SilverFast is the name of a family of software for image scanning and processing, including photos and slides, developed by LaserSoft Imaging. SilverFast was introduced in 1995, Version 3.0 was finished in December 1996, version 6.6 came out in May 2008. It is the only software supporting the Heidelberg scanner on Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, Vista and 7; some scanner manufacturers bundle their hardware with SilverFast. The European Digital Press Association named SilverFast the "Best colour management software of the year 2008" for improving the dynamic range of most scanners and for creating ICC profiles automatically. In 2011 version 8 was introduced, HDR imaging software followed in 2012. Optional: 1)Multi-Exposure, 2)ICC Printer Calibration, 3)PhotoProof, 4)ColorServer It can be used as a stand-alone application, as a Photoshop plug-in, or as a universal TWAIN module. Versions include: SilverFast SE and SE Plus SilverFast Ai and Ai Studio SilverFast Ai IT8 and Ai Studio IT8 SilverFast X-Ray SilverFast DC is a stand-alone software solution for digital camera image processing.
It contains features for reading the image data from the camera, for processing and archiving the images on the computer, as well as for printing the edited images. SilverFast DC SE - for Beginners SilverFast DC Pro - for Professionals SilverFast DC Pro Studio - for Experts SilverFast DC VLT - the Virtual Light TableAll DC versions include a virtual light table for organizing and manipulating the images; the user can create photo archives and albums, add comments to images, generate contact sheets of the complete view port, produce or print single pictures in high resolution and in variable sizes. SilverFast DC Pro has the functionality of the scanner-software SilverFast Ai for digital images. Supported are the standard image formats such as JPEG and TIFF, unprocessed raw image format; the access to the raw data permits manual color correction or sharpening instead of using the camera's automatic adjustment, which does not work perfectly. SilverFast DC supports Adobe DNG and many camera models, some optimized by special camera profiles.
With the included IT8-target, individual ICC profiles can be self-made for every camera. SilverFast DC Pro has automated color optimization AACO, support for JPEG 2000, unsharpmasking USMPlus, CloneTool, an improved PrinTao module with text and layout functions. SilverFast HDR is a computer program for processing 48-bit raw images. Many newer scanners are able to output the image directly with all existing data instead of breaking it down to 24-bit; this 48-bit raw image can be saved and digital processing performed later. SilverFast HDR SilverFast HDR IT8 - with IT8-target for ICC profiling SilverFast HDR Studio - with additional featuresSilverFast HDR contains the functionality of SilverFast Ai for 48-bit raw data, such as defining output size and resolution, auto-adjusting of highlights and shadows, three-part histogram, gradation curves, selective color correction, unsharp masking, color cast removal slider, color separation, CMYK-preview. SilverFast HDR can be used as a native plug-in for Adobe Photoshop, as a universal TWAIN module, or as a stand-alone application.
The HDR Studio has JPEG 2000, USMPlus, CloneTool and PrinTao. With version 6.6.1 any SilverFast HDR version supports the proprietary RAW data format HDRi. These 64-bit HDRi color files and 32-bit HDRi greyscale files contain additional 16-bit infrared RAW data besides the 48-bit color RAW data and 16-bit greyscale RAW data respectively. Therefore, a scanner with an infrared channel available to the software is necessary; this RAW format can keep any readable image information for post-processing. The acronym "HDR" as used by SilverFast is not related to High-dynamic-range imaging, a used technique to increase the dynamic range of images; the data format is: The SilverFast Archive Suite includes SilverFast Ai IT8 and SilverFast HDR Studio with an integrated color management system. This package is suitable for archiving slides and photos, whereas the post processing can take place anytime after scanning. SilverFast Archive Suite SE - consisting of SilverFast SE Plus and SilverFast HDR SilverFast Archive Suite - consisting of SilverFast Ai IT8 and SilverFast HDR Studio and IT8 calibration targets PrinTao is a software for printing images and documents.
