Omniscience is the capacity to know everything. In monotheistic religions, such as Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions, this is an attribute of God. In some other religions that do not include a supreme deity, such as Buddhism and Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can attain. In Islam, Allah is attributed with absolute omniscience, he knows the present and the future. It is compulsory for a Muslim to believe that Allah is indeed omniscient as stated in one of the six articles of faith which is: To believe that Allah’s divine decree and predestination“Say: Do you instruct Allah about your religion? But Allah knows all, in the heavens and on the earth; the topic of omniscience has been much debated in various Indian traditions, but no more so than by the Buddhists. After Dharmakirti's excursions into the subject of what constitutes a valid cognition, Śāntarakṣita and his student Kamalaśīla investigated the subject in the Tattvasamgraha and its commentary the Panjika; the arguments in the text can be broadly grouped into four sections: The refutation that cognitions, either perceived, inferred, or otherwise, can be used to refute omniscience.
A demonstration of the possibility of omniscience through apprehending the selfless universal nature of all knowables, by examining what it means to be ignorant and the nature of mind and awareness. A demonstration of the total omniscience where all individual characteristics are available to the omniscient being; the specific demonstration of Shakyamuni Buddha's non-exclusive omniscience. Some modern Christian theologians argue that God's omniscience is inherent rather than total, that God chooses to limit his omniscience in order to preserve the freewill and dignity of his creatures. John Calvin, among other theologians of the 16th century, comfortable with the definition of God as being omniscient in the total sense, in order for worthy beings' abilities to choose embraced the doctrine of predestination. In Jainism, omniscience is considered the highest type of perception. In the words of a Jain scholar, "The perfect manifestation of the innate nature of the self, arising on the complete annihilation of the obstructive veils, is called omniscience."Jainism views infinite knowledge as an inherent capability of every soul.
Arihanta is the word used by Jains to refer to those human beings who have conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Jnana. They are said to be of two kinds: Sāmānya kevali – omniscient beings who are concerned with their own liberation. Tirthankara kevali – human beings who attain omniscience and help others to achieve the same. Whether omniscience regarding the choices that a human will make, is compatible with free will has been debated by theologians and philosophers; the argument that divine foreknowledge is not compatible with free will is known as theological fatalism. It is argued that if humans are free to choose between alternatives, God could not know what this choice will be. A question arises: if an omniscient entity knows everything about its own decisions in the future, does it therefore forbid any free will to that entity? William Lane Craig states that the question subdivides into two: If God foreknows the occurrence of some event E, does E happen necessarily? If some event E is contingent, how can God foreknow E’s occurrence?
However, this kind of argument fails to recognize its use of the modal fallacy. It is possible to show; some philosophers, such as Patrick Grim, Linda Zagzebski, Stephan Torre and William Mander have discussed the issue of whether the apparent first-person nature of conscious experience is compatible with God's omniscience. There is a strong sense in which conscious experience is private, meaning that no outside observer can gain knowledge of what it is like to be me as me. If a subject cannot know what it is like to be another subject in an objective manner, the question is whether that limitation applies to God as well. If it does God cannot be said to be omniscient since there is a form of knowledge that God lacks access to; the philosopher Patrick Grim most notably raised this issue. Linda Zagzebski tried to avoid it by introducing the notion of perfect empathy, a proposed relation that God can have to subjects that would allow God to have perfect knowledge of their conscious experience. William Mander argued that God can only have such knowledge if our experiences are part of God's broader experience.
Stephan Torre claimed that God can have such knowledge if self-knowledge involves the ascription of properties, either to oneself or to others. Patrick Grim saw this line of reasoning as a motivation for accepting atheism. Epistemology Omnibenevolence Omniscient point-of-view, in writing, is to know everything that can be known about a character. Omnipotence Omnipresence Pantomath Sangave, Vilas Adinath, Aspects of Jaina religion, Bharatiya Jnanpith, ISBN 978-81-263-0626-8 Mehta, Mohan Lal, Outlines of Jaina Philosophy, Jain Mission Society Wierenga, Edward. "Omniscience". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Omniscience and Divine Foreknowledge article in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Is God All-Knowing
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to: help them better understand Christian tenets make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions defend Christianity against objections and criticism facilitate reforms in the Christian church assist in the propagation of Christianity draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or perceived needChristian theology has permeated much of Western culture in pre-modern Europe. Systematic theology as a discipline of Christian theology formulates an orderly and coherent account of Christian faith and beliefs. Systematic theology draws on the foundational sacred texts of Christianity, while investigating the development of Christian doctrine over the course of history through philosophical evolution.
Inherent to a system of theological thought is the development of a method: one which one can apply both broadly and particularly. Christian systematic theology will explore: God the attributes of God the Trinity as espoused by trinitarian Christians revelation biblical hermeneutics - the interpretation of Biblical texts the creation divine providence theodicy - accounting for a benign God's tolerance of evil philosophy hamartiology - the study of sin Christology - the study of the nature and person of Christ pneumatology - the study of the Holy Spirit soteriology - the study of salvation ecclesiology - the study of the Christian church missiology - the study of the Christian message and of missions spirituality and mysticism sacramental theology eschatology - the ultimate destiny of humankind moral theology Christian anthropology the afterlife Revelation is the revealing or disclosing, or making something obvious through active or passive communication with God, can originate directly from God, or through an agent, such as an angel.
One who has experienced such contact is called a prophet. Christianity considers the Bible as supernaturally revealed or inspired; such revelation does not always require the presence of an angel. For instance, in the concept called of interior locution by Catholics, supernatural revelation can include just an inner voice heard by the recipient. Thomas Aquinas first described in two types of revelation in Christianity as general revelation and special revelation. General revelation occurs through observation of the created order; such observations can logically lead to important conclusions, such as the existence of God and some of God's attributes. General revelation is an element of Christian apologetics. Certain specifics, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings in the Scriptures and can not otherwise be deduced except by special revelation; the Bible contains many passages in which the authors claim divine inspiration for their message or report the effects of such inspiration on others.
Besides the direct accounts of written revelation, such as Moses receiving the Ten Commandments, the Prophets of the Old Testament claimed that their message was of divine origin by prefacing the revelation using the following phrase: "Thus says the LORD". The Second Epistle of Peter claims that "no prophecy of Scripture... was produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit". The Second Epistle of Peter implies that Paul's writings are inspired. Many Christians cite a verse in Paul's letter to Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:16-17, as evidence that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, is profitable..." Here St. Paul is referring to the Old Testament, since the scriptures have been known by Timothy from "infancy". Others offer an alternative reading for the passage. A similar translation appears in the New English Bible, in the Revised English Bible, in the New Revised Standard Version; the Latin Vulgate can be so read. Yet others defend the "traditional" interpretation.
Christianity regards the collections of books known as the Bible as authoritative and written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians believe that the Bible is infallible. In addition, for some Christians, it may be inferred that the Bible cannot both refer to itself as being divinely inspired and be errant or fallible. For if the Bible were divinely inspired the source of inspiration being divine, would not be subject to fallibility or error in that, produced. For them, the doctrines of the divine inspiration and inerrancy, are inseparably tied together; the idea of biblical integrity is a further concept of infallibility, by suggesting that current biblical text is complete and without error, that the integrity of biblical text has never been corrupted or degraded. Historians note, or claim
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action. Many cultures have a story about how a deity exacted punishment upon previous inhabitants of their land, causing their doom. An example of divine retribution is the story found in many cultures about a great flood destroying all of humanity, as described in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Hindu Vedas, or Book of Genesis, leaving one principal'chosen' survivor. In the first example, it is Utnapishtim, in the last example Noah. References in the Quran to a man named Nuh, commanded by God to build an ark suggest that one man and his followers were saved in a great flood. Other examples in Hebrew religious literature include the dispersion of the builders of the Tower of Babel, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the Ten Plagues visited upon the ancient Egyptians for persecuting the children of Israel. In Greek mythology, the goddess Hera became enraged when her husband, would impregnate mortal women, would exact divine retribution on the children born of such affairs.
In some versions of the myth, Medusa was turned into her monstrous form as divine retribution for her vanity. The Bible refers to divine retribution as, in most cases, being delayed or "treasured up" to a future time. Sight of God's supernatural works and retribution would militate against faith in God's Word. William Lane Craig says, in Paul’s view, God’s properties, his eternal power and deity, are revealed in creation, so that people who fail to believe in an eternal, powerful creator of the world are without excuse. Indeed, Paul says that they do know that God exists, but they suppress this truth because of their unrighteousness; some religions or philosophical positions have no concept of divine retribution, nor posit a God being capable of or willing to express such human sentiments as jealousy, vengeance, or wrath. For example, in Deism and Pandeism, the creator does not intervene in our Universe at all, either for good or for ill, therefore exhibits no such behavior. In Pantheism, God is the Universe and encompasses everything within it, so has no need for retribution, as all things against which retribution might be taken are within God.
This view is reflected in some pandeistic forms of Hinduism, as well. The concept of divine retribution is resolutely denied in Buddhism. Gautama Buddha did not endorse belief in a creator deity, refused to express any views on creation and stated that questions on the origin of the world are worthless; the non-adherence to the notion of an omnipotent creator deity or a prime mover is seen by many as a key distinction between Buddhism and other religions. But Buddhists do accept the existence of beings in higher realms, known as devas, but they, like humans, are said to be suffering in samsara, are not wiser than us; the Buddha is portrayed as a teacher of the gods, superior to them. Despite this, there are believed to be enlightened, but since there may be unenlightened devas, there may be godlike beings who engage in retributive acts, but if they do so they do so out of their own ignorance of a greater truth. Despite this nontheism, Buddhism fully accepts the theory of karma, which posts punishment-like effects, such as rebirths in realms of torment, as an invariable consequence of wrongful actions.
Unlike in most Abrahamic monotheistic religions, these effects are not eternal, though they can last for a long time. Theistic religions do not see such effects as "punishment" imposed by a higher authority, rather than natural consequences of wrongful action. Divine retribution is portrayed in the Torah or first five books of the Bible. Major examples of divine retribution in the Torah include: "The wrath of God", an anthropomorphic expression for the attitude which some believe God has towards sin, is mentioned many times in the Christian Bible. Leaving aside the references to divine wrath in the Old Testament, where it is used of God not only when punishing the wicked but when sending trials to the just, as in Job 14:13, it is mentioned in at least twenty verses of the New Testament. Examples are: John 3:36 --. Romans 1:18 – For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. Romans 5:9 – Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God.
Romans 12:19 – Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord." Ephesians 5:6 – Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. Revelation 6:17 – For the great day of his wrath has come, and, able to withstand? Revelation 14:19 – So the angel swung his sickle across the earth and gathered the grape harvest of the earth and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. Revelation 15:1 – Then I saw another sign in heaven and marvelous: seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them the wrath of God was finished. Revelation 19:15 –- From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, he will rule them with a rod of iron, he will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. The New Testament associates
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro
Monotheism is defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world. A broader definition of monotheism is the belief in one god. A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, both inclusive monotheism and pluriform monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity. Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, monolatrism, the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity; the term "monolatry" was first used by Julius Wellhausen. The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Bahá'í Faith, Balinese Hinduism, Cao Dai, Christianity, Eckankar, Hindu sects such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Judaism, Rastafari, Seicho no Ie, Tengrism, Tenrikyo and Zoroastrianism, elements of pre-monotheistic thought are found in early religions such as Atenism, ancient Chinese religion, Yahwism.
The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος meaning "single" and θεός meaning "god". The English term was first used by Henry More. Quasi-monotheistic claims of the existence of a universal deity date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten. A possible inclination towards monotheism emerged during the Vedic period in Iron-Age South Asia; the Rigveda exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman in the comparatively late tenth book, dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. in the Nasadiya sukta. Since the sixth century BCE, Zoroastrians have believed in the supremacy of one God above all: Ahura Mazda as the "Maker of All" and the first being before all others. Nonetheless, Zoroastrianism was not monotheistic because it venerated other yazatas alongside Ahura Mazda. Ancient Hindu theology, was monist, but was not monotheistic in worship because it still maintained the existence of many gods, who were envisioned as aspects of one supreme God, Brahman. Numerous ancient Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes of Colophon and Antisthenes believed in a similar polytheistic monism that came close to monotheism, but fell short.
Judaism was the first religion to conceive the notion of a personal monotheistic God within a monist context. The concept of ethical monotheism, which holds that morality stems from God alone and that its laws are unchanging, first occurred in Judaism, but is now a core tenet of most modern monotheistic religions, including Zoroastrianism, Islam and Bahá'í Faith. According to Jewish and Islamic tradition, monotheism was the original religion of humanity. Scholars of religion abandoned that view in the 19th century in favour of an evolutionary progression from animism via polytheism to monotheism, but by 1974 this theory was less held, a modified view similar to Lang's became more prominent. Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt had postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or "primitive monotheism" in the 1910s, it was objected that Judaism and Islam had grown up in opposition to polytheism as had Greek philosophical monotheism. More Karen Armstrong and other authors have returned to the idea of an evolutionary progression beginning with animism, which developed into polytheism, which developed into henotheism, which developed into monolatry, which developed into true monotheism.
While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions consider themselves to be monotheists, some in Judaism do not consider Christianity to be a pure form of monotheism, classifying it as Shituf. Islam does not recognize modern-day Christianity as monotheistic due to the Christian doctrine of Trinity, which Islam argues was not a part of the original monotheistic Christianity as preached by Jesus. Christians, on the other hand, argue that the doctrine of the Trinity is a valid expression of monotheism, citing that the Trinity does not consist of three separate deities, but rather the three persons, who exist consubstantially within a single Godhead. Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world, although some scholars have argued that the earliest Israelites were monolatristic rather than monotheistic. God in Judaism was monotheistic, an absolute one and incomparable being, the ultimate cause of all existence; the Babylonian Talmud references other, "foreign gods" as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and power.
One of the best-known statements of Rabbinical Judaism on monotheism is the Second of Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith: God, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species, nor one as in an object, made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object, infinitely divisible. Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity; some in Judaism and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of God in a manner which Judaism deems to be neither purely monotheistic nor polytheistic. During the 8th century BCE, the worship of YHWH in Israel was in competition with many other cults, described by the Yahwist faction collectively as Baals; the oldest books of th
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons". The three Persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature". In this context, a "nature" is. Sometimes differing views are referred to as nontrinitarian. Trinitarianism contrasts with positions such as Binitarianism and Monarchianism, of which Modalistic Monarchianism and Unitarianism are subsets. While the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, the New Testament possesses a "triadic" understanding of God and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas; the doctrine of the Trinity was first formulated among the early Christians and fathers of the Church as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions. The word trinity is derived from Latin trinitas, meaning "the number three, a triad, tri".
This abstract noun is formed from the adjective trinus, as the word unitas is the abstract noun formed from unus. The corresponding word in Greek is τριάς, meaning "a set of three" or "the number three"; the first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology was by Theophilus of Antioch in about the year 170. He wrote: In like manner the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity, of God, His Word, His wisdom, and the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, man. While the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, it was first formulated as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions; the New Testament possesses a "triadic" understanding of God and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas. The Ante-Nicene Fathers asserted Christ's deity and spoke of "Father and Holy Spirit" though their language is not that of the traditional doctrine as formalized in the fourth century.
Trinitarians view these as elements of the codified doctrine. An early Trinitarian formula appears towards the end of the first century, where Clement of Rome rhetorically asks in his epistle as to why corruption exists among some in the Christian community. Ignatius of Antioch provides early support for the Trinity around 110, exhorting obedience to "Christ, to the Father, to the Spirit"; the pseudonymous Ascension of Isaiah, written sometime between the end of the first century and the beginning of the third century, possesses a "proto-trinitarian" view, such as in its narrative of how the inhabitants of the sixth heaven sing praises to "the primal Father and his Beloved Christ, the Holy Spirit". Justin Martyr writes, "in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, of our Saviour Jesus Christ, of the Holy Spirit"; the first of the early church fathers to be recorded using the word "Trinity" was Theophilus of Antioch writing in the late 2nd century. He defines the Trinity as God, His Word and His Wisdom in the context of a discussion of the first three days of creation, following the early Christian practice of identifying the Holy Spirit as the Wisdom of God.
The first defense of the doctrine of the Trinity was in the early 3rd century by the early church father Tertullian. He explicitly defined the Trinity as Father and Holy Spirit and defended his theology against "Praxeas", though he noted that the majority of the believers in his day found issue with his doctrine. St. Justin and Clement of Alexandria used the Trinity in their doxologies and St. Basil in the evening lighting of lamps. Origen of Alexandria has been interpreted as Subordinationist, but some modern researchers have argued that Origen might have been anti-Subordinationist. Although there is much debate as to whether the beliefs of the Apostles were articulated and explained in the Trinitarian Creeds, or were corrupted and replaced with new beliefs, all scholars recognize that the Creeds themselves were created in reaction to disagreements over the nature of the Father and Holy Spirit; these controversies took some centuries to be resolved. Of these controversies, the most significant developments were articulated in the first four centuries by the Church Fathers in reaction to Adoptionism and Arianism.
Adoptionism was the belief that Jesus was an ordinary man, born of Joseph and Mary, who became the Christ and Son of God at his baptism. In 269, the Synods of Antioch condemned Paul of Samosata for his Adoptionist theology, condemned the term homoousios in the modalist sense in which he used it. Among the Non-Trinitarian beliefs, the Sabellianism taught that the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit are one and the same, the difference being verbal, describing different aspects or roles of a single being. For this view Sabellius was excommunicated for heresy in Rome c. 220. In the fourth century, Arianism, as traditionally understood, taught that the Father existed prior to the Son, not, by nature, God but rather a changeable creature, granted the dignity of becoming "Son of God". In 325, the First C