Bozcaada is a municipality and district governorate in Çanakkale Province, Turkey. It is situated on an Aegean island with the same name. Bozcaada district covers a total of 17 islets around the main island; the total area of the district is 36.7 square kilometres. The highest point of the district is Göztepe with an altitude of 192 metres; the district center is situated on the east side of the island at about 39°50′N 26°04′E. It is situated 22 km. south of Dardanelles Strait Its distance to Geyikli the nearest sea port on the main land is 7.5 km. The distance from Geyikli to Çanakkale is about 40 kilometres. Up until Bozcaada was unique in Turkey as being a district with no rural population, its population is 2465 as of 2012. In 2010 it was 2354. In the antiquity the island was known as Leukophrys and in Greek mythology it was Tenedos, it was mentioned in Homer's Iliad. In the medieval age it was a Byzantine possession. Towards the end of the medieval age it was left to Republic of Venice by the emperor John V Palaiologos as a ransom.
In 1381 however, following Venetian Genoese War it was evacuated by the Venetians according to the Peace of Turin. In 1455 it was annexed by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Mehmet II. Although the Venetians tried to regain the island, in 1464 the Ottoman control was secured by Mahmut Pasha; as a result of the former evacuation, the island was uninhabited during the early years of Ottoman administration and the Ottoman Empire populated the present Bozcaada district by using tax exemption. Ottoman Empire restored the castle, demolished during the Venetian-Genoese war. Turks called the island Bozcaada meaning grayish island and the famous cartographer Piri Reis of the 16th century used this name in his maps. In 1923 when the Turkish Republic was proclaimed, the island was declared a district and the only settlement in Bozcaada became the municipality and district center of Çanakkale Province; the major economic activities of Bozcaada are wineries and fishing industry. Sponge fishing, once an important economic sector, has since declined.
Tourism and agriculture are emerging sectors. The ferry service, which began in 1996, is believed to boost tourism. There is a passenger boat service from Çanakkale about 40 km away. Total tourist beds amount to about 2500. According to municipality of Bozcaada the important buildings are the following Bozcaada castle, reconstructed by the Ottoman sultan Mehmet II in the 15th century, repaired by the Ottoman sultan Mahmut II in 1815 is the most important touristic attraction of Bozcaada, it is in the district center facing east. Thus visitors to Bozcaada can observe the castle during their voyage. Another castle is a casemate, popularly called Yenikale. Despite its name it is in ruins, it was constructed in 1827 by the governor of Bozcaada. It is situated on a hill to the west of Bozacaada district center Alaybey mosque was built in 1700 by Ahmet Ağa, the governor of Bozcaada, it is in ruins. Yalı camii is a mosque, built on the foundations of a medieval Venetian building in 1655, it was commissioned by Köprülü Mehmet Pasha in 1655.
It is now under restoration. Namazgah fountain was built in 1703. Kimisis Teodoku church was built in 1869; the monastery of Aya Paraskevi Valu lui Traian, Romania Gols, Austria For images
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Imbros or İmroz changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970, is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province. It is located in the Aegean Sea, at the entrance of Saros Bay and is the westernmost point of Turkey. Imbros contains some wooded areas. According to the 2016 census, the island-district of Gökçeada has a population of 8,776; the main industries of Imbros are tourism. Today the island is predominantly inhabited by settlers from the Turkish mainland that arrived there after 1960, but from the indigenous population about 300 Greeks are still remaining, most of them elderly, but including some families with children; the island was inhabited by ethnic Greeks from antiquity until the 1960s, when many emigrated to Greece, western Europe, the United States and Australia, due to a campaign of state-sponsored discrimination. The Greek Imbriot diaspora is thought to number around 15,000. According to Greek mythology, the palace of Thetis, mother of Achilles, king of Phthia, was situated between Imbros and Samothrace.
The stables of the winged horses of Poseidon were said to lie between Tenedos. Homer, in The Iliad wrote: Eëtion, a lord of or ruler over the island of Imbros is mentioned in the Iliad, he restores him to his father. Homer writes that Hera and Hypnos leave Lemnos and Imbros making their way to Mount Ida. Homer mention Imbros in the Iliad on other occasions too. Imbros is mentioned in the Homeric Hymn, dedicated to Apollo. Apollonius of Rhodes mention Imbros in the first book of his work Argonautica. For ancient Greeks, the islands of Lemnos and Imbros were sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, on ancient coins of Imbros an ithyphallic Hephaestus appears. In classical antiquity, like Lemnos, was an Athenian cleruchy, a colony whose settlers retained Athenian citizenship; the original inhabitants of Imbros were Pelasgians. In 511 or 512 BC the island was captured by the Persian general Otanes, but Miltiades conquered the island from Persia after the battle of Salamis. Thucydides, in his History of the Peloponnesian War describes the colonization of Imbros, at several places in his narrative mentions the contribution of Imbrians in support of Athens during various military actions.
He recounts the escape of an Athenian squadron to Imbros. In the late 2nd century A. D. the island may have become independent under Septimius Severus. Strabo mention that Cabeiri are most honored in Lemnos. Stephanus of Byzantium mention that Imbros was sacred to Hermes. Imbrian Mysteries were one of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece. Little are known about Imbrian Mysteries. Prior to the Fall of Constantinople, several larger islands south of Imbros were under Genoese rule, part of territory held in the eastern Mediterranean by the independent Maritime Republic of Genoa a political development within the Western Roman Empire of city-states such as Venice and Amalfi. Defended by the Genoese Navy, one of the largest and most powerful in the Mediterranean, Corsica remained a prominent western Mediterranean territory in the Tyrhennian Sea until Napoleon's conquest. At the beginning of the 13th century, when the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath temporarily disrupted Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire, Genoa expanded its influence north of Imbros, into the Black Sea and Crimea.
An extensive network of mercantile routes and associated ports promoted expansion of Byzantine culture, its goods and services - including scholars and craftsmen schooled in ancient Classical traditions - into Italy, Greece, Russia, Tunisia and Ukraine. The Renaissance's renewal of European culture was spawned in part by the rapid influx of exiles from Constantinople at the close of the 15th century. Not all the trade exchanges were as beneficial however: in the debit column can be recorded the 1347 European import of the plague via a Genoese trading post in the Black Sea. High mortality precipitated a weakening in the balance of maritime powers, leading to political strife with Venice and outright war. After a failing alliance with France against Barbary pirates, Genoa became a satellite of Spain. After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Byzantine forces in Imbros left the island. In the aftermath following the withdrawal, delegates from the island went to İstanbul for an audience with the Ottoman Emperor Mehmed II to discuss terms allowing them to live harmoniously within the Ottoman Empire.
After the island became Ottoman soil in 1455 it was administered by Ottomans and Venetians at various times. During this period, during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, the island became a foundation within the Ottoman Empire. Relations between the Ottomans and Venetians led to hostilities - for example, in June 1717 during the Turkish-Venetian War, a tough but fairly indecisive naval battle between a Venetian fleet, under Flangini, an Ottoman fleet was fought near Imbros in the Aegean
Gökçeada is a rural district of the Çanakkale Province of Turkey. Its population is about 7,074; the district consists of the island of the largest island in Turkey. The mayor is Ünal Çetin
Tenedos, or Bozcaada in Turkish, is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively, the island constitutes the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province. With an area of 39.9 km2 it is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara. In 2011, the district had a population of 2,472; the main industries are wine production and fishing. The island has been famous for its grapes and red poppies for centuries, it is a former present Latin Catholic titular see. As Tenedos, it is mentioned in both the Iliad and the Aeneid, in the latter as the site where the Greeks hid their fleet near the end of the Trojan War in order to trick the Trojans into believing the war was over and into taking the Trojan Horse within their city walls; the island was important throughout classical antiquity despite its small size due to its strategic location at the entrance of the Dardanelles. In the following centuries, the island came under the control of a succession of regional powers, including the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the Delian League, the empire of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Pergamon, the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, before passing to the Republic of Venice.
As a result of the War of Chioggia between Genoa and Venice the entire population was evacuated and the town was demolished. The Ottoman Empire established control over the deserted island in 1455. During Ottoman rule, it was resettled by both Turks. In 1807, the island was temporarily occupied by the Russians. During this invasion the town was burnt down and many Turkish residents left the island. Under Greek administration between 1912 and 1923, Tenedos was ceded according to the Treaty of Lausanne to the new Turkish republic that emerged with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1923; the treaty called for a quasi-autonomous administration to accommodate the local Greek population and excluded the Greeks on the two islands from the wider population exchanges that took place between Greece and Turkey. Tenedos remained majority Greek until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when many Greeks emigrated because of systemic discrimination and better opportunities elsewhere. Starting with the second half of the 20th century, there has been immigration from mainland Anatolia from the town of Bayramiç.
The island is known in English as both Bozcaada. Over the centuries many other names have been used. Documented ancient Greek names for the island are Calydna and Lyrnessus; the official Turkish name for the island is Bozcaada,. The name Tenedos was derived, according to Apollodorus of Athens, from the Greek hero Tenes, who ruled the island at the time of the Trojan War and was killed by Achilles. Apollodorus writes that the island was known as Leocophrys until Tenes landed on the island and became the ruler; the island became known as Bozcaada. Tenedos remained a common name for the island along with Bozcaada after the Ottoman conquest of the island with Greek populations and Turkish populations using different names for the island. Tenedos is triangular in shape, its area is 39.9 km2. It is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara Imbros, it is surrounded by small islets, is situated close to the entrance of the Dardanelles. It is the only rural district of Turkey without any villages, has only one major settlement, the town center.
Geological evidence suggests that the island broke away from the mainland producing a terrain, plains in the west with hills in the Northeast, the highest point is 192 metres. The central part of the island is the most amenable to agricultural activities. There is a small pine forest in the Southwestern part of the island; the westernmost part of the island has large sandy areas not suitable for agriculture. The island has a Mediterranean climate with strong northern winds. Average temperature is 14 °C and average annual precipitation is 529 millimetres. There are a number of small streams running from north to south at the southwestern part of the island. Freshwater sources though are not enough for the island. Archeological findings indicate that the first human settlement on the island dates back to the Early Bronze Age II. Archaeological evidence suggests the culture on the island had elements in common with the cultures of northwestern Anatolia and the Cycladic Islands. Most settlement was on the small bays on the east side of the island.
Settlement archaeological work was done and thus did not find definitive evidence of grape cultivation on the island during this period. However, grape cultivation was common on neighboring islands and the nearby mainland during this time. According to a reconstruction, based on the myth of Tenes, Walter Leaf stated that the first inhabitants of the island could be Pelasgians, who were driven out of the Anatolian mainland by the Phrygians. According to the same author, there are possible traces of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek influence in the island. Ancient Tenedos is referred to in Greek and Roman mythology, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of its settlement from the Bronze Age, it would stay prominent through the age of classical Greece, fading by the time of the dominance of ancient Rome. Although a small island, Tenedos's position in the straits and its two harb
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of 500 million euros; the organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union, although it is sometimes confused with it because the EU has adopted the original European Flag, created by the Council of Europe in 1955, as well as the European Anthem. No country has joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe; the Council of Europe is an official United Nations Observer. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics; the best known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state.
The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and the European Audiovisual Observatory; the headquarters of the Council of Europe are in France. English and French are its two official languages; the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress use German, Italian and Turkish for some of their work. Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war," once victory had been achieved, think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business".
He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it. The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers and a Consultative Assembly, the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe; this dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was copied for the European Communities, North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London.
The Statute was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. Three months on 10 August 1949, 100 members of the Council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from twelve nations, met in Strasbourg for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month, they debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet facing a new East-West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every European citizen, took the first steps towards what would in time become the European Union. In August 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium was elected president of the first session of the assembly. Spaak helped develop a network of intergovernmental contacts in many fields, such as human rights, local government, culture and youth policy. However, the organization only played an advisory role, was not nearly strong enough to achieve Spaak's long-term goals of European unification.
In 2018 an archive of all speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe by heads of state or government since the Council of Europe's creation in 1949 appeared online, the fruit of a two-year project entitled "Voices of Europe". At the time of its launch, the archive comprised 263 speeches delivered over a 70-year period by some 216 Presidents, Prime Ministers and religious leaders from 45 countries - though it continues to expand, as new speeches are added every few months; some early speeches by individuals considered to be "founding figures" of the European institutions if they were not heads of state or government at the time, are included. Addresses by eight monarchs appear in the list as well as the speeches given by religious figures and several leaders from countries in the Middle East and North Africa; the full text of the speeches is given in both En
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous churches that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople; because of its historical location as the capital of the former Eastern Roman Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, Constantinople holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of Primus inter pares among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodox Christians. The Ecumenical Patriarchate promotes the expansion of the Christian faith and Orthodox doctrine, the Ecumenical Patriarchs are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of Orthodox Christian traditions. Prominent issues in the Ecumenical Patriarchate's policy in the 21st century include the safety of the believers in the Middle East, reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, the reopening of the Theological School of Halki, closed down by the Turkish authorities in 1971.
Christianity in Byzantium existed from the 1st century, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great moved his residence to the small Greek town of Byzantium, renaming it Nova Roma. From that time, the importance of the church there grew, along with the influence of its bishop. Prior to the moving of the imperial capital, the bishop of Byzantium had been under the authority of the metropolitan of Heraclea, but beginning in the 4th century, he grew to become independent in his own right and to exercise authority throughout what is now Greece, Asia Minor and Thrace. With the development of the hierarchical structure of the Church, the bishop of Constantinople came to be styled as exarch. Constantinople was recognized as the fourth patriarchate at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, after Antioch and Rome; the patriarch was appointed by Antioch. Because of the importance of the position of Constantinople's church at the center of the Roman Empire, affairs involving the various churches outside Constantinople's direct authority came to be discussed in the capital where the intervention of the emperor was desired.
The patriarch became a liaison between the emperor and bishops traveling to the capital, thus establishing the position of the patriarch as one involving the unity of the whole Church in the East. In turn, the affairs of the Constantinopolitan church were overseen not just by the patriarch, but by synods held including visiting bishops; this pan-Orthodox synod came to be referred to as the ενδημουσα συνοδος. The resident synod not only governed the business of the patriarchate but examined questions pertinent to the whole Church as well as the eastern half of the old empire; the patriarch thus came to have the title of Ecumenical, which referenced not a universal episcopacy over other bishops, but rather the position of the patriarch as at the center of the oikoumeni, the "household" of the empire. As the Roman Empire stabilized and grew, so did the influence of the patriarchate at its capital; this influence came to be enshrined in Orthodox canon law, to such an extent that it was elevated beyond more ancient patriarchates: Canon 3 of the First Council of Constantinople stated that the bishop of that city "shall have primacy of honor after the Bishop of Rome because Constantinople is the New Rome."
In its disputed 28th Canon, the Council of Chalcedon in 451 recognized an expansion of the boundaries of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and of its authority over bishops of dioceses "among the barbarians", variously interpreted as referring either to areas outside the Byzantine Empire or to non-Greeks. The council resulted in a schism with the Patriarchate of Alexandria. In any case, for a thousand years the Patriarch of Constantinople presided over the church in the Eastern Roman Empire and its missionary activity that brought the Christian faith in its Byzantine form to many peoples north of the imperial borders; the cathedral church of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, was the center of religious life in the eastern Christian world. The Ecumenical Patriarchate came to be called the "Great Church of Christ" and it was the touchstone and reference point for ecclesiastical affairs in the East, whether in terms of church government, relations with the state, or liturgical matters. In history and in canonical literature, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has been granted certain prerogatives which other autocephalous Orthodox churches do not have.
Not all of these prerogatives are today universally acknowledged, though all do have precedents in history and canonical references. The following is a list of these prerogatives and their reference points: Equal prerogatives to Old Rome.