Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Overwatch (video game)
Overwatch is a team-based multiplayer first-person shooter developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment and released on May 24, 2016 for PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Windows. Described as a "hero shooter", Overwatch assigns players into two teams of six, with each player selecting from a roster of 30 characters, known as "heroes", each with a unique style of play whose roles are divided into three general categories that fit their role. Players on a team work together to secure and defend control points on a map or escort a payload across the map in a limited amount of time. Players gain cosmetic rewards that do not affect gameplay, such as character skins and victory poses, as they play the game; the game was launched with casual play, with a competitive ranked mode, various'arcade' game modes, a player-customizable server browser subsequently included following its release. Additionally, Blizzard has added new characters and game modes post-release, all free of charge, with the only additional cost to players being optional loot boxes to earn cosmetic items.
Overwatch is Blizzard's fourth major franchise and came about following the 2014 cancellation of the ambitious massively multiplayer online role-playing game Titan. A portion of the Titan team came up with the concept of Overwatch, based on the success of team-based first-person shooters like Team Fortress 2 and the growing popularity of multiplayer online battle arenas, creating a hero-based shooter that emphasized teamwork; some elements of Overwatch borrow concepts from the canceled Titan project. After establishing the narrative of an optimistic near-future Earth setting after a global crisis, the developers aimed to create a diverse cast of heroes that spanned genders and ethnicities as part of this setting. Significant time is spent adjusting the balance of the characters, making sure that new players would still be able to have fun while skilled players would present each other with a challenge. Overwatch was unveiled at BlizzCon 2014, was in a closed beta from late 2015 through early 2016.
An open beta prior to release drew in nearly 10 million players. The release of the game was promoted with short animated videos to introduce the narrative and characters. Overwatch received universal acclaim from critics, who praised the game for its accessibility, diverse appeal of its hero characters, bright cartoonish art style, enjoyable gameplay. Blizzard reported over US$1 billion in revenue during the first year of its release, had more than 40 million players after two years. Overwatch is considered one of the greatest video games of all time, receiving numerous game of the year awards, alongside other accolades; the game has become recognized as an esport, with Blizzard helping to fund and produce professional leagues, such as the Overwatch League. Overwatch features a number of different game modes, principally designed around squad-based combat with two opposing teams of six players each. Players select one of over two dozen pre-made hero characters from one of three class types: Damage heroes that deal most of the damage to attack or defend control points, Tank heroes that can absorb a large amount of damage, Support heroes that provide healing or other buffs for their teammates.
Each hero has a unique skill kit, defining their intrinsic attributes like health points and running speed, their primary attacks, several active and passive skills, an ultimate ability that can only be used after it has been charged through dealing damage. Players can change their hero during the course of a match, as a goal of Overwatch's design was to encourage dynamic team compositions that adapt to the situation; the game's genre has been described by some journalists as a "hero shooter", due to its design around specific heroes and classes. The game features game modes for casual play, competitive ranked play, for supporting esports competitions including Blizzard's Overwatch League; these modes are centered around sequentially securing control of points on the map, or escorting a payload between points on the map, with one team attacking while the other defends. Other modes set aside for casual matches include solo and team deathmatch, capture-the-flag, unique modes run during various seasonal events.
Regardless of winning or losing a match, players gain experience towards a player level, on gaining a new level, receive loot boxes that contain cosmetic items that they can use to customize the appearance of the hero characters but otherwise does not affect gameplay. Loot boxes can be purchased through microtransactions; the backstory to Overwatch is described through animated shorts and other information distributed by Blizzard in promoting the game. Overwatch is set sixty years into the future of a fictionalized Earth, thirty years after the resolution of what is known as the "Omnic Crisis". Prior to the Omnic Crisis, humanity had been in a golden age of prosperity and technology development. Humans developed robots with artificial intelligence called "Omnics", which were put to use to achieve economic equality, began to be treated as people in their own right; the Omnic Crisis began when the worldwide automated "omnium" facilities that produced them, started producing a series of lethal, hostile robots, that attacked humankind.