Templates can be used to make workflow easier and faster by reducing similar and repetitive worksteps. PrinTao has predefined templates. Other features: Positioning of pictures automatically or manually on the preview with the aid of grids and auxiliary lines Scaling, Rotation, layout of pictures Inserting text in or around a picture Adding copyright information to pictures Adding IPTC or Exif meta data; the PrinTao module is included in the SilverFast Ai / DC / HDR Studio versions. As marked in the table above, some products are available with \additional features: "Multi-Exposure" is an exposure blending technique for scanning transparent originals like slides and film strips with increased dynamic range; this is accomplished by scanning the original multiple times with different exposure times, increasing the dynamic range and preserving detail in the light and shadow areas of the image. Multi-Exposure does not work with reflective originals and differs from "Multi-Sampling," which scans mu
VueScan is a computer program for image scanning of photographs, including negatives. It supports optical character recognition of text documents.. The software can be downloaded for free, but a watermark is placed on all scans until the user purchases a license. Vuescan is intended to work with a large number of image scanners, excluding specialised professional scanners such as drum scanners, on many computer operating systems if drivers for the scanner are not available for the OS; these scanners are supplied with device drivers and software to operate them, included in their price. A 2014 review considered that the reasons to purchase VueScan are to allow older scanners not supported by drivers for newer operating systems to be used in more up-to-date systems, for better scanning and processing of photographs than is afforded by manufacturers' software; the review did not report any advantages to Vuescan's processing of documents compared to other software. When compared to SilverFast, a similar program, the reviewer considered the two programs to be comparable, with support for some specific scanners better in one or the other.
Vuescan supports more scanners, with a single purchase giving access to the full range of both film and flatbed scanners, carries a lower price. The Vuescan program can be used with its own drivers, or with drivers supplied by the scanner manufacturer, if supported by the operating system. Vuescan drivers can be used without the Vuescan program by applications software that supports scanning directly, such as Photoshop, again enabling the use of scanners without current manufacturers' drivers. VueScan enables the user to fine-tune the scanning parameters; the program uses its own independent method to interface with scanner hardware, can support many older scanners under computer operating systems for which drivers are not available, allowing old scanners to be used with newer platforms which do not otherwise support them. VueScan supports more than 2,400 different supported scanners and digital cameras on Windows, 2,100 on Mac OS X and 1,900 on Linux. VueScan is supplied as one downloadable file for each operating system, which supports the full range of scanners.
Without the purchase of a license the program runs in functional demo mode, identical to Professional mode except that watermarks are superimposed on saved and printed images. Purchase of a Professional licence removes the watermark; as distributed VueScan supports optical character recognition of English documents. In September 2011, Ed Hamrick said. Image Capture – alternative scanner software bundled free with Mac OS X Scanner Access Now Easy – open source scanner API for Unix, Windows, OS/2 The VueScan Bible: Everything You Need to Know for Perfect Scanning. Official website
OS X Mountain Lion
OS X Mountain Lion is the ninth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012 for purchase and download through Apple's Mac App Store, as part of a switch to releasing OS X versions online and every year, rather than every two years or so. Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous Mac OS X version, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar; the operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. Mountain Lion added a version of iOS's Notification Center, which groups updates from different applications in one place.
Integrated links allowing the user to transfer content to Twitter were present in the operating system from launch. Facebook integration was planned but unfinished at launch date, it was released as a downloadable update later. OS X Mountain Lion received positive reviews, with critics praising Notification Center and speed improvements over Mac OS X Lion, while criticizing iCloud for unreliability and Game Center for lack of games. Mountain Lion sold three million units in the first four days, has sold 28 million units as of June 10, 2013, making it Apple's most popular OS X release. Mountain Lion was the last paid upgrade for an OS X major release, with OS X Mavericks and being free. OS X Mountain Lion was announced by Apple on their website on February 16, 2012, as a successor to Mac OS X 10.7 Lion. It achieved golden master status on July 9, 2012. Following a soft transition started with Mac OS X Lion, Apple refers to OS X Mountain Lion as "OS X" rather than "Mac OS X". During the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference keynote on June 11, 2012, Apple announced a "near final" release version of Mountain Lion for developers, with the public version arriving in July 2012 at a price tag of US$19.99.
The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well. The specific release date of July 25 was not confirmed until the day before, July 24, by Apple CEO, Tim Cook, as part of Apple's 2012 third-quarter earnings announcement, it was released to the Mac App Store on July 25, 2012, where it sold 3 million units in the first four days of release. An update for Mountain Lion, version 10.8.1, was released on August 23, 2012. It resolved issues with iMessages, Migration Assistant, Microsoft Exchange Server and many other applications. Tests of the update revealed that 10.8.1 improved battery life on laptops, albeit gaining back only half of the battery life, lost in updating to Mountain Lion. Although 10.8.1 improved battery life for some customers, others continue to complain about reduced battery life and a constant drop in battery health resulting in a "Service Battery" message. The official system requirements of OS X 10.8 are 2 GB RAM, 8 GB available storage, OS X 10.6.8 or on any of the following Macs: iMac MacBook, MacBook Pro MacBook Air Mac Mini Mac Pro Xserve As in 10.7, the earliest models supporting AirDrop are the late-2008 MacBook Pro, late-2010 MacBook Air, late-2008 MacBook, mid-2010 Mac Mini, early-2009 Mac Pro with an AirPort Extreme card.
