaani responsible for the whole Kainuu region in the eastern part of what was the Grand Duchy of Finland, he was the son of a tailor and Ulrika Lönnrot. At the age of 21, he entered the Imperial Academy of Turku and obtained a master's degree in 1826.
His thesis was entitled De Vainamoine priscorum fennorum numine. The monograph's second volume was destroyed in the Great Fire of Turku the same year. In the spring of 1828, he set out with the aim of poetry. Rather than continue this work, though, he decided to complete his studies and entered Imperial Alexander University in Helsinki to study medicine, he earned a master's degree in 1832. In January 1833, he started as the district health officer of Kainuu and began his work on collecting poetry and compiling the Kalevala. Throughout his career Lönnrot made a total of eleven field trips within a period of fifteen years. Prior to the publication of the Kalevala, Elias Lönnrot compiled several related works, including the three-part Kantele, the Old Kalevala and the Kanteletar. Lönnrot's field trips and endeavours not only helped him to compile the Kalevala, but brought considerable enjoyment to the people he visited. Before the 18th century the Kalevala poetry was common throughout Finland and Karelia, but in the 18th century it began to disappear in Finland, first in western Finland, because European rhymed poetry became more common in Finland.
Finnish folk poetry was first written down in the 17th century and collected by hobbyists and scholars through the following centuries. Despite this, the majority of Finnish poetry remained only in the oral tradition. Finnish born nationalist and linguist Kaarle Akseli Gottlund expressed his desire for a Finnish epic in a similar vein to The Iliad and the Nibelungenlied compiled from the various poems and songs spread over most of Finland, he hoped that such an endeavour would incite a sense of nationality and independence in the native Finnish people. In 1820, Reinhold von Becker founded the journal Turun Wiikko-Sanomat and published three articles entitled Väinämöisestä; these works were an inspiration for Elias Lönnrot in creating his masters thesis at Turku University. In the 19th century, collecting became more extensive and organised. Altogether half a million pages of verse have been collected and archived by the Finnish Literature Society and other collectors in what are now Estonia and the Republic of Karelia.
The publication Suomen Kansan Vanhat Runot published 33 volumes containing 85,000 items of poetry over a period of 40 years. They have archived 65,000 items of poetry that remain unpublished. By the end of the 19th century this pastime of collecting material relating to Karelia and the developing orientation towards eastern lands had become a fashion called Karelianism, a form of national romanticism; the chronology of this oral tradition is uncertain. The oldest themes have been interpreted to have their roots in distant, unrecorded history and could be as old as 3,000 years; the newest events seem to be from the Iron Age. Finnish folklorist Kaarle Krohn proposes that 20 of the 45 poems of The Kalevala are of possible Ancient Estonian origin or at least deal with a motif of Estonian origin, it is understood that during the Finnish reformation in the 16th century the clergy forbade all telling and singing of pagan rites and stories. In conjunction with the arrival of European poetry and music this caused a significant reduction in the number of traditional folk songs and their singers.
Thus the tradition faded somewhat but was never eradicated. In total, Lönnrot made eleven field trips in search of poetry, his first trip was made in 1828 after his graduation from Turku University, but it was not until 1831 and his second field trip that the real work began. By that time he had published three articles entitled Kantele and had significant notes to build upon; this second trip was not successful and he was called back to Helsinki to attend to victims of the Second cholera pandemic. The third field trip was much more successful and led Elias Lönnrot to Viena in east Karelia where he visited the town of Akonlahti, which proved most successful; this trip yielded over copious notes. In 1833, Lönnrot moved to Kajaani where he was to spend the next 20 years as the district health officer for the region, his fourth field trip was undertaken in conjunction with his work as a doctor. This trip resulted in 49 poem