The Ilustrados constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century. They were the class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal. Stanley Karnow, in his In Our Image, Americas Empire in the Philippines and they were key figures in the development of Filipino nationalism. The most prominent Ilustrados were Graciano López Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Antonio Luna and José Rizal, rizal’s novels Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo “exposed to the world the injustices imposed on Filipinos under the Spanish colonial regime”. The event and “other repressive acts outraitings and activities, Rizal was executed on December 30,1896 and this also prompted unity among the Ilustrados and Andrés Bonifacio’s radical Katipunan. Philippine policies by the United States reinforced the dominant position of the Ilustrados within Filipino society, friar estates were sold to the Ilustrados and most government positions were offered to them. 1, pp. 224-226, JSTOR. org,2007, retrieved on, August 1,2007 Majul, the Political and Constitutional Ideas of the Philippine Revolution, A Review by R. S. Milne, Pacific Affairs, Vol.42, No
Ilustrados in Madrid (c.1890)
Three prominent Ilustrados in Spain: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce (from left to right). Photo was taken in Spain in 1890.