Any Mac released in or after 2011, except the MacBook, supports AirPlay Mirroring. Power Nap is supported on the MacBook Pro with Retina display; the technical basis for these requirements is incompatibility with 32-bit EFI and 32-bit kernel extensions. In order to prevent incompatible systems from installing 10.8, the installer contains a whitelist of supported motherboard IDs. Users have bypassed these limitations so that 10.8 may run with varying functionality on some unsupported computers. Notification Center was added in the operating system, it provides an overview of alerts from applications and displays notifications until the user completes an associated action, rather than requiring instant resolution. Users may choose what applications appear in Notification Center, how they are handled. There are three types of notifications: banners and badges. Banners are displayed for a short period of time in the upper right corner of the Mac's screen, slide off to the right; the icon of the application is displayed on the left side of the banner, while the message from the application will be displayed on the right side.
Alerts will not disappear from the screen until the user takes action. Badges are red notification icons, they indicate the number of items available for the application. Notification Center can be accessed by clicking the icon in the right corner of the menu bar; when open, the user can click a button to tweet, post status updates to Facebook, or view all notifications in the sidebar pane. Swiping up will reveal the option to disable Notification Center for on
The Finder is the default file manager and graphical user interface shell used on all Macintosh operating systems. Described in its "About" window as "The Macintosh Desktop Experience", it is responsible for the launching of other applications, for the overall user management of files and network volumes, it was introduced with the first Macintosh computer, exists as part of GS/OS on the Apple IIGS. It was rewritten with the release of Mac OS X in 2001. In a tradition dating back to the Classic Mac OS of the 1980s and 1990s, the Finder icon is the smiling screen of a computer, known as the Happy Mac logo; the Finder uses a view of the file system, rendered using a desktop metaphor. It uses a similar interface to Apple's Safari browser, where the user can click on a folder to move to it and move between locations using "back" and "forward" arrow buttons. Like Safari, the Finder uses tabs to allow the user to view multiple folders. There is a "favorites" sidebar of used and important folders on the left of the Finder window.
The modern Finder uses macOS graphics APIs to display previews of a range of files, such as images, applications and PDF files. The Quick Look feature allows users to examine documents and images in more detail from the finder by pressing the space bar without opening them in a separate application; the user can choose how to view files, with options such as large icons showing previews of files, a list with details such as date of last creation or modification, a Gallery View, a "column view" influenced by macOS's direct ancestor NeXTSTEP. The modern Finder displays some aspects of the file system outside its windows. Mounted external volumes and disk image files can be displayed on the desktop. There is a trash can on the Dock in macOS, to which files can be dragged to mark them for deletion, to which drives can be dragged for ejection; when a volume icon is being dragged, the Trash icon in the Dock changes to an eject icon in order to indicate this functionality. Finder can record files to optical media on the sidebar.
From Yosemite onwards, the Finder contains official support for extensions, allowing synchronization and cloud storage applications such as Dropbox to display sync status labels inside the Finder display. The classic Mac OS Finder uses a spatial metaphor quite different to the more browser-like approach of the modern macOS Finder. In the classic Finder, opening a new folder opens the location in a new window: finder windows are'locked' so that they would only display the contents of one folder, it allows extensive customization, with the user being able to give folders custom icons matching their content. This approach emphasizes the different locations of files within the operating system, but navigating to a folder nested inside multiple other folders fills the desktop with a large number of windows that the user may not wish to have open; these must be closed individually. Holding down the option key when opening a folder would close its parent, but this trick was not discoverable and remained under the purview of power users.
Stewart Alsop II in 1988 said "It is testimony to either the luck or vision of the original designers" of Finder that "the interface has been able to survive tremendous evolution without much essential damage" from 1984. He praised its spatial file manager as "probably a more complete definition of a PC-based universe than any" competitor, with users able to seamlessly use floppies and remote hard disks, large and small file servers. Alsop said that if Apple had stolen Xerox's technology for Finder, it was now different. While criticizing the lack of a right mouse button and Multifinder's clumsiness, he concluded that "Apple remains the king of user interfaces. Finder is the only interface with 1.5 million people sitting in front of it daily. Apple is spending tremendous amounts of money on both development and basic research to remain the leader". Introducing Mac OS X in 2000, Steve Jobs criticized the original Finder, saying that it "generates a ton of windows, you get to be the janitor."Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa has been a long-standing defender of the spatial interface of the classic Mac OS Finder, a critic of the new design.
