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Imperial Council (Austria)

The Imperial Council was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary. It was a bicameral body: the upper house was the House of Lords, the lower house was the House of Deputies. To become law, bills had to be passed by both houses, signed by the government minister responsible, granted royal assent by the Emperor. After having been passed, laws were published in the Reichsgesetzblatt. In addition to the Imperial Council, the fifteen individual crown lands of Cisleithania had their own diets; the seat of the Imperial Council from 4 December 1883 was in the Parliament Building on Ringstraße in Vienna. Prior to the completion of this building, the House of Lords met in the Estates House of Lower Austria, the House of Deputies met in a temporary wooden building designed by Ferdinand Fellner on Währinger Straße; the Imperial Council was dissolved on 12 November 1918, following Austria-Hungary's defeat in the First World War. In the course of the Revolutions of 1848, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire incorporated in the German Confederation met in a "Imperial Diet" at Vienna.

The convention was inaugurated by Archduke John on 22 July 1848 and after the Vienna Uprising of October moved to Kroměříž in Moravia. It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom in the Austrian lands, but undertook to draw up a constitution that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state in view of the Austroslavic movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký. On 4 March 1849, minister-president Felix zu Schwarzenberg took the initiative and imposed the March Constitution, which promised the equality of all Austrian people and provided for a bicameral "Imperial Diet", it was only a sidestep, as Schwarzenberg three days forcefully disbanded the Kremsier Parliament and had the constitution annulled with the New Year's Eve Patent of 1851. Emperor Franz Joseph went on to rule with absolute power. In place of the Imperial Diet, he installed an "Imperial Council", whose members were appointed on his authority. In the 1850s, chronic fiscal malaise became acute; the dire nature of the situation was revealed to the Emperor after the Second Italian War of Independence and the bloody defeat of Austrian forces at the 1859 Battle of Solferino.

To calm the domestic front and to gain the support of wealthy Bourgeoisie, Franz Joseph issued the October Diploma in 1860. An "Imperial Diet", still meant as a conciliatory body, was supposed to have 100 delegates elected by provincial diets that were to be established for each Austrian crown land; this electoral system, satisfied neither the bourgeois liberals nor the Hungarian nobility, who refused to accept any authority higher than the Hungarian Diet. For this reason, the Diploma was discarded and replaced by the February Patent of 1861, drafted by liberal minister-president Anton von Schmerling; this established a bicameral Imperial Council: the upper house was the House of Lords, the lower house was the House of Deputies. The House of Lords was convened for the first time on 29 April 1861, it was similar in form to the present day House of Lords of the United Kingdom. It met in the Palais Niederösterreich in Vienna until the Parliament Building was completed in 1883; the House of Lords was composed of: The last meeting of the House of Lords was held on 30 October 1918.

The meeting was adjourned within five minutes. The House of Lords chamber of the Parliament Building was destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, it was rebuilt in a contemporary style, serves as the chamber of the now democratically elected National Council of the Republic of Austria. Upon establishment of the Imperial Council by the February Patent, elections to the House of Deputies were conducted through a system of "curiae". In this system, there were 343 deputies elected by the diets of the crown lands; the diets themselves were elected by four curiae. The curiae were assemblies of certain social classes. There was one curia for the landowning class, one curia for the towns and cities, one curia for the chambers of commerce, one curia for rural communities; each curia would elect a select number of deputies to the diets, which would in turn elect deputies to the Imperial Council. To be part of the curia of the cities and the curia of the rural communities, a man had to pay at least ten guilders in tax.

This system was rejected by Hungary, as with the October Diploma, Hungary never sent any delegates to the Council. The February Patent was suspended in 1865. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Hungary would no longer send deputies to the Imperial Council. Instead, the Empire was reorganised into two equal parts: Transleithania. Cisleithania consisted of the Austrian part of the Empire "the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council". Transleithania consisted of the Kingdom of Hungary and its subordinate, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead of a subordinate regional diet, Hungary was granted its own parliament, attained the status of "sovereign state"; the curia system, remained in place. At this point, the Council had extensive legislative powers in all Cisleithanian matters. Appointment and dismissal of the government of the Cisleithania and the Minister-President remained the right of the emperor; the number of deputies each diet sent to the Imperial Council was set

Frank D. Gilroy

Frank Daniel Gilroy was an American playwright and film producer and director. He received the Tony Award for Best Play and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play The Subject Was Roses in 1965. Gilroy was born on October 13, 1925, in New York City, the son of Bettina and Frank B. Gilroy, a coffee broker, his father was Irish American and his mother was of Italian and German descent. Gilroy attended DeWitt Clinton High School, he enlisted in the U. S. Army after graduation, he served two and a half years in the 89th Division, of which eighteen months were in the European Theater. After the war, Gilroy attended Dartmouth College, where he edited The Dartmouth, the campus newspaper, wrote for Jack-o-Lantern, the college humor magazine, he graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1950. In 1966, he would receive an honorary Doctor of Letters, he received a grant from Dartmouth that allowed him to attend the Yale School of Drama. Gilroy wrote in the Golden Age of Television for such shows as Playhouse 90, Westinghouse Studio One, The United States Steel Hour, Kraft Television Theatre, Lux Video Theatre.

His entrance to theatre was marked with his 1962 play Who'll Save the Plowboy? at the off-Broadway Phoenix Theatre, which won the Obie Award. The play follows a man who once dreamed of owning a farm, becoming a plowboy, he and his wife Helen are awaiting to be reunited fifteen years after World War II, along with Larry Doyle, the man who saved his life. The title comes from when they were in the war, Albert was staked as bait by the Germans, Larry kept shouting "Who'll Save the Plowboy?" until he crept out and saved him. The Subject Was Roses premiered on Broadway on May 25, 1964 and closed on May 21, 1966; the two-act play has been compared to Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night. Walter Kerr said of the show: "a family triangle in which a father loves a son and the mother loves that son and the son loves both mother and father and not one of them can make a move or utter a sound that does not damage the other."That Summer, That Fall, which had a brief run on Broadway in 1967, starring Tyne Daly and Irene Papas is a version of the Hippolytus-Phaedra story.

The play is set in an Italian neighborhood in Lower Manhattan in an apartment complex. Gilroy's works include screenplays for the films The Gallant Hours, he has adapted his own plays for film, including The Subject Was Roses and The Only Game in Town. His 1985 screenplay for The Gig has been adapted as a musical, with book and lyrics by Douglas J. Cohen. A 2006 Off-Broadway presentation and recording by the York Theatre Company starred Karen Ziemba, Stephen Berger, Michele Pawk, Michael McCormick. Gilroy has written fiction, including the novel From Noon Till Three, adapted into a film starring Charles Bronson. In addition to writing the screenplay, Gilroy directed the film. Gilroy contributed to several TV westerns in the late 1950s, including Have Gun – Will Travel, The Rifleman, Wanted: Dead or Alive, he created the popular TV series Burke's Law. His credits include Nero Wolfe, a 1977 adaptation of Rex Stout's novel The Doorbell Rang as a television movie featuring Thayer David. Gilroy's play Far Rockaway was used as the basis for The Hero, a one-act television opera by Mark Bucci premiered in 1965 on National Educational Television.

A supporter and advocate for writers' rights in theatre Frank D. Gilroy was a member of the Dramatists Guild of America. In 1968, he was elected as the fourteenth president of the non-profit organization, he continued his presidency at the Guild until 1971. Gilroy's three sons, from his marriage to sculptor/writer Ruth Dorothy Gaydos, are involved in the film industry. Tony Gilroy and Dan Gilroy are directors, while John Gilroy is a film editor. Frank Gilroy died on September 2015 in Monroe, New York. 1962 Obie Award for Who'll Save the Plowboy? 1964 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for The Subject Was Roses 1964 Outer Critics Circle Award for The Subject Was Roses 1964 New York Theatre Club Award for The Subject Was Roses 1965 Tony Award for The Subject Was Roses 1965 Pulitzer Prize for The Subject Was Roses 1966 Doctor of Letters from Dartmouth College 1971 Silver Bear at the 21st Berlin International Film Festival for Desperate Characters Frank D. Gilroy at the Internet Broadway Database Frank D. Gilroy on IMDb York Theatre Company recording of The Gig Frank Daniel Gilroy at Library of Congress Authorities, with 26 catalog records

Transport in Mysore

Mysore is one of the most important city in Karnataka due to its tourism and proximity with the capital city of Bangalore. It is the second largest urban agglomeration in the state of Karnataka, it has a well established rail transport with other cities in the country. The most popular mode of public transport in the city is KSRTC city buses coming under MCTD Division. Buses are available to all locations in the city as well as towns outside the city. KSRTC MCTD Division has a fleet of around 1000 buses; these buses are majorly semi low floor Non-AC city buses. Other buses include older high floor buses. Mysore was the first city in India to implement Intelligent Transport System with funding from World Bank. There are 4 IMTC Bus stands in Mysore at Kuvempunagar, Sathgalli, R. S Naidunagar, Yelwala Census Town; the main bus stand has 5 bays and 3 bays for suburban busses which ply to towns and villages of the district and free Wifi facilities. Within the city, buses are cheap and popular means of transport, auto-rickshaws are available and tongas are popular with tourists.

Mysore has a 42.5-kilometre long ring road, being upgraded to six lanes by the MUDA. The city has transport services from mobile based taxi services like Ola Cabs, Jugnoo as well, it has mobile based two wheeler taxi Rapido mobile based self ride two wheeler scooters by Bounce and Vogo four wheeler self ride Zoom cars and many more.... A public bicycle sharing system, Trin-Trin, funded by the United Nations is popular mode of transport, it is a government project. The key objective of TrinTrin is to encourage local commuters, as well as visitors, to use the bicycle in preference to motorized modes of travel and thereby help scale down the multifarious environmental and road-traffic hazards, enhance conveyance convenience, make local daily commutes economical for the common citizen. Intercity buses are handled by KSRTC. All the intercity buses are operated through the Rural Bus Stand, the largest of its kind in Mysore. All kinds of services like Airavat, Ambari, Standard buses are available to every city in the state and some cities in the neighbouring states.

