Immunity (Jon Hopkins album)
Immunity is the fourth studio album by English musician and producer Jon Hopkins. The electronic album was released on 3 June 2013 by Domino Records to critical acclaim and was nominated for the 2013 Mercury Prize for best album; the album peaked at #67 on the UK Albums Chart and at #12 on the Official Charts Company's Dance Albums Chart. It peaked at #13 on Billboard's Top Electronic Albums. Stated MixMag, "Immunity is an album of organic techno and exquisite mini-symphonies." Among the artists that contributed vocals were long-time collaborator King Creosote, Corin Roddick and Megan James of the band Purity Ring. It was recorded and produced in Hopkins's London studio, with Hopkins using homemade sound effects or the natural sound of the room. On 6 March 2013, Hopkins announced that his fourth solo album Immunity would be released by Domino Records on 3 June in the UK, 4 June in the US. A trailer for the album featuring a snippet of the track "Collider" from the album was made available through YouTube.
The first single "Open Eye Signal" was uploaded on Pitchfork's YouTube channel on 24 April 2013. The hour-long Immunity was released on 3 June 2013 by Domino Recording Company in London, on vinyl, CD, digitally, it peaked at #13 on Top Electronic Albums by Billboard in the United States. In Britain, it was nominated for the 2013 Mercury Prize for best album; the album met with a positive reception, receiving perfect scores from Mixmag and MusicOMH, 4/5 from The Observer. By 2013 it had a cumulative score of 82/100 on Metacritic indicating universal acclaim. Stated MixMag, "Immunity is an album of organic techno and exquisite mini-symphonies." Several reviews focused on the cohesiveness of the tracks. Stated The Guardian, the album "lasts an hour but feels much longer; this isn't a criticism: in eight vivid, atmospheric tracks, Immunity captures the feel of an epic night out. Hopkins's beats shuffle and trip but there is a great clarity of focus throughout, a delicate beauty." Stated MusicOMH, "It is that rarest of things in 2013, an album which demands to be listened to as a whole and indeed functions best as an hour-long work of art."Most reviews praised the emotional and introspective nature of the album.
Stated XLR8R, there is a "Brian Eno-esque atmosphere that appears throughout Immunity, a kind of angelic presence touching every track and making Hopkins' more brooding efforts introspective in a powerful way." MusicOMH called it "an intelligent and human album" and a "modern classic."AllMusic gave it a positive review, stating "Some of Immunity's most impressive moments expand on the blend of rhythm and atmosphere Hopkins emphasized on Insides...the album still reflects how Hopkins' polished approach is something of a blessing and a curse. Immunity shows how he's grown, in his subtle, accomplished way...yet its tracks feel like the surroundings for a focal point that never arrives." In contrast, Pitchfork described Immunity as a "remarkably visceral, confident electronic record that stays absorbing from beginning to end." Jon Hopkins – composition, primary artist Sarah Jones – drums Emma Smith – vocals, violin Lisa Elle – vocals Vince Sipprell – vocals King Creosote – vocals Megan James – vocals Corin Roddick – engineering Cherif Hashizume – engineering Rik Simpson – mixing Guy Davie – mastering Linden Gledhill – artwork Craig Ward – artwork Immunity on Billboard
Immunity is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of immunology published by Cell Press. The journal was established in December 1994, is edited by Peter T. Lee; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 19.734, ranking it third out of 148 journals in the category "Immunology". Official website
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, autoimmune diseases. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both nonspecific components; the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain adaptive components; the innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self-substances and don't react; the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire.
The non-reaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise what is self is not spared. Innate immunity called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution, its genetic make-up, without an external stimulation or a previous infection, it is divided into two types: Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only; as a result, some races, particular individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases. Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in'naturally acquired' through chance contact with a disease-causing agent, whereas'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination.
Both and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong.'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Adaptive immunity can be divided by the type of immune mediators involved. Humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its antibodies, passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Cell-mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ T-cells are stimulated, passive when T cells come from another organism; the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for "bad deeds" or "evil thoughts" visited upon the soul by the gods or by one's enemies. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors.
Popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease; the modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"; the term "immunes", is found in the epic poem "Pharsalia" written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe's resistance to snake venom.
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity; the first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882. With Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections; the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous snakes. According to Jean de Male
Electromagnetic interference called radio-frequency interference when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction. The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data. Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: ignition systems, cellular network of mobile phones, solar flares, auroras. EMI affects AM radios, it can affect mobile phones, FM radios, televisions, as well as observations for radio astronomy. EMI can be used intentionally for radio jamming, as in electronic warfare. Since the earliest days of radio communications, the negative effects of interference from both intentional and unintentional transmissions have been felt and the need to manage the radio frequency spectrum became apparent.
In 1933, a meeting of the International Electrotechnical Commission in Paris recommended the International Special Committee on Radio Interference be set up to deal with the emerging problem of EMI. CISPR subsequently produced technical publications covering measurement and test techniques and recommended emission and immunity limits; these have form the basis of much of the world's EMC regulations today. In 1979, legal limits were imposed on electromagnetic emissions from all digital equipment by the FCC in the USA in response to the increased number of digital systems that were interfering with wired and radio communications. Test methods and limits were based on CISPR publications, although similar limits were enforced in parts of Europe. In the mid 1980s, the European Union member states adopted a number of "new approach" directives with the intention of standardizing technical requirements for products so that they do not become a barrier to trade within the EC. One of these was the EMC Directive and it applies to all equipment placed on the market or taken into service.
Its scope covers all apparatus "liable to cause electromagnetic disturbance or the performance of, liable to be affected by such disturbance". This was the first time there was a legal requirement on immunity, as well as emissions on apparatus intended for the general population, and although there may be additional costs involved for some products to give them a known level of immunity, it increases their perceived quality as they are able to co-exist with apparatus in the active EM environment of modern times and with fewer problems. Many countries now have similar requirements for products to meet some level of Electromagnetic Compatibility regulation. Electromagnetic interference can be categorized as follows: Narrowband EMI or RFI interference emanates from intended transmissions, such as radio and TV stations or mobile phones. Broadband EMI or RFI interference is unintentional radiation from sources such as electric power transmission lines. Conducted electromagnetic interference is caused by the physical contact of the conductors as opposed to radiated EMI, caused by induction.
Electromagnetic disturbances in the EM field of a conductor will no longer be confined to the surface of the conductor and will radiate away from it. This persists in all conductors and mutual inductance between two radiated electromagnetic fields will result in EMI. Interference with the meaning of electromagnetic interference radio-frequency interference is – according to Article 1.166 of the International Telecommunication Union's Radio Regulations – defined as «The effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation, or loss of information which could be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy». This is a definition used by the frequency administration to provide frequency assignments and assignment of frequency channels to radio stations or systems, as well as to analyze electromagnetic compatibility between radiocommunication services.
In accordance with ITU RR variations of interference are classified as follows: Permissible interference Acceptable interference Harmful interference Conducted EMI is caused by the physical contact of the conductors as opposed to radiated EMI, caused by induction. For lower frequencies, EMI is caused by conduction and, for higher frequencies, by radiation. EMI through the ground wire is very common in an electrical facility. Interference tends to be more troublesome with older radio technologies such as analogue amplitude modulation, which have no way of distinguishing unwanted in-band signals from the intended signal, the omnidirectional antennas used with broadcast systems. Newer radio systems incorporate several improvements. In digital radio systems, such as Wi-Fi, error-correction techniques can be used. Spread-spectrum and frequency-hopping techniques can be used with both analogue and digital signalling to improve resistance to interference. A directional receiver, such as a parabolic antenna or a diversity receiver, can be used to select one signal in space to the exclusion of others.
The most extreme example of digital spread-spectrum signalling to date is ultra-wideband, which proposes the use of large sections of the radio spectrum at low amplitudes to transmit high-bandwidth digital data. UWB, if used exclusive
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
Immunity from prosecution (international law)
Immunity from prosecution is a doctrine of international law that allows an accused to avoid prosecution for criminal offences. Immunities are of two types; the first is functional immunity ratione materiae. This is an immunity granted to people; the second is immunity ratione personae. This is an immunity granted to certain officials because of the office they hold, rather than in relation to the act they have committed. Functional immunity arises from customary international law and treaty law and confers immunities on those performing acts of state. Any person who, in performing an act of state, commits a criminal offence is immune from prosecution; that is so after the person ceases to perform acts of state. Thus, it is a type of immunity limited in the acts to which it attaches but ends only if the state itself ceases to exist; the immunity, though applied to the acts of individuals, is an attribute of a state, it is based on the mutual respect of states for sovereign equality and state dignity.
States thus have a significant interest in upholding the principle in international affairs: if a state's officials are to be tried at all for anything, it will be at home. State offices recognised as automatically attracting the immunity are the head of state or the head of government, senior cabinet members and the foreign and defence ministers. Many countries have embodied the immunities in domestic law. States assert that every official acting in an official capacity is immune from prosecution by foreign authorities under the doctrine of ratione materiae; such officers are immune from prosecution for everything. For example, an English court held that a warrant could not be issued for the arrest of Robert Mugabe on charges of international crimes on the basis that he was serving as head of state at the time that the proceedings were brought. Other examples are the attempts to prosecute Fidel Castro in Spain and Jiang Zemin in the US. However, once the accused leave their offices, they are liable to be prosecuted for crimes committed before or after their term in office or for crimes committed whilst in office in a personal capacity.
It may be the case. Recent developments in international law suggest that ratione materiae may remain available as a defence to prosecution for local or domestic crimes or civil liability, but it is not a defence to an international crime; the indictment in 1998 in Spain and subsequent arrest in the UK of Chile's Pinochet was a landmark decision by European judges and the House of Lords, which set aside functional as well as local immunities, by ruling that the crimes Pinochet was accused of fell within the scope of the United Nations Convention against Torture, being international crimes so heinous that they are: subject to universal jurisdiction. The principle of depriving immunity for international crimes was developed further in the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Karadzic and Furundzija cases; this was the agreed position as between the parties in their pleadings in the International Court of Justice Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000.
In 2004 the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone held that indicted Liberian president Charles Taylor could not invoke his Head of State immunity to resist the charges against him though he was an incumbent Head of State at the time of his indictment. However, this reasoning was based on the construction of the court's constituent statute, that dealt with the matter of indicting state officials. In any case, Taylor had ceased to be an incumbent Head of State by the time of the court's decision so the arresting authorities would have been free to issue a fresh warrant had the initial warrant been overturned; this decision may signal a changing direction in international law on this issue. It is worth noting that the decisions of the Spanish and UK courts in relation to Pinochet were based directly on existing domestic law, enacted to embody the obligations of the treaty. Although a state party to the treaty, Chile itself had not enacted such laws, which define the specified international crimes as crimes falling within the domestic criminal code and making them subject to universal jurisdiction, thus Chile could only prosecute on the basis of its existing criminal code - murder, assault etc. but not genocide or torture.
The reasons given for why this immunity is not available as a defence to international crimes is straight forward: that genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity are not acts of state. Criminal acts of the type in question are committed by human actors, not states. However, the final judgment of the ICJ regard
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled. Modern diplomatic immunity was codified as international law in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, ratified by all but a handful of nations; the concept and custom of diplomatic immunity dates back thousands of years. Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. Diplomatic immunity was developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties and armed conflict; when receiving diplomats, who formally represent the sovereign, the receiving head of state grants certain privileges and immunities to ensure they may carry out their duties, on the understanding that these are provided on a reciprocal basis. These privileges and immunities were granted on a bilateral, ad hoc basis, which led to misunderstandings and conflict, pressure on weaker states, an inability for other states to judge which party was at fault.
An international agreement known as the Vienna Convention codified the rules and agreements, providing standards and privileges to all states. It is possible for the official's home country to waive immunity. However, many countries refuse to waive immunity as a matter of course. Alternatively, the home country may prosecute the individual. If immunity is waived by a government so that a diplomat can be prosecuted, it must be because there is a case to answer and it is in the public interest to prosecute them. For instance, in 2002, a Colombian diplomat in London was prosecuted for manslaughter, once diplomatic immunity was waived by the Colombian government; the concept of diplomatic immunity can be found in ancient Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, where messengers and diplomats were given immunity from capital punishment. In Ramayana, when the demon king Ravana ordered the killing of Hanuman, Ravana's younger brother Vibhishana pointed out that messengers or diplomats should not be killed, as per ancient practices.
During the evolution of international justice, many wars were considered rebellions or unlawful by one or more combatant sides. In such cases, the servants of the "criminal" sovereign were considered accomplices and their persons violated. In other circumstances, harbingers of inconsiderable demands were killed as a declaration of war. Herodotus records that when heralds of the Persian king Xerxes demanded "earth and water" of Greek cities, the Athenians threw them into a pit and the Spartans threw them down a well for the purpose of suggesting they would find both earth and water at the bottom, these being mentioned by the messenger as a threat of siege; however for Herodotus, this maltreatment of envoys is a crime. He recounts a story of divine vengeance befalling Sparta for this deed. A Roman envoy was urinated on; the oath of the envoy, "This stain will be washed away with blood!", was fulfilled during the Second Punic War. The arrest and ill-treatment of the envoy of Raja Raja Chola by the king of Kulasekhara dynasty, now part of modern India, led to the naval Kandalur War in AD 994.
The Islamic prophet Muhammad sent and received envoys and forbade harming them. This practice was continued by the Rashidun caliphs who exchanged diplomats with the Ethiopians and the Byzantines; this diplomatic exchange continued during the Arab–Byzantine wars. Classical Sharia called for hospitality to be shown towards anyone, granted amān. Amān was granted to any emissary bearing a letter or another sealed document; the duration of the amān was a year. Envoys with this right of passage were given immunity of property, they were exempt from taxation. As diplomats by definition enter the country under safe-conduct, violating them is viewed as a great breach of honor, although there have been numerous cases in which diplomats have been killed. Genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for insisting on the rights of diplomats, they would take terrifying vengeance against any state that violated these rights; the Mongols would raze entire cities in retaliation for the execution of their ambassadors, invaded and destroyed the Khwarezmid Empire after their ambassadors had been mistreated.
The British Parliament first guaranteed diplomatic immunity to foreign ambassadors in 1709, after Count Andrey Matveyev, a Russian resident in London, had been subjected to verbal and physical abuse by British bailiffs. Modern diplomatic immunity evolved parallel to the development of modern diplomacy. In the 17th century, European diplomats realized that protection from prosecution was essential to doing their jobs, a set of rules evolved guaranteeing the rights of diplomats; these were still confined to Western Europe and were tied to the prerogatives of nobility. Thus, an emissary to the Ottoman Empire could expect to be arrested and imprisoned upon the outbreak of hostilities between his state and the empire; the French Revolution disrupted this system, as the revolutionary state and Napoleon imprisoned numerous dip