Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Midfielder (association football)
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Esteghlal Tehran Football Club until 1979 known as Taj Tehran Football Club is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran that plays in the Persian Gulf Pro League. Esteghlal F. C. is the club of the multisport Esteghlal Athletic. Founded in 1945 initially as Docharkhe Savaran meaning The Cyclists in Persian and later in 1949, the name of the club was finally modified into Esteghlal that is the current name of the club, meaning Independence, subsequent to the Islamic Revolution in 1979. In 1970, under the management of Zdravko Rajkov, Esteghlal Tehran became the first Iranian football club to win the Asian Club Championship and they have won several official titles on the national and international stage since 1970, including eight Iranian League titles and a record 6 Hazfi Cups. There are two stars above the teams official badge to represent winning two titles in Asian Club Championship. On September 20,1945 three Iranian military officers—Mirzani, Jananpour and Navab—started a sports club on Ferdowsi Street, Tehran, since the founders of the club were mostly interested in cycling, the clubs original name was Docharkhe Savaran, meaning The Cyclists in Persian. Esteghlal football club played its first official match in 1946, from the beginning Taj or Docharkeh Savaran competed in the Tehran Local League, which at the time was the highest ranked league in Iran. On March 6,1950, Taj played its first official game in front of over 20,000 spectators in Amjadieh Stadium against Shahin, later in that year, the clubs name was officially changed to Taj which means crown in Persian. In 1970, Taj defeated Hapoel Tel Aviv of Israel 2–1 in the final to win its first ever Asian Club Championship, after the revolution, any sign of the previous monarchist regime was not tolerated. During the 1980s, Esteghlal won the Tehran Football League twice, the 1989–90 season was a memorable one for Esteghlal. The club finished 1st in Group B of the Qods League, Esteghlal defeated Malavan 4–0 on aggregate to advance to the final against the hated rival, Persepolis. Esteghlal defeated Persepolis 2–1 through a 74th-minute goal by Samad Marfavi to win the Qods League, in the following season, Esteghlal made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup only to lose to Malavan on penalties. 1991 proved to be one of Esteghlals most memorable years as they won the Asian Club Championship for the 2nd time defeating Chinese club Liaoning 2–1, Esteghlal once again reached the final of the Asian Club Championship in 1999, this time losing to Japanese club Júbilo Iwata 1–2. 2001 marked the first year of the newly founded Iran Pro League, going into the final day, Esteghlal was on top of the leagues table, however, with an Esteghlal loss and a Persepolis win, Persepolis was crowned as the leagues inaugural champion. However, the 2001–02 Hazfi Cup provided some consolation for Esteghlal as they beat Fajr Sepasi 4–3 on aggregate to win the cup. The 2002–03 season was one of the worst years in club history, in July 2003, Amir Ghalenoi was appointed manager of Esteghlal. In his first year, Esteghlal finished runner-up in the league, Ghalenoi also made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup losing 2–5 on aggregate to Sepahan. His second season proved to be successful as Esteghlal finished 3rd
Sepahan Isfahan F.C.
Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan Football Club commonly known as Sepahan, is an Iranian football club based in Esfahan. They compete in Irans top-level league known as Persian Gulf Pro League and with 5 championships, in 2011 Sepahan won the first Asian treble. In 2002–03 season, they became the first non-Tehran based team to win the Iranian League title, Sepahan are the current champions of IPL in 2014–15 season. They are also the first and the only Iranian football club who won three titles in Iranian Football League history. Sepahan have been the most successful club in Iran since the establishment of Iran Pro League in 2001, with five IPL championships. They are also the first Iranian club who reached the AFC Champions League final in 2007, the Club is the football division of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan Sport Club and is owned by Mobarakeh Steel Co. In 1953, with the help of Iran national football team player Mahmoud Hariri the Shahin Isfahan football club was created and this club was one of the teams attached to the more popular and successful Shahin F. C. of Tehran. In 1963 Shahin as the representative of Isfahan Province became champions of Iran after a 1–1 draw against Tehran XI, in 1967 due to the problems that arose in the Shahin F. C. organization in Tehran, the Isfahan branch was forced to cease operations. The club changed its name to Sepahan, the club participated in the Takht Jamshid Cup league from 1974 to 1978. In the clubs first season in the Takht Jamshid Cup they finished in 10th place ahead of city rivals Zob Ahan, after the Revolution, they played in the local Isfahan leagues for many years until 1993. That year the club was purchased by the Siman-e-Sepahan factory of Isfahan and it participated in the Azadegan League until the year 2000, when Foolad Mobarekeh bought the team from the Siman factory. The team now plays under the name of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan, and enjoys good support by the club board. The club was able to demonstrate its worth when it captured the title in the 2002–03 season of the IPL. It also won the Hazfi Cup in 2004 and was able to qualify for another season of the ACL competition, with Luka Bonačić, Sepahan was able to once again win the Hazfi Cup on 22 September 2006. With this win, they gained Irans final and second spot in the AFC Champions League 2007, although they lost the final to Urawa Red Diamonds on aggregate, by reaching the final, Sepahan became the first Iranian club to qualify for the FIFA Club World Cup. Urawa Reds managed to defeat Sepahan for the time in just one month. By winning the Hazfi Cup once again in 2007, Sepahan also qualified for the AFC Champions League 2008, Sepahan has qualified for the AFC Champions League for the third consecutive time in 2009, coming as the Runners-up in Persian Gulf Cup 2007-08. Sepahan lost the title by one point to Persepolis F. C. who beat them 2–1 in the last match of the season with a winner six minutes into second half injury time
BEC Tero Sasana F.C.