The United Nations formed Overwatch, an international task force to combat this threat and restore order. Two veteran soldiers were put in charge of Overwatch: Jack Morrison. Though Overwatch quelled the robotic uprising and brought a number of talented individuals to the forefront, a rift ended up developing between Reyes and Morrison, Morrison became the leader of Overwatch while Reyes took charge of Blackwatch, Overwatch's covert operations division. Overwatch maintained peace across
Vainglory (video game)
Vainglory is a video game developed and published by Super Evil Megacorp for iOS, Android and PC. The game is a version of the MOBA genre wherein two opposing teams of three or five players fight to destroy the enemy by controlling the path between the bases, lined by turrets and guarded by AI-controlled enemy creatures. Off the path, players battle for control points; the game was released for iOS in November 2014, after being soft-launched for over half a year, with the Android version being released in July 2015. A Mac and Microsoft Windows version of the game was released in July 2018. Through cross-platform play, players on all four platforms can play together simultaneously; the game's development started in 2012 upon the forming of Super Evil Megacorp. The game was unveiled at Apple's September 2014 iPhone 6 announcement event to demonstrate the platform's Metal graphics API. Super Evil Megacorp attempted to make a game that would entertain players for hours and encourage in-person multiplayer experiences similar to that of a LAN party.
Vainglory received favorable reviews. Critics praised the game's graphics and level design, but criticized its lack of team communication features. Reviewers disagreed on the game's degree of accessibility to newcomers, part of the reason why it received mixed reviews. Vainglory is a multiplayer online battle arena game similar to popular MOBAs like League of Legends and Dota 2 but designed for smartphones and tablets. A standard for the genre, two opposing teams fight to reach and destroy the enemy's base while defending their own in a tug of war for control over three paths, the "lanes", which connect the bases. In addition, there are "jungles” between the lanes, which contain creatures and objectives that can be killed or captured. In Vainglory, teams have five players who each control an avatar, known as a "hero", from their own device. Weaker computer-controlled characters, called "minions", spawn at team bases and follow the lanes to the opposite team's base, fighting enemies and turrets en route.
Lining the lanes are turret towers that repel the flow of minions and enemy heroes. The player's objective is to destroy the enemy turrets and the "Vain crystal" in the enemy team's base; as of Update 3.9, you can earn stars and mastery points on heroes by playing matches with them. By playing any match, you can win hero mastery points; the first star of hero mastery is unlocked at 1100 hero mastery points. When a match starts, other players can see your hero mastery in the loading screen. All matches give you points as rewards. Note that you will receive same points as reward if you lose or win. In Ranked mode, players are matched by a ranking system. Referred to as Elo/ELO in game chat, the rank points you earn from match wins will go up, so as you improve, so will the skill of your opponents. Elo is named after Arpad Elo, the mathematician and chess grand master who invented the rank score system that may be at the heart of rank scores in Vainglory; as of March 10 2018, there are 47 hero options.
The developers of the game continually add new heroes, each with different skills but balanced for fair play. For example, a hero may have high damage but poor mobility, or strong melee abilities but no ranged option. Players choose between three abilities. There is a set number of heroes that are free to play, with the free to play roster being renewed every week; the game uses two main in-game currencies for in-app purchases: Glory can be earned through normal play and completing missions, ICE can be purchased with real-world money. ICE can sometimes be earned through game interactions, but it is a much less common reward. Players can unlock additional heroes for a certain amount of Glory. Skins, which change the appearance of heroes, can be unlocked with ICE or by collecting blueprints from the Market or in-game quests. Crafting a skin via a blueprint requires Essence, obtainable through reward chests or acquiring a blueprint for a skin that a player owns. Special Edition skins may only be unlocked through Opals, obtainable through reward chests or frequent in-app purchase bundle packs.
Update 1.18.0 introduced "chests,". Vainglory offers five main modes of in-game communication: team emoticons, strategic pings, static chat lines, party voicechat, in game chat. Update 2.5 introduced Talents, collectible hero upgrades for BRAWL game modes. Update 3.4 introduced joystick control. As of March 10 2019, there are 3 constant game modes. 1) 3v3 Here teams of 3 heroes battle on Halcyon Fold, the map with one lane and one jungle. Matches take 20 minutes to complete. 2) 5v5 Here teams of 5 heroes battle on Sovereign's Rise, the map, added in Update 3.0, with 3 lanes and 2 jungles. Matches take 25 minutes to complete. 4) Blitz Here teams of 3 heroes battle on Halcyon Fold. Matches take 5 minutes to complete. Teams need to get 15 points, by crystals sentries or destroying turrets. After 5 minutes, best score the first team with more than 15 points. If there is a tie, the team with the next point scored wins; this is a brawl mode, so talents can be used. ) Here we include Tutorial. Event game modes / one time only game modes: 1) Onslaught (As of Update 2.11 - 3v3 Map, 5 rounds with a best of 5 where a diff
Super Smash Bros.
Super Smash Bros. is a series of crossover fighting video games published by Nintendo, features characters from various franchises of theirs. The series was created by Masahiro Sakurai; the gameplay objective differs from that of traditional fighters in that the aim is to knock opponents off the stage instead of depleting life bars. The original Super Smash Bros. was released in 1999 for the Nintendo 64. The series achieved greater success with the release of Super Smash Bros. Melee, released in 2001 for the GameCube and became the bestselling game on that system. A third installment, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, was released in 2008 for the Wii. Although HAL Laboratory had been the developer of the first two games, the third game was developed through the collaboration of several companies; the fourth installment, Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U, were released in 2014 for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U, respectively. The 3DS installment was the first for a handheld platform. A fifth installment, Super Smash Bros.
Ultimate, was released in 2018 for the Nintendo Switch. The series features many characters from Nintendo's most popular franchises, including Super Mario, Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, Kirby and Pokémon; the original Super Smash Bros. had only 12 playable characters, with the roster count rising for each successive game and including third-party characters, with Ultimate containing every character playable in the previous games. Some characters are able to transform into different forms that have different styles of play and sets of moves; every game in the series has been well received by critics, with much praise given to their multiplayer features, spawning a large competitive community, featured in several gaming tournaments. Super Smash Bros. was introduced in 1999 for the Nintendo 64. It was released worldwide after selling over a million copies in Japan, it featured eight characters from the start, with four unlockable characters, all of them created by Nintendo or one of its second-party developers.
In Super Smash Bros. up to four players can play in multiplayer mode, with the specific rules of each match being predetermined by the players. There are two match types that can be chosen: Time, where the person with the most KOs at the end of the set time wins; this game's one-player mode included one adventure mode that always followed the same series of opponents although the player could change the difficulty. Other single-player modes exist such as Training and several minigames, including "Break the Targets" and "Board the Platforms". All of these were included in the sequel, with the exception of "Board the Platforms". There are nine playable stages in Versus mode, eight based on each of the starting characters and the unlockable Mushroom Kingdom, based around motifs from the original Super Mario Bros. containing original sprites and the original version of the Overworld theme from that game. A followup for the GameCube, Super Smash Bros. Melee, released in Japan and North America in late 2001, in Europe and Australia in May 2002.
It had a larger budget and development team than Super Smash Bros. did and was released to much greater praise and acclaim among critics and consumers. Since its release, Super Smash Bros. Melee was the bestselling game on the GameCube. Super Smash Bros. Melee features 26 characters, of which 15 are available more than doubling the number of characters in its predecessor. There are 29 stages, it introduced two new single-player modes alongside the Classic mode: Adventure mode and All-Star mode. Adventure mode has platforming segments similar to the original's "Race to the Finish" mini-game, All-Star is a fight against every playable character in the game, allows the player only one life in which damage is accumulated over each battle and a limited number of heal items in between battles. There are significantly more multiplayer modes and a tournament mode allowing for 64 different competitors whom can all be controlled by human players, although only up to four players can participate at the same time.
Additionally, the game featured alternative battle modes, called "Special Melee," which allows players to make many different alterations to the battle, along with alternative ways to judge a victory, such as through collecting coins throughout the match. In place of Super Smash Bros.' Character profiles, Melee introduced trophies. The 293 trophies include three different profiles for each playable character, one unlocked in each single-player mode. In addition, unlike its predecessor, Melee contains profiles for many Nintendo characters who are either non-playable or do not appear in the game, as well as Nintendo items, stages and elements. Although a third Super Smash Bros. game had been announced long before E3 2006, Nintendo unveiled its first information in the form of a trailer in 2006, the game was named Super Smash Bros. Brawl and released worldwide in 2008; the game featured a set of third-party characters, Solid Snake of Konami's Metal Gear series, longtime Mario rival Sonic the Hedgehog from Sega's series of the same name.
Brawl was the first game in the franchise to support online play, via the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, to offer the ability for players to construct their own original stages. The game features a total of 39 playable characters and 41
Dota 2 is a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. The game is a sequel to Defense of the Ancients, a community-created mod for Blizzard Entertainment's Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and its expansion pack, The Frozen Throne. Dota 2 is played in matches between two teams of five players, with each team occupying and defending their own separate base on the map; each of the ten players independently controls a powerful character, known as a "hero", who all have unique abilities and differing styles of play. During a match, players collect experience points and items for their heroes to defeat the opposing team's heroes in player versus player combat. A team wins by being the first to destroy a large structure located in the opposing team's base, called the "Ancient". Development of Dota 2 began in 2009 when IceFrog, lead designer of the original Defense of the Ancients mod, was hired by Valve to create a modernized remake for them in the Source game engine.
It was released for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux-based personal computers via the digital distribution platform Steam in July 2013, following a Windows-only open beta phase that began two years prior. As the game is free-to-play with no heroes needing to be bought or otherwise unlocked, revenue is instead made from microtransactions such as loot boxes, a battle pass subscription system called Dota Plus, which all only offer non-gameplay altering virtual goods, such as hero cosmetics and voice-line packs, in return; the game has been updated with various other features since release, such as a transition to the Source 2 engine in 2015 and support for virtual reality. Dota 2 has a large esports scene, with teams from across the world playing professionally in various leagues and tournaments. Premium tournaments of the game have prize pools totaling millions of U. S. dollars, the highest of any esport. The largest of them is known as The International, produced annually by Valve and most held at the KeyArena in Seattle.
Valve manages an event format known as the Dota Pro Circuit, which are a series of tournaments held prior to Internationals that award qualification points based on results for getting directly invited to them. For most tournaments, media coverage is done by a selection of on-site staff who provide commentary and analysis for the ongoing matches, similar to traditional sporting events. Broadcasts of professional Dota 2 matches are streamed live over the internet, sometimes simulcast on television networks, with peak viewership numbers in the millions; the game has been used in machine learning experiments, with a team of bots known as the OpenAI Five showing the ability to compete against, sometimes defeat, professional players. Despite some criticism going towards its steep learning curve and overall complexity, Dota 2 was praised for its rewarding gameplay, production quality, faithfulness to its predecessor, with multiple gaming publications considering it to be one of the greatest video games of all time.
Since its release, it has been one of the most played games on Steam, with over a million concurrent players at its peak. The popularity of the game has led to official merchandise for it being produced, including apparel and toys, as well as promotional tie-ins to other games and media; the game allows for the community to create their own game modes and cosmetics, which are uploaded to the Steam Workshop and curated by Valve. A digital collectible card game featuring the characters and setting of Dota 2 known as Artifact was released in November 2018. Dota 2 is a multiplayer online battle arena video game in which two teams of five players compete to collectively destroy a large structure defended by the opposing team known as the "Ancient", whilst defending their own; as in Defense of the Ancients, the game is controlled using standard real-time strategy controls, is presented on a single map in a three-dimensional isometric perspective. Ten players each control one of the game's 117 playable characters, known as "heroes", with each having their own design and weaknesses.
Heroes are divided into two primary roles, known as the "carry" and "support". Carries, which are called "cores", begin each match as weak and vulnerable, but are able to become more powerful in the game, thus becoming able to "carry" their team to victory. Supports lack abilities that deal heavy damage, instead having ones with more functionality and utility that provide assistance for their carries, such as providing healing and other buffs. Players select their hero during a pre-game drafting phase, where they can discuss potential strategies and hero matchups with their teammates. Heroes can not be switched mid-game, once one is selected, they are removed from the drafting pool and become unavailable for all other players. All heroes have a basic damage-dealing attack, in addition to powerful abilities; each hero has at least four abilities, all of which are unique, which are the primary method of fighting. Heroes begin each game with an experience level of one, only having access to one of their abilities, but are able to level up and become more powerful during the course of the game, up to a maximum level of 25.
Whenever a hero gains an experience level, the player is able to unlock another of their abilities or improve one learned. The most powerful ability for each hero is known as their "ultimate", which requires them to have an experience level of six in order to use. In order to prevent abilities from being used without consequence, a magic system in the game exists. Activating an ability costs a hero some of their "mana points", which regenerates over time. Using an ability will als
The Memphis Grizzlies are an American professional basketball team based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Grizzlies compete in the National Basketball Association as a member team of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the Grizzlies play their home games at FedExForum. The team is owned by Robert Pera; the Grizzlies are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues based in the city of Memphis. The team was established as the Vancouver Grizzlies, an expansion team that joined the NBA for the 1995–96 season. After the 2000–01 season concluded, the Grizzlies moved to Memphis; the Vancouver Grizzlies were a Canadian professional basketball team based in Vancouver, British Columbia. They were part of the Midwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association; the team was established in 1995, along with the Toronto Raptors, as part of the NBA's expansion into Canada. Following the 2000–01 season, the team relocated to Memphis, United States, were renamed as the Memphis Grizzlies.
The Grizzlies played their home games at General Motors Place for the entirety of their six seasons in Vancouver. The Vancouver Grizzlies applied to the NBA to relocate to Memphis on March 26, 2001, granted on July 3; as a result, the Grizzlies became the first major professional sports team from the "big four" major leagues to permanently play its home games in Memphis, as well as leaving the Toronto Raptors to be the only Canadian basketball team in the NBA. Memphis became the easternmost city in the Western Conference. In their first three seasons in Memphis, the Grizzlies played their home games at the Pyramid Arena. In the 2001 NBA draft, the Atlanta Hawks chose Pau Gasol as the third overall pick, traded to the Grizzlies. Forward Shane Battier was selected with the sixth pick in the same draft by the Vancouver Grizzlies, they acquired Jason Williams from the Sacramento Kings in exchange for Mike Bibby that same year. After the Grizzlies' first season in Memphis, Gasol won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award.
However, despite the strong draft class, general manager Billy Knight was let go. After Knight's departure and the season, the team hired former Los Angeles Laker and Hall of Famer Jerry West as general manager in 2002, who received the 2003–04 NBA Executive of the Year Award. After West's arrival the team was changed a great deal from Knight's team, with the removal of Sidney Lowe as head coach after 0–8 start to the season and a great deal of player movement, with players such as Mike Miller and James Posey becoming vital to the team's success. During the 2002–03 season, Hubie Brown was hired to coach the Grizzlies. Brown won the NBA Coach of the Year Award during the next season when the Grizzlies made the NBA playoffs for the first time in team history in 2004 as the sixth seed in the Western Conference in a drastic change from being perennially one of the worst teams in the NBA, they won a record 50 games under Gasol and Williams. In the playoffs they faced the San Antonio Spurs. Brown stepped down as head coach during the 2004–05 season.
At the time of his resignation, the Grizzlies had a losing record but West hired TNT analyst and former coach Mike Fratello to replace Brown. The Grizzlies' record improved and the team advanced to the postseason for the second consecutive season. However, the Grizzlies were swept out in the first round again, this time by the Phoenix Suns. After the season, which ended with anger between Fratello and many of the players, namely Bonzi Wells and Jason Williams, the team had an active 2005 off-season in which they revamped the team and added veterans. While the Grizzlies lost Wells, Stromile Swift, James Posey, they acquired Damon Stoudamire, Bobby Jackson, Hakim Warrick, Eddie Jones, they made the playoffs for the third consecutive year as well. With their record they had the fifth seed in the Western Conference playoffs and would face the Dallas Mavericks, who swept the Grizzlies in four games. Following the 2006 NBA draft, Jerry West traded Shane Battier to the Houston Rockets for their first round pick Rudy Gay and Stromile Swift.
Before the 2006–07 season, they suffered a blow when Gasol broke his left foot while playing for Spain in the World Championships. The Grizzlies started the season 5–17 without Gasol, went 1–7 while he was limited to about 25 minutes per game. At that point, Fratello was replaced by Tony Barone, Sr. as interim coach. Barone was the team's player personnel director and had never coached an NBA game though he had coached at the collegiate level for both Creighton and Texas A&M being named coach of the year in their conferences three times during his tenure; the Grizzlies finished the 2006–07 season with a league-worst 22–60 record, Jerry West announced his resignation from his position as the team's general manager shortly after the end of the regular season. The team hired Marc Iavaroni, with the Phoenix Suns as an assistant coach, to be the team's new head coach. Despite the last-place finish, the Grizzlies, who held the best chance of landing the first pick, ended up with the fourth pick in the 2007 NBA draft, with which the Grizzlies selected Mike Conley, Jr.
On June 18, 2007, the Grizzlies named former Boston Celtics general manager Chris Wallace as the team's general manager and vice president of basketball operations, replacing the retired West. A few days they hired former Philadelphia 76ers and Orlando Magic head coach Johnny Davis, longtime NBA assistant coach Gordon Chiesa, the head coach of the 2007 NBA Development League champion Dakota Wizards, David Joerger, as the team's new assistant coaches. Gene Bartow was named the Grizzlies' president of basketb
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain