Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments, most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian architecture, tympana usually contain religious imagery, a tympanum over a doorway is very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. These shapes naturally influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum, bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is often supported by a pillar called a trumeau. Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
Gammel Kongevej is the principal shopping street of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the opposite end, Jernbanegade connects it to Copenhagen City Hall Square, Gammel Kongevej is one of the oldest road sections in Frederiksberg, originally providing a direct connection between Copenhagens Western City Gate and the village of Solbjerg. From there the it continued past the Damhus Lake towards Roskilde, giving rise to the name Roskildegaden, the road was improved by Christian IV in the 1620s. The name Kongevejen emerged about a generation when it became the road to Ny Amager, as Frederiksberg was called. The name of the changed to Gammel Kongevej after a new Route de Roie, Frederiksberg Allé. A number of new houses were built along the rad. P. Andersen opened the Svanholm Brewery at No.64 in 1853 and it was merged with several other breweries to form The United Breweries in 1891 and most of its buildings were replaced by a machine factory and iron factory. Part of the site was cleared in 1904–05 to make way for the new street Prinsesse Maries Allé, the rest of the industrial plant was replaced by the cinema complex Kinopalæet in 1918.
Gammel Kongevej mainly catered to the upper middle classes. The area next to the foundry was home to a small working-class neighbourhood with an infamous reputation. In the 1950s, Jørn Utzon, architect of the Sydney Opera House and it consisted of tower blocks in a green space inspired by Japanese gardens. Dating from the 1850s, No.78 is one of the oldest apartment buildings along the street and it has a small front garden and a fence towards the street. The Catholic school Ansgarstiftelsen at No.15 is decorated with a mural byNiels Macholm mural, Just off Gammel Kongevej, Ørsteds Vej and Bülowsvej, is a small enclave which has been described as Denmarks first urban neighbourhood of single-family detached homes. It consists of the side streets Uraniavej and Lindevej, the area around Sankt Jørgens Sø is home to a cluster of modern buildings which include the Tycho Brahe Planetarium and two highrises, Copenhagen Scandic Hotel and the 18-storey Codan Building
N. F. S. Grundtvig
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig, most often referred to as N. F. S. Grundtvig, was a Danish pastor, poet, historian and politician. He was one of the most influential people in Danish history and it was steeped in the national literature and supported by deep spirituality. Grundtvig holds a position in the cultural history of his country. Grundtvig and his followers are credited with being influential in the formulation of modern Danish national consciousness. Called Frederik rather than Nikolaj by those close to him, N. F. S. Grundtvig was the son of a Lutheran pastor and he was brought up in a very religious atmosphere, although his mother had great respect for old Norse legends and traditions. He was schooled in the tradition of the European Enlightenment, but his faith in reason was influenced by German romanticism, in 1791 he was sent to Thyregod in Sydjylland to live and study with pastor Laurids Svindt Feld. He subsequently studied at the Aarhus Katedralskole, the school of Aarhus. He left for Copenhagen in 1800 to study theology and was accepted to the University of Copenhagen in 1801, at the close of his university life, Grundtvig began to study Icelandic and the Icelandic Sagas.
In 1805 Grundtvig took a position of tutor in a house on the island of Langeland, the next three years he used his free time to study writers Shakespeare and Fichte. In 1802 his cousin, the philosopher Henrich Steffens, returned to Copenhagen full of the teaching of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and his lectures and the early poetry of Adam Oehlenschläger opened Grundtvigs eyes to the new era in literature. His first work, On the Songs in the Edda, attracted no attention, returning to Copenhagen in 1808, Grundtvig achieved greater success with his Northern Mythology, and again in 1809 with a long drama, The Fall of the Heroic Life in the North. Grundtvig boldly denounced the clergy of the city in his first sermon in 1810, when Grundtvig published the sermon three weeks it offended the ecclesiastical authorities, and they demanded him punished. In 1810 Grundtvig underwent a crisis and converted to a strongly held Lutheranism. He retired to his fathers country parish in Udby as his chaplain and it won him notoriety among his peers and cost him several friends, notably the historian Christian Molbech.
Upon his fathers death in 1813, Grundtvig applied to be his successor in the parish but was rejected, from 1816 to 1819 he was editor of and almost sole contributor to a philosophical and polemical journal entitled Danne-Virke, which published poetry. From 1813 to 1815, he attempted to form a movement to support the Norwegians against the Swedish government, he preached on how the weakness of the Danish faith was the cause of the loss of Norway in 1814. His sermon was met by a congregation in Copenhagen. Grundtvig withdrew from the pulpit because of lacking his own parish, in 1821 he resumed preaching briefly when granted the country living of Præstø, and returned to the capital the year after
Folk high school
Folk high schools are institutions for adult education that generally do not grant academic degrees, though certain courses might exist leading to that goal. They are most commonly found in Nordic countries and in Germany, the concept originally came from the Danish writer, poet and pastor N. F. S. Grundtvig. Grundtvig was inspired by the Marquis de Condorcets Report on the General Organization of Public Instruction which was written in 1792 during the French Revolution, the Revolution had a direct influence on popular education in France. In the United States, a Danish folk school called Danebod was founded in Tyler, despite similar names and somewhat similar goals, the institutions are quite different in Germany and Sweden as opposed to the traditions in Denmark and Norway. Folk high schools in Germany and Sweden are in much closer to the institutions known as folkeuniversitet in Norway. However, unlike the folkuniversitet, folk high schools in Sweden are not connected to a regular university, the Finnish työväenopisto or kansalaisopisto are part of the educational Folk tradition.
