The impact factor or journal impact factor of an academic journal is a scientometric index that reflects the yearly average number of citations that articles published in the last two years in a given journal received. It is used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field; the impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated yearly starting from 1975 for journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports. ISI was acquired by Thomson Scientific & Healthcare in 1992, became known as Thomson ISI. In 2018, Thomson ISI was sold to Baring Private Equity Asia, they founded a new corporation, now the publisher of the JCR. In any given year, the impact factor of a journal is the number of citations, received in that year, of articles published in that journal during the two preceding years, divided by the total number of "citable items" published in that journal during the two preceding years: For example, Nature had an impact factor of 41.577 in 2017: This means that, on average, its papers published in 2015 and 2016 received 42 citations each in 2017.
Note that 2017 impact factors are reported in 2018. The value of impact factor depends on how to define "citations" and "publications". In current practice, both "citations" and "publications" are defined by ISI as follows. "Publications" are items that are classed as "article", "review" or "proceedings paper" in the Web of Science database. WoS is accessible to all registered users, who can independently verify the number of citable items for a given journal. In contrast, the number of citations is extracted not from the WoS database, but from a dedicated JCR database, not accessible to general readers. Hence, the used "JCR Impact Factor" is a proprietary value, defined and calculated by ISI and can not be verified by external users. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years.
Journal Citation Reports assigns an impact factor to new journals with less than two years of indexing, based on partial citation data. The calculation always uses two complete and known years of item counts, but for new titles one of the known counts is zero. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count; the impact factor relates to a specific time period. For example, the JCR includes a five-year impact factor, calculated by dividing the number of citations to the journal in a given year by the number of articles published in that journal in the previous five years; the impact factor is used to compare different journals within a certain field. The Web of Science indexes more than 11,500 science and social science journals. Journal impact factors are used to evaluate the merit of individual articles and individual researchers; this particular use of impact factors was summarised by Hoeffel: Impact Factor is not a perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation.
Experience has shown that in each specialty the best journals are those in which it is most difficult to have an article accepted, these are the journals that have a high impact factor. Most of these journals existed; the use of impact factor as a measure of quality is widespread because it fits well with the opinion we have in each field of the best journals in our specialty.... In conclusion, prestigious journals publish papers of high level. Therefore, their impact factor is high, not the contrary; as impact factors are a journal-level metric, rather than an article- or individual-level metric, this use is controversial. Garfield agrees with Hoeffel, but warns about the "misuse in evaluating individuals" because there is "a wide variation from article to article within a single journal". Numerous criticisms have been made regarding the use of impact factors. A 2007 study noted that the most fundamental flaw is that impact factors present the mean of data, not distributed, suggested that it would be more appropriate to present the median of these data.
There is a more general debate on the validity of the impact factor as a measure of journal importance and the effect of policies that editors may adopt to boost their impact factor. Other criticism focuses on the effect of the impact factor on behavior of scholars and other stakeholders. Others have made more general criticisms, arguing that emphasis on impact factor results from negative influence of neoliberal policies on academia claiming that what is needed is not just replacement of the impact factor with more sophisticated metrics for science publications but discussion on the social value of research assessment and the growing precariousness of scientific ca
Tomoka Kurokawa, is a Japanese actress. She graduated from Horikoshi High School on February 18, 2008, she began attending Asia University in April 2008. Don't Forget Me | Dai Renai: Boku o Wasureru Kimi to - Yuzuka Sawada Aino Mating Agency Inc | Aino Kekkon Soudanjo - Kana Sawamine I Love You Just a Little Bit | Anata no Koto wa Sorehodo - Rumi Mori The Last Cop - Saori Kashiwagi Comes Morning | Asa ga Kuru - Konomi Hirata Money Angel | Mane no Tenshi - Mika Shirai Aibou: Season 14 - Sayumi Yajima The Concierge | Hoteru Konsheruju - Shiori Miyama DOCTORS 3: The Ultimate Surgeon | DOCTORS 3 Saikyou no Meii TV Asahi / 2015) - Ami Aihara Cinderella Date - Erika Tanaka Kurofuku Monogatari - Ayano Last Doctor | Rasuto Dokuta - Kansatsui Akita no Kenshi Hokoku - Koiso Woman of Maruho | Maruho no Onna - Hoken Hanzai Chosain - Aoi Akamine DOCTORS 2: The Ultimate Surgeon | DOCTORS 2 Saikyou no Meiklejohn - Ami Aihara Confirmation-Grand Theft Squad 3 | Kakusho～Keishicho Sousa 3 Ka - Minayo Tomosaka Sousa Chizu no Onna - Reiko Saotome / Koharu Dr. Ume-chan | Umechan Sensei - Yukiko Suto Answer ~ Keishicho Kensho Sosakan TV Asahi / 2012) - Mayuko Mishima Today is the Best Day | Honjitsu wa Taian Nari - Rumi Asahina DOCTORS: The Ultimate Surgeon | DOCTORS Saikyou no Meii - Ami Aihara CSI: Crime Scene Talks Season 1 | Iryu Sosa TV Asahi / 2011) - ep.2 Jin 2 - Princess Chikako Kazunomiya Kaoruko - Empress of the Night | Jotei Kaoruko - Miki Minamino Bloody Monday 2 as Hibiki Mirai Koshi Meguru Asakusa Fukumaru Ryokan 2 Kikujiro to Saki 3 Kanojo to no Tadashii Asobikata My Sweet Home Kimi ga Hikari wo Kureta Teru Teru Ashita Gachi Baka as Kana Morimoto Satomi Hakkenden Ima Ai ni Yukimasu Ame to Yume no Ato ni 3 nen B gumi Kinpachi sensei 7 Denchi ga Kireru Made Tōbōsha Kokoro Ai Nante Irane Yo, Natsu The Last Cop: The Movie - Saori Kashiwagi Love Gear | Koisuru Haguruma - Risa Fujishima Way - Man of the White Porcelain | Michi - Hakuji no Hito - Mitsue Asada hojotachi no Rashinban - Natsume Hirose Pride | Puraido - Sayaka Higashino Hatsu Kare 8.1 Naruto the Movie 2 Kagen No Tsuki~Last Quarter Official Profile
Winter Poem is the 2011 and the 7th album by Secret Garden. An instrumental album, it features three songs with guest vocals: Moya Brennan of Clannad fame on "The Dream", Fionnuala Gill on "Mary’s Lament", Tracey Campbell and Espen Grjotheim on "Powered By Nature"; the lyrics to "Mary’s Lament" were written by Brendan Graham. He collaborated with Rolf Løvland on You Raise Me Up and The Gates of Dawn."Powered By Nature" and "Suite" were written for Expo 2010 Shanghai China with the first serving as Norway’s official Expo-song. In connection with the record release, Secret Garden will do a concert tour in Norway. Much of the music from "Winter Poem" will be performed in-concert as well as older repertoire from the group's 16 year musical history. Winter Poem spent thirteen weeks on the Billboard Top New Age Albums chart and ranked fifteenth on their year end chart