There are buses every ten minutes to Bangalore. The KSRTC Rural Bus stand in Mysore hosts a shopping mall/complex with brands such as Reliance Smart, Reliance Digital etc. Other private buses are operated from agencies like SRS Travels, VRL Travels etc; the National Highways passing through Mysore are National Highway 275 National Highway 766 National Highway 150A Mysore Junction railway station is one of the most important stations in the country. It is the headquarters of SWR Mysore Division. Other railway stations in the city are Ashokapuram; the railway station in Naganahalli Village will be made as satellite railway station to Mysore. Mysore railway station has three lines, connecting it to Bengaluru and Chamarajanagar. Railway lines that connect the city to Chamarajanagara and Mangalore are unelectrified single track and the track that connects to Bengaluru is electrified double track. Fastest train to serve. Mysore Airport is a domestic airport that serves the city and is located in Mandakalli village of Mysore.

There are daily flights to Chennai International Airport and to Rajiv Gandhi International Airport and Kadapa Airport via Chennai. Nearest international airport to Mysore is Kempegowda International Airport in Bangalore. Daily FlyBus services are available from Mysore directly to the Bangalore Airport. Flybuses are deluxe multi-axle volvo buses with chemical toilets

Spaghetti Red

Spaghetti Red is a spaghetti dish where the noodles are covered with chili. It originates at Fred and Red's in Joplin, Missouri. A mild, bean-less chili is used in spaghetti red, such as the type used on hot dogs. Spaghetti Red can be served with hot sauce, vinegar and onions are sometimes used for variety. Additional condiments such as pickles, mild shredded cheddar cheese, parmesan cheese and mustard are sometimes used. Regional and restaurant-specific variations include Cincinnati chili, American chop suey, chili spaghetti, chili mac. Restaurants such as Skyline Chili and Steak'n Shake would call the noodle-and-chili combination "2-way chili". Adding ingredients such as shredded cheese and beans re-christen the dish, "3-way", "4-way" and "5-way" respectively. From RecipeZaar: Mac's Spaghetti Red

Cinisello Balsamo

Cinisello Balsamo is a comune of about 75,200 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Milan in the Italian region of Lombardy, about 10 kilometres northeast of Milan city center. Cinisello Balsamo borders the following municipalities: Monza, Muggiò, Nova Milanese, Paderno Dugnano, Cusano Milanino, Sesto San Giovanni, Bresso; the current comune was formed in 1928 by the union of Cinisello and Balsamo, received the honorary title of city through a presidential decree on 17 October 1972. Until the late 1920s, Cinisello and Balsamo were two separate municipalities. By royal decree, on 13 September 1928 a merger was arranged to form the current common; as a symbol, the emblem of the city now encompasses those of the two municipalities merged: the emblem of the pastoral and the sword on a red field in fact belongs to Balsamo, the rampant crowned lion on a blue field belongs to Cinisello. Cinisello is the western part of the city. In another theory resulting from studies done in the Historical Archive of Arms would be that both Cini, both Sello, were ancient and noble Houses from Trentino who settled in the area, providing their names to the same, which were decorated with the title of nobility with special merit achieved for works done in favor of the Fatherland.

Balsamo is the eastern half. Church of Sant'Ambrogio in Cinisello Small church of Sant'Eusebio, dating from Lombard times Shrine of St. Martin Bishop Church of San Martino in Balsamo Villa Ghirlanda Silva Cipelletti with one of the first Landscape garden in Italy, designed by count Ercole Silva in the early of 19th century Gramsci Square is the main square in Cinisello, overlooked by the Church of St. Ambrogio and Villa Arconati. Church of Saint Pio X Church of Saint Joseph worker Church of Saint Peter Church of Sacred Family Church of Santa Margherita Church of San Bernardino Carino of Balsamo, Christian martyr Carlo Oriani, cyclist Valerio Ruggeri, voice actor Ernesto Castano, footballer Pierino Prati and coach Gaetano Scirea and coach Marco Veronese and coach Roberto Cammarelle, boxer Luciano Spinelli and Internet personality Sfera Ebbasta, rapper Mazzarino, Italy Borgo Misto Crocetta Villa Rachele SS36 Province of Milan Lombardy Lombards Official website


Ninia is a genus of colubroid snakes referred to as coffee snakes. The genus consists of 10 species that are native to Mexico, Central America, the northern part of South America; some species are found on the Caribbean islands. There are 11 recognized species: Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than Ninia. Baird SF, Girard C. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part I.—Serpents. Washington, District of Columbia: xvi + 172 pp.. Freiberg M. 1982. Snakes of South America. Hong Kong: T. F. H. Publications. 189 pp. ISBN 0-87666-912-7