Other countries have inspired by Grundtvigs concept of popular education. In Nigeria, the United States and India, a few schools have been built upon Grundtvigs principles for education, the idea was to give the peasantry and other people from the lower echelons of society a higher educational level through personal development, what Grundtvig called the living word. The language and history of the fatherland, its constitution and main industries along with folk songs should be the guiding principles for an education based on a Christian framework, the first folk high school was established in 1844 in Rødding, Denmark. The school in Rødding, was somewhat aristocratic as chiefly civil servants, another pioneer for the folk high school was the teacher Christen Kold. His, for time, highly unorthodox way of teaching gave the folk high schools a broader democratic basis in comparison to the initial religious focus. The teaching took place from November to March because students did farm work the rest of the year, kolds goal was for students to return to the school regularly in the winter to continue their education.
In the beginning only young men could attend the courses, the men still only attended during winter. The breakthrough for the idea was the Second War of Schleswig in 1864 when Denmark had to surrender a large part of its territory and this incident allowed the growth of a new Danish consciousness and nationalism based on enlightenment of the people. They established folk high schools all around the country and by 1867 twenty-one folk high schools had opened, almost everyone working at the folk high schools had been an apprentice of Grundtvig. In 1918 the number of high schools in Denmark had reached 68. The modern folk high schools vary significantly, some still have a religious focus but most of them are secular. The schools are still Grundtvigian folk high schools which means that their focus is on enlightenment, morality, the Grundtvigian philosophy is embedded in the teaching of various subjects, e. g. the arts and journalism
Sienna is an earth pigment containing iron oxide and manganese oxide. In its natural state, it is yellow-brown and is called raw sienna, when heated, it becomes a reddish brown and is called burnt sienna. It takes its name from the city-state of Siena, where it was produced during the Renaissance, along with ochre and umber, it was one of the first pigments to be used by humans, and is found in many cave paintings. Since the Renaissance, it has one of the brown pigments most widely used by artists. The first recorded use of sienna as a name in English was in 1760. Like the other colours, such as yellow ochre and umber, sienna is a clay containing iron oxide, called limonite. In addition to iron oxide, natural or raw sienna contains about five percent of manganese oxide, when heated, the iron oxide is dehydrated and turns partially to haematite, which gives it a reddish-brown colour. Sienna is lighter in shade than raw umber, which is clay with iron oxide. But which has a content of manganese which makes it greenish brown or dark brown.
When heated, raw umber becomes burnt umber, a dark brown. The pigment sienna was known and used, in its natural form and it was mined near Arcidosso, formerly under Sienese control, now in the province of Grosseto, on Monte Amiata in southern Tuscany. It was called terra rossa, terra gialla, or terra di Siena, during the Renaissance, it was noted by the most widely read author about painting techniques, Giorgio Vasari, under the name terra rossa. By the 1940s, the sources in Italy were nearly exhausted. It is produced in the French Ardennes, in the small town of Bonne Fontaine near Ecordal. In the 20th century, pigments began to be produced using iron oxide rather than the natural earth. The labels on paint tubes indicate whether they contain natural or synthetic ingredients, PY-43 indicates natural raw sienna, PR-102 indicates natural burnt sienna. There is no single agreed standard for the colour of sienna, and they vary by country and colour list, and there are many proprietary variations offered by paint companies.
The colour box at the top of the shows one variation from the ISCC-NBS colour list
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, although an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal. It is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, the origin of the name Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan. Some have speculated that ravenna is related to Rasenna, the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, the origins of Ravenna are uncertain. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later. The Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, in 49 BC, it was the location where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon.
Later, after his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC and this harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages, during the German campaigns, widow of Arminius, and Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna greatly prospered under Roman rule, Emperor Trajan built a 70 km long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city, for this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there. In AD402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna, at that time it was home to 50,000 people. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, after many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III and the support of her nephew Theodosius II.
The late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, Theoderic took Ravenna in 493, supposedly slew Odoacer with his own hands, and Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Both Odoacer and Theoderic and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, Ravennas Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theoderic allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law, the Goths, lived under their own laws and customs
Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand in Denmark. Part of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and its mayor is Jørgen Glenthøj from the Conservative Peoples Party. The city of Frederiksberg is the town in the municipality. Frederiksberg is located as an enclave within the municipality of Copenhagen, the municipality was originally situated west of Copenhagen, but after a number of smaller municipalities were merged with Copenhagen in 1901, it became completely surrounded by Copenhagen. Frederiksberg was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a County—the others being Copenhagen and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Frederiksberg municipality was not merged with other municipalities as the result of nationwide Kommunalreformen
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches, an early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free Romanesque manner was Henry Hobson Richardson, in the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl’s castle at Inverary, started in 1744, and castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Dalquharran and it was at this point that the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817 Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation and it was now realised that ‘round-arch architecture’ was largely Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon.
The start of an archaeologically correct Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper and his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. It was Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, who would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, and particularly the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47 and St Agatha’s Llanymynech,1845, he copies the tower of St. Salvators Cathedral, other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, and the porch to Langedwyn Church. He was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, during the 19th century the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, after about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canadas provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto, University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style. The building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the design began on 4 October 1856. The facade of University College has thick walls, incorporating layers of both stone and brick. The building possesses a number of round arches characteristic of the Roman Revival style, the arches are configured in arcades, most notably on the south side of the building.
There is a deal of ornamentation on both the interior and exterior of University College