Edwardian architecture is an architectural style popular during the reign of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Architecture up to the year 1914 may be included in this style. Edwardian architecture is less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture, apart from a subset – used for major buildings – known as Edwardian Baroque architecture; the Victorian Society campaigns to preserve architecture built between 1837 and 1914, so includes Edwardian as well as Victorian architecture within its remit. Colour: lighter colours were used. Patterns: "Decorative patterns were less complex. Clutter: "There was less clutter than in the Victorian era. Ornaments were grouped rather than everywhere." Victorian Art Nouveau Georgian Arts and Crafts Federation Edwardian era Edwardian Baroque architecture Federation architecture Victorian architecture Gray, A. S. Edwardian Architecture: a Biographical Dictionary. Long, H; the Edwardian House: the Middle-Class Home in Britain 1880-1914. Hockman, H. Service, A. Edwardian Architecture: Edwardian House Style Handbook David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-2780-1 Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-18158-6 www.buildinghistory.org Edwardian Architecture www.bbc.co.uk Period Style: Edwardian
Buildings and architecture of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove, a city on the English Channel coast in southeast England, has a large and diverse stock of buildings "unrivalled architecturally" among the country's seaside resorts. The urban area, designated a city in 2000, is made up of the separate towns of Brighton and Hove, nearby villages such as Portslade and Rottingdean, 20th-century estates such as Moulsecoomb and Mile Oak; the conurbation was first united in 1997 as a unitary authority and has a population of about 253,000. About half of the 20,430-acre geographical area is classed as built up. Brighton's transformation from medieval fishing village into spa town and pleasure resort, patronised by royalty and fashionable high society, coincided with the development of Regency architecture and the careers of three architects whose work came to characterise the 4-mile seafront; the separate village of Hove developed as a comfortable middle-class residential area "under a heavy veneer of suburban respectability": large houses spread across the surrounding fields during the late 19th century, although the high-class and successful Brunswick estate was a product of the Regency era.
Old villages such as Portslade, Rottingdean and Patcham, with ancient churches and small flint cottages, became suburbanised as the two towns grew and merged, the creation of "Greater Brighton" in 1928 brought into the urban area swathes of open land which were used for housing and industrial estates. Many buildings were lost in the 1960s and 1970s, when Brighton's increasing regional importance encouraged redevelopment, but conservation movements were influential in saving other buildings. Much of the city's built environment is composed of buildings of the Regency and Edwardian eras; the Regency style, typical of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, is characterised by pale stuccoed exteriors with Classical-style mouldings and bay windows. The modest two-storey terraced houses which spread across the steeply sloping landscape in the mid-19th century display some elements of this style. Extensive suburban development in Hove and the north of Brighton in the late 19th and early 20th century displays architectural features characteristic of those eras, with an emphasis on decorative brickwork and gables.
Postwar developments range from Brutalist commercial and civic structures to pastiches of earlier styles. Sustainable building techniques have become popular for individual houses and on a larger scale, such as at the long-planned New England Quarter brownfield development. Local and national government have recognised the city's architectural heritage through the designation of listed building and conservation area status to many developments. Since 1969, 34 conservation areas have been created, covering areas of various eras. Brighton was an agricultural and fishing village surrounded by fields where sheep were farmed and corn was grown. In the Saxon era, small buildings developed in an area bounded by four streets named after the points of the compass, a church stood on higher ground inland. Modest cottages for the fishermen stood on the beach below the cliffs and the now vanished South Street. A thriving fishing industry contributed to the town's first period of growth in the 16th and 17th centuries, but development did not expand beyond the old boundaries.
The industry contracted in the early 18th century, depopulation occurred. Labour and land for redevelopment accordingly became cheaper, because good travel and communication routes were established the town was well placed to grow again when sea-bathing became fashionable in the mid-18th century. Little pre-18th century architecture remains in Brighton, although there are some individual buildings. For example, 27 King Street in North Laine is cobble-fronted and retains a timber-framed interior which could be 17th-century. Hove, was a single-street village with a manor house, some modest cottages and a church further inland. Although St Andrew's Church remains in use and Hove Street survives, the manor house was demolished in 1936 and no other original buildings remain. Early-18th-century descriptions of the old town of Brighton concentrated on how small and low the houses were, how the lower storeys were characteristically set below ground level. This, the proximity of the houses to each other, may have offered protection against storms and flooding from the sea.