Daring Fireball blog author John Gruber has voiced similar criticisms. In a 2005 interview he said that the Finder in version 10.3 of Mac OS X had become "worse than in 10.0" and that "the fundamental problem with the OS X Finder is that it's trying to support two opposing paradigms at once – the browser metaphor... and the spatial metaphor from the original Mac Finder... and it ends up doing neither one well." Reviewing the same version of Mac OS X, Siracusa comments that the Finder "provides the same self-destructive combination of spatial and browser-style features as all of its Mac OS X predecessors". Third-party macOS software developers offer Finder replacements that run as stand-alone applications, such as ForkLift, Path Finder and XtraFinder; these replacements are shareware or freeware and aim to include and supersede the functionality of the Finder. After Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger the UNIX command line file management tools understand resource forks and can be used for management of Mac files.
There are minor differences between Finder versions and Classic OS to System 7. From System 6 onward, the version numbers are unified. Since the introduction of Mac OS X, the largest rewrite of the Finder was with the 2009 release of Mac OS X 10.6, into the Cocoa API, though little change was visible to the user. Spatial file manager Miller columns List of file managers
History of iTunes
The history of iTunes begins in 2001 and continues to the present. Conceived as a simple music player, over time iTunes developed into a sophisticated multimedia content manager, hardware synchronization manager and e-commerce platform; the current version of iTunes enables users to manage media content, create playlists, synchronize media content with handheld devices including the iPod, iPhone, iPad, re-image and update handheld devices, stream Internet radio and purchase music, television shows and applications via the iTunes Store. Apple based the initial release of iTunes on SoundJam MP, a program developed by Bill Kincaid and released by Casady & Greene in 1999. Apple purchased the program from Casady & Greene in 2000. At the time of the purchase, Jeff Robbin and Dave Heller left Casady & Greene to continue development of the program as Apple employees. At Apple, the developers simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, removed the program's recording feature and skin support.
Apple released version 1.0 of the program under a new name, "iTunes", on January 9, 2001, at Macworld San Francisco. Macintosh users began poking through iTunes's resource fork, where they discovered numerous strings and other resources that indicated that iTunes was a re-engineered Sound Jam MP. Casady & Greene ceased distribution of SoundJam MP on June 2001 at the request of the developers. A Mac OS 9-only application, iTunes began to support Mac OS X with the release of version 1.1 in March 2001. Release 2.0 added support for the iPod. Version 3 added smart playlists and a ratings system. In April 2003, version 4.0 introduced the iTunes Store. Introduced at Macworld 2005 with the new iPod Shuffle, Version 4.7.1 introduced the ability to convert higher-bitrate songs to 128kbit/s AAC automatically, as these devices did not natively support audio encoded in AIFF or Apple Lossless formats improving the value proposition of the Shuffle's limited flash-only storage. Version 7.0 introduced gapless playback and Cover Flow in September 2006.
In March 2007, iTunes 7.1 added support for Windows Vista, 7.3.2 was the last Windows 2000 version.iTunes lacked support for 64-bit versions of Windows until the 7.6 update on January 16, 2008. ITunes is supported under any 64-bit version of Windows, although the iTunes executable was still 32-bit until version 12.1. The 64-bit versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are not supported by Apple, but a workaround has been devised for both operating systems. Version 8.0 added Genius playlists, grid view, a new default visualizer.iTunes 9 added "Home Share" enabling automatic updating of purchased items across other computers on the same subnet and offers a new iTunes Store UI. Genius Mixes were added, as well as improved App synchronization abilities, extending the iPod Shuffle 128 kbit/s down-convert feature to all of Apple's AAC-capable devices, it adds iTunes LPs to the store, which gives additional media with an album. Apple added iTunes Extras as well to the store, which adds content reserved for films on DVD and Blu-ray discs.
The new user interface includes a refreshed grid view, which replaces Cover Flow as the default layout method. With this change, Cover Flow is no longer available within the application. With the release of this software, the iTunes Store was redesigned to remain consistent with the new interface, the stores available on iOS devices; the social element Ping was removed and replaced by increased Twitter and Facebook integration. Other minor changes included disabling the sidebar by default, altering the icon to match that of the Mac App Store better. On October 16, 2014, Apple released iTunes 12, with a redesigned icon and interface, inspired by OS X Yosemite. With iTunes 12.1 and there is a new widget for notification center in OS X Yosemite, which allows the user to see what's playing, skip ahead, buy songs from iTunes Radio, right from notification center. It improves performance when syncing to an iOS device. ITunes has been credited with accelerating shifts within the music industry; the pricing structure of iTunes encouraged the sale of single songs, allowing users to abandon the purchase of more expensive albums.
