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Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry are methods used to determine in which cells or parts of cells a particular protein or other macromolecule are located; these stains use antibodies to bind to specific antigens of protein or glycoprotein origin. Since antibodies are invisible, special strategies must be employed to detect these bound antibodies. In an immunoperoxidase procedure, an enzyme known as a peroxidase is used to catalyze a chemical reaction to produce a coloured product. A thin slice of tissue is fixed onto glass, incubated with antibody or a series of antibodies, the last of, chemically linked to peroxidase. After developing the stain by adding the chemical substrate, the distribution of the stain can be examined by microscopy.

All antibodies produced for immunostaining were polyclonal, i.e. raised by normal antibody reactions in animals such as horses or rabbits. Now, many are monoclonal, i.e. produced in tissue culture. Monoclonal antibodies that consist of only one type of antibody tend to provide greater antigen specificity, tend to be more consistent between batches; the first step in immunoperoxidase staining is the binding of the specific antibody to the cell or tissue sample. The detection of the primary antibody can be accomplished directly or indirectly. Example 1; the primary antibody can be directly tagged with the enzyme peroxidase, used to catalyse a chemical reaction to generate a coloured product. Example 2; the primary antibody can be tagged with a small molecule that can be recognised by a peroxidase-conjugated binding molecule with high affinity. The most common example of this is a biotin linked primary antibody that binds to an enzyme-bound streptavidin; this method can be used to amplify the signal.

Example 3. An untagged primary antibody is detected using a general secondary antibody that recognises all antibodies originating from same animal species as the primary; the secondary antibody is tagged with peroxidase. Optimal staining depends on a number of factors including the antibody dilution, the staining chemicals, the preparation and/or fixation of the cells/tissue, length of incubation with antibody/staining reagents; these are determined by trial and error rather than any sort of systematic approach. Other catalytic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase can be used instead of peroxidases for both direct and indirect staining methods. Alternatively, the primary antibody can be detected using fluorescent label, or be attached to colloidal gold particles for electron microscopy. Immunoperoxidase staining is used in laboratory research. In clinical diagnostics, immunostaining can be used on tissue biopsies for more detailed histopathological study. In the case of cancer, it can aid in sub-classifying tumours.

Immunostaining can be used to help diagnose skin conditions, glomerulonephritis and to sub classify amyloid deposits. Related techniques are useful in sub-typing lymphocytes which all look quite similar on light microscopy. In laboratory research, antibodies against specific markers of cellular differentiation can be used to label individual cell types; this can enable a better understanding of mechanistic changes to specific cell lineages resulting from a particular experimental intervention. Indirect immunoperoxidase assay Immunohistochemistry Protocols and Troubleshooting

80a Squadriglia

80a Squadriglia was an Italian fighter squadron founded in 1917 to serve in support of the Battles of the Isonzo in northern Italy. By war's end, it had been credited with 21 aerial victories without suffering any of its own personnel casualties. 80a Squadriglia of the Corpo Aeronautico Militare was founded in February 1917 at the Arcade, Italy Central Flying School. It was assigned to 1o Gruppo on 28 February, with a strength of five aircraft. By 10 March 1917, it had bulked up to ten Nieuport 11s on strength. On 15 March 1917, it flew its first combat sorties; the squadron's first combat victory was scored on 24 April 1917. Six days it began six months of operations from a base at Aiello del Friuli, it would be dislodged from there as a result of the Battle of Caporetto. On 27 October 1917, the squadron set fire to five aircraft it was forced to abandon, evacuated to La Comina, it would settle into Marcon on 10 November 1917. The squadron would upgrade to Hanriot HD.1s in 1918. They would fight on until war's end.

Their wartime record tallied 4,637 combat sorties, 167 aerial battles, 21 accredited victories. They suffered no casualties. Capitano Mario Gordesco: February 1917 - promoted out ca. 1 November 1917 Capitano Raoul Da Barberino: ca. 1 November 1917 - ca. 7 November 1917 Tenente Guido Sambonet: ca. 7 November 1917 Tenente Georgio Zoli: 6 February 1917 - 30 April 1917 Capitano Umberto Gelmeti: 30 April 1917 - 7 June 1917 Capitano Achille Pierro: 7 June 1917 through war's end Arcade Central Flying School: February 1917 Santa Maria la Longa: ca. 28 February 1917 Aiello: 30 April 1918 La Comina: 27 October 1917 Arcade: 1 November 1917 Marcon: 10 November 1917 Alvaro Leonardi scored all eight of his victories with the squadron. Other aces who served in the squadron and scored victories included Michele Allasia, Giovanni Ancillotto, Ernesto Cabruna; the actual colors of the squadron markings depended on an aircraft's basic color. However, the squadron insignia was a red star superimposed on a white circle within a black border.

Nieuport 11 Hanriot Franks, Norman. Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, the Belgian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918: Volume 4 of Fighting Airmen of WWI Series: Volume 4 of Air Aces of WWI. Grub Street, 1997. ISBN 1-898697-56-6, ISBN 978-1-898697-56-5

Robert John Stewart

Robert John "R J" Stewart is a Scottish-born composer and teacher. He has written over 40 books on Ceremonial magic and Celtic mythology, his books include a series on the faery traditions. From 1980 to 1988, Stewart wrote two books about Merlin and exploring medieval texts on the topic, he created the Merlin Tarot, comprising a book and a deck of cards depicting scenes from ancient Merlin texts. This deck and book have been translated into Japanese, French and German. From 1988 to the present, R J Stewart has taught workshops and classes on Celtic and Classical mythological traditions and consciousness. In 1993, he co-wrote Celtic Bards, Celtic Druids, with harper and storyteller Robin Williamson, founder of The Incredible String Band. R J Stewart is one of the few people teaching the Faery Tradition which he has explored in the books: Living World of Faery, Power within the Land and the Well of Light; this book has great relevance for the important practice of "Earth Healing" which has great relevance in our modern-day crisis.

As folk musician “Bob Stewart”, he made famous a folk instrument of his own design referred to on his albums as a ‘concert psaltery’. The instrument is similar to a zither, has groups of strings laid out left to right, in triad chord groups rather than as chromatic scales. Although this can make the instrument difficult to play at speed, complex chord progressions can be interwoven around a basic melody. Bob Stewart – The Raggle Taggle Gypsies O The Journey to the Underworld The Unique Sound of the Psaltery Advanced Magical Arts Calling in the Elements The Way of Merlin The Miracle Tree Living Magical Arts Advanced Magical Arts The Underworld Initiation The Living World of Faery Power within the Land Earth Light The Spiritual Dimensions of Music Celebrating the Male Mysteries Celtic Gods, Celtic Goddesses Walker Between Worlds Stewart's website Dreampower biography biographical page at Stewart's second website


Killenaule is a small town and a civil parish in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is one half of the ecclesiastical parish of Killenaule and Moyglass in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly, it is in the barony of Slievardagh. It is located 19 km east of Cashel on the R691 regional roads, it lies at the south-western edge of the Slieveardagh Hills. Killenaule came to national prominence in Ireland due to the discovery of the Derrynaflan Chalice, it was discovered in Derrynaflan Island in February 1980 by his son. They were scanning the area with a metal detector a new device on the market; the chalice was part of the Derrynaflan Hoard, consisting of an 8th-century chalice, a strainer or ladle and a paten. They were enclosed in a bronze basin buried 45 cm below ground and found about 20 metres from a church ruin. Tourists and students of history visit Derrynaflan Island, situated 6 km northwest of Killenaule; the population of the town decreased by 16.5% between 2002 and 2006. It increased between 2006 and 2016.

Killenaule GAA List of towns and villages in Ireland Parish website

Renato Abibico

Renato Mag-Gay Abibico is a Filipino Episcopal bishop. He has been Prime Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines since his enthronement on 20 November 2014, he is married and a father of five children. Abibico studied at St. Joseph School, in Sabangan, at San Alfonso High School, in Quezon City, from 1963 to 1967, he continued his studies at Trinity College, at the same city, from 1967 to 1969, where he became an associate in arts. Abibico entered religious life, studying at SATS, from 1969 to 1974, where he earned a bachelors in theology, he earned a masters in 1988. He was ordained to the Episcopal diaconate on 27 December 1974 and to the priesthood on 29 June 1975, he did a masters of theology and development at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1992 and 199393. Abibico held several religious offices until being nominated Administrative Officer and Development Officer at the Northern Luzon Diocese, in 1986, he would be in charge of both offices until 1997. Abibico was consecrated bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Northern Luzon at the Cathedral of Holy Trinity in Bulanao, Tabuk City, on 11 April 1997.

He was elected Prime Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines at the second session of the second day of the 9th Regular Synod, on 25 August 2014. His enthronement took place on 20 November 2014

Ragged & Dirty (song)

"Ragged & Dirty" is an old southern blues song popular in Memphis and other cities of Tennessee and Mississippi. The song was recorded and improvised by many southern blues artists in the 1920s, 1930s and is still covered by many new young blues musicians; this song has many versions, the first version of the song was recorded by Blind Lemon Jefferson as "Broke & Hungry" The song became one of the famous delta blues songs it is covered by many artists, including Sleepy John Estes which appears in his 1964 album "Broke And Hungry Ragged And Dirty, Too" released by 77 Records. Bob Dylan covered this song in his album "World Gone Wrong" in 1993. A popular version of this song was played by Delta Blues musician Willie Brown and was recorded by Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1942. After many years Lomax wrote in his book "Land Where The Blues Began" about the time when Willie Brown sang Ragged & Dirty, "William Brown began to sing in his sweet, true country voice, poking in delicate guitar passages at every pause, like the guitar was a second voice...".

This was a different Willie Brown to the one that had recorded with several notable blues musicians, including Son House and Charlie Patton. The Willie Brown version's is on open D tuning played on acoustic guitar and the only recording of Willie Brown's version was done in 1942 by Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress. According to Lomax, Brown played the song on his request, Brown had commented, "Well, I ain't got no voice, but I'll give you the words of an old Memphis song." The song's first verse of the song is extracted from Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Broke & Hungry" and there is a possibility that the remaining verses in the song might have been extracted from older Delta folk songs. In 1964, 77 Records released Sleepy John Estes' album "Broke & Hungry, Ragged & Dirty too"; the song "Ragged & Dirty" appears in the album. Sleepy John Estes' version is a little different than Willie Brown's version and Blind Lemon's version. However, the song might have been recorded back in September 1929 in Memphis, Tennessee with the Three J's Jug Band.

This version was recorded in March 1964, in Chicago, Illinois. Sleepy John Estes on vocals and guitar. Yank Rachell on mandolin,Hammie Nixon on harmonicaMike Bloomfield on guitar The first verse of the line is the same as of Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Broke & Hungry"; the next three verses is similar to what Willie Brown had played in 1942 and the next two verses are different than previous versions of this song. Bob Dylan recorded "Dirty" in 1993 for his album World Gone Wrong. Bob Dylan's version was influenced by Willie Brown's version. Although the two versions of the song had differences in lyrics. Dylan covered the song in acoustic guitar playing in the same style like that of Willie Brown. But, Dylan's version differed in lyrics except for the 1st verse