"Huddling together" may have helped the houses survive to the present day: they were poorly built and had little structural integrity. Typical Lanes buildings are timber-framed and plastered with load-bearing walls of bungaroosh with some flint. Brick quoins and courses added strength, façades were studded with pebbles from the beach; these would sometimes be coated with tar to keep water out, although this only became common in the early 19th century. In The Lanes, such buildings can be seen at Bartholomews, Middle Street and Ship Street among others. Buildings of the 16th and 17th centuries and earlier can be found in the old villages absorbed by modern Brighton and Hove. At St Wulfran's Church, the 12th-century nave and chancel replaced a Saxon structure. St Helen's Church at Hangleton retains other ancient fabric; the old parish churches of Patcham, Preston and Brighton itself all retain som
Architecture of England
The architecture of England is the architecture of modern England and in the historic Kingdom of England. It includes buildings created under English influence or by English architects in other parts of the world in the English and British colonies and Empire, which developed into the Commonwealth of Nations. Apart from Anglo-Saxon architecture, the major forms of non-vernacular architecture employed in England before 1900 originated elsewhere in western Europe, chiefly in France and Italy, while 20th-century Modernist architecture derived from both European and American influences; each of these foreign modes became assimilated within English architectural culture and gave rise to local variation and innovation, producing distinctive national forms. Among the most characteristic styles originating in England are the Perpendicular Gothic of the late Middle Ages, High Victorian Gothic and the'Queen Anne' style; the earliest known examples of architecture in England are the megalithic tombs of the Neolithic, such as those at Wayland's Smithy and the West Kennet Long Barrow.
These cromlechi are common over much of Atlantic Europe: present day Spain. Radiocarbon dating has shown them to be, as historian John Davies says, "the first substantial, permanent constructions of man and that the earliest of them are nearly 1,500 years older than the first of the pyramids of Egypt." The Neolithic henges of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. The structure is an annual calendar, but the reason for the massive size is unknown with any certainty, suggestions include agriculture, ceremonial use and interpreting the cosmos. With other nearby sites, including Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, West Kennet Avenue, they form a UNESCO World Heritage Site called Stonehenge and Associated Sites. Numerous examples of Bronze Age and Iron Age architecture can be seen in England. Megalithic burial monuments, either individual barrows or cists covered by cairns, are one form; the other is the defensive earthworks known as hill forts, such as Cadbury Castle.
Archaeological evidence suggests that British Iron Age domestic architecture had a tendency towards circular dwellings, known as roundhouses. The Roman period brought the construction of the first large-scale buildings in Britain, but little survives above ground besides fortifications; these include sections of Hadrian's Wall, Chester city walls and coastal forts such as those at Portchester and Burgh Castle, which have survived through incorporation into castles. Other structures still standing include a lighthouse at Dover Castle, now part of a church. In most cases, only foundations and the bases of walls attest to the structure of former buildings; some of these were such as the palace at Fishbourne and the baths at Bath. The more substantial buildings of the Roman period adhered to the style of Roman structures elsewhere, although traditional Iron Age building methods remained in general use for humbler dwellings in rural areas. Architecture of the Anglo-Saxon period exists only in the form of churches, the only structures built in stone apart from fortifications.
The earliest examples date from the 7th century, notably at Bradwell-on-Sea and Escomb, but the majority from the 10th and 11th centuries. Due to the systematic destruction and replacement of English cathedrals and monasteries by the Normans, no major Anglo-Saxon churches survive; the main material is ashlar masonry, sometimes accompanied by details in reused Roman brick. Anglo-Saxon churches are high and narrow and consist of a nave and a narrower chancel; some feature porticus to the north and south, creating a cruciform plan. Characteristic features include quoins in'long-and-short work' and small windows with rounded or triangular tops splayed or in groups of two or three divided by squat columns; the most common form of external decoration is lesene strips combined with blind arcading. Notable examples of this exist at Earls Bradford-on-Avon and Barton-upon-Humber. In the 11th century the Normans were among Europe's leading exponents of Romanesque architecture, a style which had begun to influence English church building before 1066, but became the predominant mode in England with the huge wave of construction that followed the Norman Conquest.
The Normans destroyed a large proportion of England's churches and built Romanesque replacements, a process which encompassed all of England's cathedrals. Most of the latter were partially or wholly rebuilt in Gothic style, although many still preserve substantial Romanesque portions, only Durham Cathedral remains a predominantly Romanesque structure. Durham displays significant transitional features leading towards the emergence of Gothic. Romanesque churches are characterised by rounded arches, arcades supported by massive cylindrical piers, groin vaults and low-relief sculptural decoration. Distinctively Norman features include decorative chevron patterns. In the wake of the invasion William I and his lords built numerous wooden motte-and-bailey castles to impose their control on the native population. Many were subsequently rebuilt beginning with the Tower of London. There are a small number of domestic Norman buildings still standing, for example Jew's House, Li
English Heritage is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments and places. These include medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses; the charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaque scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings; when formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state. Over the centuries, what is now called'Heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture and Sport; the state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s.
In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984; the 1983 Act dissolved the bodies that had provided independent advice – the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of historic parks and gardens, was set up in 1984, a register for historic battlefields was created in March 1995.'Registration' is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, meant that English Heritage was one of the largest publicly accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions and over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10. In 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive; as a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast. The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remained the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, required by the Planning Act 1990 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.
Following the Public Bodies Reform in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of "performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government"; however the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a repairs deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity; the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occu
A hammerbeam roof is a decorative, open timber roof truss typical of English Gothic architecture and has been called "...the most spectacular endeavour of the English Medieval carpenter." They are traditionally timber framed, using short beams projecting from the wall on which the rafters land a tie beam which has the middle cut out. These short beams are give this truss its name. A hammerbeam roof can have a double or false hammerbeam truss. A hammerbeam is a form of timber roof truss, allowing a hammerbeam roof to span greater than the length of any individual piece of timber. In place of a normal tie beam spanning the entire width of the roof, short beams – the hammer beams – are supported by curved braces from the wall, hammer posts or arch-braces are built on top to support the rafters and a collar beam; the hammerbeam truss exerts considerable thrust on the posts that support it. Hammerbeam roofs can be decorated including ornamented pendants and corbels, with church roofs including carved angels.
A roof with one pair of hammer beams is a single hammerbeam roof. Some roofs are called double hammerbeam roofs. A false hammerbeam roof has two definitions: There is no hammer post on the hammer beam as sometimes found in a type of arch-brace truss; the earliest hammer-beamed building still standing in England, built in about 1290, is located in Winchester, in Winchester Cathedral in Pilgrims' Hall, now part of The Pilgrims' School. The roof of Westminster Hall is a fine example of a hammerbeam roof; the span of Westminster Hall is 20.8 metres, the opening between the ends of the hammer beams 7.77 metres. The height from the paving of the hall to the hammerbeam is 12.19 m, to the underside of the collar beam 19.35 metres, so that an additional height in the centre of 7.16 m has been gained. In order to give greater strength to the framing, a large arched piece of timber is carried across the hall, rising from the bottom of the wall piece to the centre of the collar beam, the latter supported by curved braces rising from the end of the hammerbeam.
Other important examples of hammerbeam roofs exist over the halls of Hampton Court and Eltham palaces, Burghley House near Stamford. There are numerous examples of smaller dimensions in churches throughout England in the eastern counties; the ends of the hammerbeams are decorated with winged angels holding shields. Sometimes, but the collar beam is treated, or cut through and supported by additional curved braces, as in the hall of the Middle Temple, London; as part of an extensive restoration project undertaken by Historic Scotland, the hammerbeam roof of the Great Hall at Stirling Castle was restored. Green oak from 350 Perthshire trees was used to fabricate and erect 57 hammerbeam trusses spanning 15 metres. Since its construction around 1502 by King James IV of Scotland, structural loads from the roof had caused the walls of the hall to deflect outwards. To ensure that the ridge of the roof would be level and straight, the trusses were each made with a different pitch and span; the restoration started in 1991 and was completed in 1999.
Other examples are in the Parliament Hall in Edinburgh, the Great Hall in Edinburgh Castle, the chapel of New College Oxford, the Great Hall of Athelhampton House, Dorchester and the Great Hall of Darnaway Castle in Moray, Dartington Great Hall. A spectacular modern example of a hammer-beam roof is the new Gothic roof of St George's Hall at Windsor Castle, designed by Giles Downe and completed in 1997; this replaced the previous flatter roof, destroyed in the 1992 Windsor Castle fire. It is incorrectly believed by some that the widest hammerbeam roof in England at 72 ft wide is in the train shed at Bristol Temple Meads railway station by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt. In fact, the station roof uses modern cantilever construction; the hammer posts and brackets support nothing, as all the weight of the roof is braced and supported by the massive side walls via the main timber ribs of the roof and the pillars inside the train shed. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Hammerbeam Roof". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 897. Lynn Towery Courtenay, English Royal Carpentry in the Late Middle Ages: The Hammer-beam Roof. University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1979
English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house; this allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term encompasses houses that were, still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832; the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for many rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of which country houses were the hub, provided their owners with incomes. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle. Increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses. While a château or a Schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, a country house, similar to an Ansitz, is unfortified.
If fortified, it is called a castle. The term stately home is subject to debate, avoided by historians and other academics; as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England published in Blackwood's Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward, in modern usage it implies a country house, open to visitors at least some of the time. In England, the terms "country house" and "stately home" are sometimes used vaguely and interchangeably. In his book Historic Houses: Conversations in Stately Homes, the author and journalist Robert Harling documents nineteen "stately homes"; the book's collection of stately homes includes George IV's Brighton town palace, the Royal Pavilion. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years. Before this time, larger houses were fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors; the Tudor period of stability in the country saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses.
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses. Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place, it was during the second half of the reign of Elizabeth I, under her successor, James I, that the first architect-designed mansions, thought of today as epitomising the English country house, began to make their appearance. Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the showy prodigy house built with the intention of attracting the monarch to visit. By the reign of Charles I, Inigo Jones and his form of Palladianism had changed the face of English domestic architecture with the use of turrets and towers as an architectural reference to the earlier castles and fortified houses disappearing.
The Palladian style, in various forms, interrupted by baroque, was to predominate until the second half of the 18th century when, influenced by ancient Greek styles, it evolved into the neoclassicism championed by such architects as Robert Adam. Some of the best known of England's country houses were built by one architect at one particular time: Montacute House, Chatsworth House, Blenheim Palace are examples. While the latter two are ducal palaces, although built by a Master of the Rolls to Queen Elizabeth I, was occupied for the next 400 years by his descendants, who were gentry without a London townhouse, rather than aristocracy, they ran out of funds in the early 20th century. However, the vast majority of the lesser-known English country houses owned at different times by gentlemen and peers, are an evolution of one or more styles with facades and wings in different styles in a mixture of high architecture as interpreted by a local architect or surveyor, determined by practicality as much as by the whims of architectural taste.
An example of this is Brympton d'Evercy in Somerset, a house of many periods, unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone. The fashionable William Kent redesigned Rousham House only to have it and drastically altered to provide space for the owner's twelve children. Canons Ashby, home to poet John Dryden's family, is another example of architectural evolution: a medieval farmhouse enlarged in the Tudor era around a courtyard, given grandiose plaster ceilings in the Stuart period, having Georgian façades added in the 18th century; the whole is a glorious mismatch of fashions that seamlessly blend together. These could be called the true English country house. Wilton House, one