BEC Tero Sasana Football Club is a Thai professional football club based in Bangkok. The club finished runners-up in the inaugural AFC Champions League competition in 2003, the club was merging with Police United in 2017 season. The team was established in 1992 and it was previously known as Sasana Witthaya School team and was formed by Mr. Worawi Makudi. The first football match this team entered was in Division 3 of the football cup in 1993. In 1994, the played in Division 2 of the football royal cup In 1995, the team played in Division 1 of the football royal cup and in 1996. It was during this year, in 1996, that Mr. Worawi Makudi and Mr. Brian L. Marcar, managing director of BEC-TERO Entertainment Co. Ltd. joined hands, the team was placed in the 12th position among 18 teams in the Thai League. In 1997, Football Club Tero Sasana also played in the Thai League, later in 1998, BEC-World Public Company Limited supported the Football Club Tero Sasana and changed the teams name to Tero Sasana Sasana FC. The team won the place when they played the Thai League. They were also one of the eight teams to enter the final round of the Thai FA Cup. In 1999, the team entered the Thai League and again won the third place, in the same year, they were among the final teams in the Thai FA Cup. The year 2000 was an eventful year for the BEC-Tero Sasana FC. The team won its first championship award by winning the Thai League and it also received the championship award for the Kings Cup. In 2001, BEC-Tero Sasana FC was able to keep its championship and this greatly increased the fan base. The clubs success continued for a few years and culminated with finishing Runner-up in the 2002–03 AFC Champions League, in 2016 after the club was relegation Mr. Brian L. Marcar the club president sold the team to Inspire Entertainment related company to Siamsport the owner of Muangthong United. Mr. Robert Procureur was quit and the player as Peerapat Notchaiya, Tanaboon Kesarat, Chanathip Songkrasin, Tristan Do. In 2017 the club change the name to Police Tero Football Club after the takeover by Police United Group, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For details on former players, see Category, BEC Tero Sasana F. C. players, coaches by years Official Website BEC Tero Sasana at Thai Premier League
Iran national football team
The National football team of Iran, also known as Team Melli, represents Iran in international football competitions and is governed by the Iran Football Federation. The national football team of Iran, known as Team Melli, ranks 1st in Asia, Iran is one of the most successful national teams in Asia with three Asian Cup championships. Iran has qualified for the World Cup four times but has never advanced past the group stage, Irans only win in the World Cup has been a 2–1 victory against the United States in 1998. The Iranian Football Federation was founded in 1920, in 1926 Tehran XI traveled across the border to Baku, USSR, this was the first away football match for an Iranian team. This Tehran Select team is the predecessor of Irans national football team. The first match that Team Melli played was on 23 August 1941, away at Kabul in a 1–0 win against British India, while Irans first FIFA international match was on 25 August 1941, away at Afghanistan. Iran won the Asian Cup three consecutive times, to which the team has not been able to add since, Iran lost two of three group stage matches against the Netherlands and Peru. After the 1979 Revolution, football was somewhat neglected and cast aside, during the 1980s, the Iranian national team did not feature in World Cup competitions due to the Iran–Iraq War and domestic football suffered the inevitable effects of conflict. The national team withdrew from the Asian qualifiers for the 1982 World Cup, the war and political upheavals left Iran without major club competitions until 1989 when the Qods League was established. A year later, the Qods League was renamed the Azadegan League, both games finished undecided, but Iran managed to qualify due to the away goals rule. Iran held Australia to a 1–1 draw at home, and a 2–2 draw in Melbourne, however, since Iran had scored more away goals, they were able to qualify for the Cup. At their first game of the Group F at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, Iran played well against Yugoslavia, losing narrowly 1–0, only to a free kick goal by Siniša Mihajlović. Iran recorded their first World Cup victory in the game, beating the United States 2–1, with Hamid Estili. The Iran vs USA World Cup match was preheated with much excitement because of each countrys political stance after the Iranian revolution and the Iran hostage crisis. However, in an act of defiance against all forms of hatred or politics in sports, following defeat against Iran, the United States was eliminated from the World Cup. Iran played against Germany in the third game, the goals were scored by Oliver Bierhoff and Jürgen Klinsmann. The one win and two losses meant Iran came third in the group standing and failed to make it to the next round. Iran finished first in the stage of the tournament
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan and it is mostly written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages, Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis, hence the name Persian. A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone, there are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has also been a cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia. It also exerted influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic. Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, other Western Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the Southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, in Persian, the language is known by several names, Western Persian, Parsi or Farsi has been the name used by all native speakers until the 20th century. Since the latter decades of the 20th century, for reasons, in English. Tajiki is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Native Iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi, Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic. The origin of the name Farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs, in English, this language has historically been known as Persian, though Farsi has also gained some currency. Farsi is encountered in some literature as a name for the language. In modern English the word Farsi refers to the language while Parsi describes Zoroastrians, some Persian language scholars such as Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, and University of Arizona professor Kamran Talattof, have also rejected the usage of Farsi in their articles. The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code fa, as its system is mostly based on the local names. The more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name Persian for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan and this consists of the individual languages Dari and Iranian Persian. Currently, Voice of America, BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty also includes a Tajik service and an Afghan service. This is also the case for the American Association of Teachers of Persian, The Centre for Promotion of Persian Language and Literature, Persian is an Iranian language belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England