This hastened the end of the Album Era in popular music. On April 26, 2018, Apple released iTunes 12 for Windows 10 via the Windows Store; the Universal Windows Platform app retains all features available in the desktop version, but will be updated and available through the Windows Store. ITunes Store requires at least versio
OS X El Capitan
OS X El Capitan is the twelfth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. It is the successor to OS X Yosemite and focuses on performance and security. Following the Northern California landmark-based naming scheme introduced with OS X Mavericks, El Capitan was named after a rock formation in Yosemite National Park, signifying its goal to be a refined version of Yosemite. El Capitan is the final version to be released under the name OS X. El Capitan received far superior reviews; the first beta of OS X El Capitan was released to developers shortly following the 2015 WWDC keynote on June 8, 2015. The first public beta was made available on July 9, 2015. There were multiple betas released after the keynote. OS X El Capitan was released to end users on September 30, 2015, as a free upgrade through the Mac App Store. All Macintosh computers that can run Mountain Lion, Mavericks, or Yosemite can run El Capitan, although not all of its features will work on older computers.
For example, Apple notes that the newly available Metal API is available on "all Macs since 2012". These computers can run El Capitan, provided they have at least 2GB of RAM: MacBook: Late 2008 or newer MacBook Air: Late 2008 or newer MacBook Pro: Mid 2007 or newer Mac Mini: Early 2009 or newer iMac: Mid 2007 or newer Mac Pro: Early 2008 or newer Xserve: Early 2009Of these computers, the following models were equipped with 1GB RAM as the standard option on the base model when they were shipped originally, they can only run OS X El Capitan if they have at least 2GB of RAM. iMac: Mid 2007 - Early 2008 Mac Mini: Early 2009The following computers support features such as Handoff, Instant Hotspot, AirDrop between Mac computers and iOS devices, as well as the new Metal API: iMac: Late 2012 or newer MacBook: Early 2015 or newer MacBook Air: Mid 2012 or newer MacBook Pro: Mid 2012 or newer Mac Mini: Late 2012 or newer Mac Pro: Late 2013The upgrade varies in size depending upon which Apple Mac computer it is being installed on, in most scenarios it will require about 6 GB of disk space.
OS X El Capitan includes features to improve the security, performance and usability of OS X. Compared to OS X Yosemite, Apple says that opening PDFs is four times faster, app switching and viewing messages in Mail is twice as fast and launching apps is 40% faster; the maximum amount of memory that could be allocated to the graphics processor has been increased from 1024 MB to 1536 MB on Macs with an Intel HD 4000 GPU. OS X El Capitan supports Metal, Apple's graphics API introduced in iOS 8 to speed up performance in games and professional applications. Apple's typeface San Francisco replaces Helvetica Neue as the system typeface. OS X El Capitan adopts LibreSSL in replacement of OpenSSL used in previous versions. OS X El Capitan introduces new window management features such as creating a full-screen split view by pressing the green button on left upper corner of the window or Control+Cmd+F keyboard shortcut snapping any supported other window to that full screen application; this feature is similar to, although less extensive than, the snap-assist feature in Windows 7 and several Linux desktop environments, such as GNOME.
OS X El Capitan improves Mission Control to incorporate this feature across multiple spaces. It enables users to spot the pointer more by enlarging it by shaking the mouse or swiping a finger back and forth on the trackpad. OS X El Capitan adds multi-touch gestures to applications like Mail and Messages that allow a user to delete or mark emails or conversations by swiping a finger on a multi-touch device, such as a trackpad. OS X analyzes the contents of individual emails in Mail and uses the gathered information in other applications, such as Calendar. For example, an invitation in Mail can automatically be added as a Calendar event. Apple Maps in El Capitan shows public transit information similar to Maps in iOS 9; this feature was limited to a handful of cities upon launch: Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Shanghai and Washington D. C; the Notes application receives an overhaul, similar to Notes in iOS 9. Both applications have more powerful text-processing capabilities, such as to-do lists, inline webpage previews and videos, digital sketches, map locations and other documents and media types.
The app can now be moved across the screen. Photos introduced editing extensions which allows Photos to use editing to
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri