Presbyterian Church in the United States of America
The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was the first national Presbyterian denomination in the United States, existing from 1789 to 1958. In that year, the PCUSA merged with the United Presbyterian Church of North America, a denomination with roots in the Seceder and Covenanter traditions of Presbyterianism; the new church was named the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. It was a predecessor to the contemporary Presbyterian Church; the denomination had its origins in colonial times when members of the Church of Scotland and Presbyterians from Ireland first immigrated to America. After the American Revolution, the PCUSA was organized in Philadelphia to provide national leadership for Presbyterians in the new nation. In 1861, Presbyterians in the Southern United States split from the denomination because of disputes over slavery and theology precipitated by the American Civil War, they established the Presbyterian Church in the United States simply referred to as the "Southern Presbyterian Church".
Due to its regional identification, the PCUSA was described as the Northern Presbyterian Church. Despite the PCUSA's designation as a "Northern church", it was once again a national denomination in its years. Over time, traditional Calvinism played less of a role in shaping the church's doctrines and practices—it was influenced by Arminianism and revivalism early in the 19th century, liberal theology late in the 19th century, neo-orthodoxy by the mid-20th century; the theological tensions within the denomination were played out in the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the 1920s and 1930s, a conflict that led to the development of Christian fundamentalism and has historical importance to modern American Evangelicalism. Conservatives dissatisfied with liberal trends left to form the Orthodox Presbyterian Church in 1936; the origins of the Presbyterian Church is the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. The writings of French theologian and lawyer John Calvin solidified much of the Reformed thinking that came before him in the form of the sermons and writings of Huldrych Zwingli.
John Knox, a former Roman Catholic priest from Scotland who studied with Calvin in Geneva, took Calvin's teachings back to Scotland and led the Scottish Reformation of 1560. As a result, the Church of Scotland embraced Reformed presbyterian polity; the Ulster Scots brought their Presbyterian faith with them to Ireland, where they laid the foundation of what would become the Presbyterian Church of Ireland. By the second half of the 17th century, Presbyterians were immigrating to British North America. Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants contributed to a strong Presbyterian presence in the Middle Colonies Philadelphia. Before 1706, Presbyterian congregations were not yet organized into presbyteries or synods. In 1706, seven ministers led by Francis Makemie established the first presbytery in North America, the Presbytery of Philadelphia; the presbytery was created to promote fellowship and discipline among its members and only developed into a governing body. Member congregations were located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Further growth led to the creation of the Synod of Philadelphia in 1717. The Synod's membership consisted of all ministers and one lay elder from every congregation; the Synod still had no official confessional statement. The Church of Scotland and the Irish Synod of Ulster required clergy to subscribe to the Westminster Confession. In 1729, the Synod passed the Adopting Act, which required clergy to assent to the Westminster Confession and Larger and Shorter Catechisms. However, subscription was only required for those parts of the Confession deemed an "essential and necessary article of faith". Ministers could declare any scruples to their presbytery or the Synod, which would decide if the minister's views were acceptable. While crafted as a compromise, the Adopting Act was opposed by those who favored strict adherence to the Confession. During the 1730s and 1740s, the Presbyterian Church was divided over the impact of the First Great Awakening. Drawing from the Scotch-Irish revivalist tradition, evangelical ministers such as William and Gilbert Tennent emphasized the necessity of a conscious conversion experience and the need for higher moral standards among the clergy.
Other Presbyterians were concerned. In particular, the practice of itinerant preaching across presbytery boundaries and the tendency of revivalists to doubt the conversion experiences of other ministers caused controversy between supporters of revivalism, known as the "New Side", their conservative opponents, known as the "Old Side". While the Old Side and New Side disagreed over the possibility of immediate assurance of salvation, the controversy was not theological. Both sides believed in justification by faith and that regeneration occurred in stages. In 1738, the Synod moved to restrict itinerant preaching and to tighten educational requirements for ministers, actions the New Side resented. Tensions between the two sides continued to escalate until the Synod of May 1741, which ended with a definite split between the two factions; the Old Side retained control of the Synod of Philadelphia, it required unconditional subscription to the Westminster Confession with no option to state scruples.
The New Side founded the Synod of New York. The new Synod required subscription to the Westminster Confession in accordance with the Adopting Act, but no college degrees were required for ordination. While the controversy raged, American Presbyterians were concerned with expanding their influenc
Kenton is a city in and the county seat of Hardin County, United States, located in the west central part of Ohio 57 mi NW of Columbus and 70 mi south of Toledo. The population was 8,262 at the 2010 census; the city was named for frontiersman Simon Kenton of Ohio. Kenton is located at 40°38′48″N 83°36′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.13 square miles, of which, 5.04 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. Kenton was the site of Fort McArthur, erected 1812 by Colonel Duncan McArthur as one of the forts along the line of General William Hull's march against the British headquarters at Fort Detroit during the War of 1812. In 1845, Kenton was incorporated as a village; the city was named after frontiersman Simon Kenton. The city began as a center for agriculture trade in the late nineteenth century developed industry common to America of the time. From 1890 to 1952, Kenton was home to the Kenton Hardware Company, manufacturers of locks, cast-iron toys, the popular Gene Autry toy cap guns.
As of the census of 2010, there were 8,262 people, 3,351 households, 2,092 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,836 persons per square mile. There were 3,773 housing units at an average density of 838.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 0.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.90% of the population. There were 3,351 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.4 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 20, 6.5% from 20 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,336 people, 3,495 households, 2,149 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,860.6 people per square mile. There were 3,795 housing units at an average density of 847.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 97.11% White, 0.91% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.90% of the population. There were 3,495 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,065, the median income for a family was $37,170. Males had a median income of $31,225 versus $19,413 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,324. About 11.6% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over. Kenton is home to the Kenton City School district, which includes a new elementary school, Kenton Middle School, Kenton High School. Kenton Elementary School is a new facility opened in 2014 which replaces the three previous elementary and one kindergarten buildings. Simon Kenton, a special education school, is run by a different Board of Education and is associated with the Harco Workshop for Developmental Disabilities; the local high school is Kenton High School, with the nickname the "Wildcats".
The Wildcat football team won consecutive state championships in 2001 and 2002 in division IV, runner-up in 2011 in Division IV, runner-up in 2003 in Division III. The city offers camping and fishing at Salsbury Park located west of Kenton on Ohio State Route 67; this city park and reservoir was named in honor of former Mayor Helen Salsbury. Two media outlets operate in Kenton: WKTN, a radio station, The Kenton Times, a daily newspaper. Kenton has a variety of activities; the Hardin County Courthouse is a historical site in the center of the public square. Kenton has one public library, the Mary Lou Johnson Hardin County District Library, located in a 1905 Carnegie library; the city possesses a museum, the Hardin County Historical Museum, located in a near north side historic district. The city has the Kenton Theater and the Hi-Road Drive-in; the local YMCA offers basketball and swimming. Restaurants include En Lai Chinese restaurant, Salsa's Mexican restaurant, Michael Angelo's Pizza. Kenton's large Amish population sells produce, baked goods, furniture.
The Hardin County Fair is held during the week of Labor Day. The "Crazy Eights" unmanned train incident in 2001, ended in Kenton; the train, led by CSX Transportation engine SD40-2 #8888, left the rail yard in Walbridge and rumbled on a 66-mile journey through
Maria Stein, Ohio
Maria Stein is an unincorporated community in central Marion Township, Mercer County, United States. The community and the Maria Stein Convent lie at the center of the area known as the Land of the Cross-Tipped Churches, where a missionary priest, Father Francis de Sales Brunner, established a number of parishes for German Catholics. Situated in southern Mercer County, Maria Stein is a rural farming community with a history dating to the early 19th century; the residents of the community and its surrounding region, nicknamed the "Land of the Cross-Tipped Churches", have German Catholic roots. It was settled in the early 19th century by immigrants from Germany who cleared the dense forests of the region and uncovered a rich and productive farmland. Multi-generation families have prospered through their management of the rich, dark soil of the region. In the character of small communities, churches provide the framework for social interaction. Holidays such as Easter and Christmas are community celebrations, shared by most citizens.
The origin of the name "Maria Stein" is from Metzerlen-Mariastein in Switzerland. This small community, not so far from Basle, has Mariastein Abbey. Father Francis de Sales Brunner, who established the Missionaries of the Precious Blood order that provides priests for St John's Church in Maria Stein, entered the abbey in 1812 and remained there as a member of the convent until 1829. Although there is no written evidence that it was Father Brunner who named the town of Maria Stein, the erection of a large church and the Shrine of the Holy Relics in Maria Stein is supportive. According to an article by Father Lukas Schenker of Mariastein Abbey, Brunner named the convent at Maria Stein after Mariastein Abbey in Switzerland because Brunner donated a painted depiction of the Miraculous Madonna of Mariastein to the convent, after which the town was named, it is said of this painting that Brunner had it with him when crossing the English Channel in a sailing vessel and was miraculously saved from shipwreck in a bad storm.
The historical character of Maria Stein and many other similar communities is evident in their most notable feature, their churches. In this region, every small crossroads community has a substantial church constructed by immigrant German craftsmen in the mid- to late nineteenth century and characterized by a steeple topped with a cross; the churches in Minster, St. Henry, Maria Stein are the largest examples, but others are found in St. Rose, Cassella, St. Sebastian, Osgood. St. John's Church in Maria Stein was built in 1889; the development of Maria Stein was influenced by the creation of the Miami and Erie Canal. In the early 19th century, there were few roads and mass transportation to the region occurred on waterways such as the Great Lakes, the Ohio River and smaller tributaries. Recognizing the impact that the Erie Canal in New York State had on its development, the Ohio Legislature in 1825 authorized the digging of two canals, one in the eastern part of the state and a second, the Miami and Erie Canal, in the western portion of the state, both connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio River.
Over the next 20–30 years the Miami and Erie Canal took shape as segments were dug and pieced together to create a canal spanning the entire distance between Toledo and Cincinnati. While the canal, remnants of which exist today, did not run through Maria Stein, its location just 6 miles away defined the development of the town over the next century; the canal provided a source of cash for workers who dug the canal. This enabled them to pay down the loans on their farms, purchased from the government for $1 per acre; the canal provided a route for immigrants to reach Maria Stein. After its completion it provided transportation for farm goods to developing urban centers in Toledo and Lake Erie to the north and Dayton and points further down stream on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the south and fostered the development of railheads to connect with the canal, facilitating the industrial development of the surrounding region. Many farmers in Maria Stein and surrounding towns worked on their farms and held a second job in one of the many surrounding manufacturing plants.
This enabled them to weather the cyclical nature of farm revenue and create a prosperous hybrid rural-manufacturing economy. Maria Stein has remained entirely a farm-based community because of its lack of a canal or railroad to transport manufactured goods to market, whereas surrounding communities, New Bremen, Celina and St. Marys had either railways or the canal and as a result developed robust manufacturing businesses; the defining feature of this rural community is its Roman Catholicism. In a pattern reminiscent of Central Europe following the 30 years war in the 17th century, the smaller communities in northwest Ohio developed along religious lines. A preponderance of citizens in New Bremen and New Knoxville are Protestant, whereas Maria Stein and the surrounding communities of Minster, Fort Loramie, Chickasaw, St. Rose, Egypt, Montezuma, St. Henry are entirely Roman Catholic; this did not happen by chance. As Professor Wolfgang Fleischhauer, a German linguist from the Ohio State University pointed out in his treatise on this subject "the immigrants of each community came from one a small district in the homeland and they were held together by the ties of kinship, common history and speech."
He further adds that "The settlers of the Northwestern Ohio communities with which we are concerned emigrated from the Northwest of Germany and Oldenburg its Southern part, the " Oldenb
A rose window or Catherine window is used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The name "rose window" was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose; the term "wheel window" is applied to a window divided by simple spokes radiating from a central boss or opening, while the term "rose window" is reserved for those windows, sometimes of a complex design, which can be seen to bear similarity to a multi-petalled rose. Rose windows are called Catherine windows after Saint Catherine of Alexandria, sentenced to be executed on a spiked wheel. A circular window without tracery such as are found in many Italian churches, is referred to as an ocular window or oculus. Rose windows are characteristic of Gothic architecture and may be seen in all the major Gothic Cathedrals of Northern France.
Their origins are much earlier and rose windows may be seen in various forms throughout the Medieval period. Their popularity was revived, with other medieval features, during the Gothic revival of the 19th century so that they are seen in Christian churches all over the world. Oculi: These could be open or blind, could be filled with thin alabaster. During the late Gothic period large ocular windows were common in Italy, being used in preference to traceried windows and being filled with elaborate pictures in stained glass designed by the most accomplished Late Medieval and Early Renaissance designers including Duccio, Donatello and Ghiberti. Wheel Windows: These windows had a simple tracery of spokes radiating either from a central boss or from a central roundel. Popular during the Romanesque period and Gothic Italy, they are found across Europe but Germany and Italy, they occur in Romanesque Revival buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. Plate Tracery: Rose windows with pierced openings rather than tracery occur in the transition between Romanesque and Gothic in France and most notably at Chartres.
The most notable example in England is the north transept window, known as the "Dean's Eye" in Lincoln Cathedral. These windows are found in 19th-century Revival buildings. Early Gothic: Rose windows with tracery comprising overlapping arcs like flower petals and square shapes; this form occurs in Northern France, notably at Laon Cathedral and England. This style of window is popular in Gothic Revival architecture for the similarity that it has to a flower and is utilised with specific reference to Our Lady of the Rosary. Rayonnant Gothic: The rose windows are divided by mullions radiating from a central roundel, overlapping in a complex design, each light terminating in a pointed arch and interspersed with quatrefoils and other such shapes. Many of the largest rose windows in France are of this type, notably those at Paris and in the transepts of St Denis. An example in England is that in the north transept of Westminster Abbey; this style occurs in Gothic churches and is widely imitated in Gothic Revival buildings.
Flamboyant Gothic: The style is marked by S-curves in the tracery causing each light to take on a flamelike or "flamboyant" shape. Many windows are composed of regularly shaped lights the richness of design dependent on the multiplicity of parts. Good examples are at Paris; some Late Gothic rose windows are of immense complexity of design using elements of the Gothic style in unexpected ways. A magnificent example is that of the façade of Amiens Cathedral. Although the design radiates from a central point, it may not be symmetrical about each axis; this may be seen in the Flamboyant Decorated Gothic window called the "Bishop’s Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral in which the design takes the form of two ears of wheat. Renaissance: The Renaissance made a break with the Gothic style, a return to the Classical. Plain untraceried oculi were sometimes employed, either in Classical pediments or around domes as at the Pazzi Chapel, Florence. Baroque: The Baroque style saw much greater use of ocular windows, which were not always circular, but oval or of a more complex shape.
They were untraceried or crossed by mullions of simple form but were surrounded by ornate carving. The purpose of such windows was the subtle illumination of interior spaces, without resorting to large windows offering external visibility, they form a dominant visual element to either the façade or the interior as do the great Gothic windows. However, there are some notable exceptions, in particular the glorious burst of light which pours through the oval alabaster window depicting the Holy Spirit in the Reredos behind the High Altar of St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Modern: Modern circular windows, which are most of a simple ocular type, have an eclectic range of influences which includes abstract art, ship's portholes and the unglazed circular openings of Oriental architecture; the origin of the rose. These large circular openings let in both light and air, the best known being that at the top of the dome of the Pantheon. Windows with stone tracery make their emergence in Antiquity. Geometrical patterns of roses are developed and common in Roman mosaic.
In Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, there are examples of the use of circular oculi. They occur either around the drum of a dome, as at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, or high in the end of a gable of low-pitched Classical pediment form, as at Sant'Agnese fuori le mura and Torcello Cathedral. A window of
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
In Christian theology, the Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus. The Catholic Church teaches that God acted upon Mary in the first moment of her conception, keeping her "immaculate"; the Immaculate Conception is confused with the virgin birth of Jesus, the latter being, the doctrine of the Incarnation. While all Christians believe in the virgin birth of Jesus, it is principally Roman Catholics, along with various other Christian denominations, who believe in the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Although the belief that Mary was sinless, or conceived without original sin, has been held since Late Antiquity, the doctrine was not dogmatically defined in the Catholic Church until 1854 when Pope Pius IX, declared ex cathedra, i.e. using papal infallibility, in his papal bull Ineffabilis Deus, the Immaculate Conception to be doctrine. The Catholic Church celebrates the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on December 8.
The defined dogma of the Immaculate Conception states: We declare and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed and by all the faithful. Declaramus, pronuntiamus et definimus doctrinam, quae tenet, beatissimam Virginem Mariam in primo instanti suae Conceptionis fuisse singulari omnipotentis Dei gratia et privilegio, intuitu meritorum Christi lesu Salvatoris humani generis, ab omni originalis culpae labe praeservatam immunem, esse a Deo revelatam, atque idcirco ab omnibus fidelibus firmiter constanterque credendam. Quapropter si qui secus ac a Nobis; the definition concerns original sin only, it makes no declaration about the Church's belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin.
The doctrine teaches that from her conception Mary, being always free from original sin, received the sanctifying grace that would come with baptism after birth. The Encyclical Mystici Corporis from Pope Pius XII in addition holds that Mary was sinless "free from all sin, original or personal". In this, Pius XII repeats a position expressed by the Council of Trent, which decreed "If anyone shall say that a man once justified can sin no more, nor lose grace, that therefore he who falls and sins was never justified; when defining the dogma in Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime. He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was prevented from contracting original sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race. In Luke 1:47, Mary proclaims: "My spirit has rejoiced in God my Saviour." This is referred to as Mary's pre-redemption by Christ. Since the Second Council of Orange against semi-pelagianism, the Catholic Church has taught that had man never sinned in the Garden of Eden and was sinless, he would still require God's grace to remain sinless.
The doctrine of the immaculate conception is not to be confused with the virginal conception of her son Jesus. Catholics believe that Mary was conceived of both parents, traditionally known by the names of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. In 1677, the Holy See condemned the error of Imperiali who taught that St. Anne in the conception and birth of Mary remained virgin, a belief surfacing since the 4th century; the Church celebrates the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on December 8 nine months before celebrating the Nativity of Mary. The feast of the Annunciation is celebrated on nine months before Christmas Day. A feast of the Conception of the Most Holy and All Pure Mother of God was celebrated in Syria on December 8 as early as the 5th century; the title of achrantos refers to the holiness of Mary, not to the holiness of her conception. Mary's complete sinlessness and concomitant exemption from any taint from the first moment of her existence was a doctrine familiar to Greek theologians of Byzantium.
Beginning with St. Gregory Nazianzen, his explanation of the "purification" of Jesus and Mary at the circumcision prompted him to consider the primary meaning of "purification" in Christology to refer to a sinless nature that manifested itself in glory in a moment of grace. St. Gregory Nazianzen designated Mary as prokathartheisa. Gregory attempted to solve the riddle of the Purification of Jesus and Mary in the Temple through considering the human natures of Jesus and Mary as holy and therefore both purified in this manner of grace and glory. Gregory's doctrines surrounding Mary's purification were related to the burgeoning commemoration of the Mother of God in and around Constantinople close to the date of Christmas. Nazianzen's title of Mary at the Annunciation as "prepurified" was subsequently adopted by all theologians interested in his Mariology to justify the Byzantine e
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af