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Imperial Crown of Russia

The Imperial Crown of Russia known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the monarchs of Russia from 1762 until the Russian monarchy's abolition in 1917. The Great Imperial Crown was first used in a coronation by Catherine the Great, it was last worn at the coronation of Nicholas II, it was displayed prominently next to Nicholas II on a cushion at the State Opening of the Russian Duma inside the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1906, it survived the 1917 revolution and is on display in Moscow at the Kremlin Armoury's State Diamond Fund. By 1613, when Michael Romanov, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty, was crowned, the Russian regalia included a pectoral cross, a golden chain, a barmas, the Crown of Monomakh and orb. Over the centuries, various Tsars had fashioned their own private crowns, modeled for the most part after the Crown of Monomakh, but these were for personal use and not for the coronation. In 1719, Tsar Peter the Great founded the earliest version of what is now known as the Russian Federation's State Diamond Fund.

Peter had visited other European nations, introduced many innovations to Russia, one of, the creation of a permanent fund to house a collection of jewels that belonged not to the Romanov family, but to the Russian State. Peter placed all of the regalia in this fund and declared that the state holdings were inviolate and could not be altered, sold, or given away—and he decreed that each subsequent Emperor or Empress should leave a certain number of pieces acquired during their reign to the State, for the permanent glory of the Russian Empire. From this collection came a new set of regalia, including the Great Imperial Crown, to replace the Crown of Monomakh and other crowns used by earlier Russian Tsars and Grand Princes of Muscovy, as a symbol of the adoption of the new title of Emperor; the court jeweller Ekart and Jérémie Pauzié made the Great Imperial Crown for the coronation of Catherine the Great in 1762. The beautiful crown reflects Pauzié's skilled workmanship, it is adorned with 4936 diamonds arranged in splendid patterns across the entire surface of the crown Bordering the edges of the "mitre" are a number of fine, large white pearls.

The crown is decorated with one of the seven historic stones of the Russian Diamond Collection: a large precious red spinel weighing 398.72 carats, brought to Russia by Nicholas Spafary, the Russian envoy to China from 1675 to 1678. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world. In formally adopting the Western term "Emperor" for the ruler of Russia, Peter the Great adopted Western imperial symbols, including the form of the private crowns used by the Holy Roman Emperors, in which a circlet with eight fleur-de-lis surrounds a mitre with a high arch extending from the front to the back fleur-de-lis. In Austria some baroque representations of this type of crown found on statues of the saints had transformed the two halves of the mitre into two half-spheres, this is the type of imperial crown used in Russia. Peter’s widow and successor, Catherine I, was the first Russian ruler to wear this form of imperial crown. In the Great Imperial Crown which the court jewellers Pauzié and J. F. Loubierin made for Catherine II in 1762, these hemispheres are in open metalwork resembling basketwork with the edges of both the hemispheres bordered with a row of 37 fine, white pearls.

They rest on a circlet of nineteen diamonds, all averaging over 5 carats in weight, the largest being the large Indian pear-shaped stone of 12⅝ cts in front, set between two bands of diamonds above and below. Posier showed his creative genius by replacing the eight fleur-de-lis with four pairs of crossed palm branches, while the arch between them is made up of oaks leaves and acorns in small diamonds surrounding a number of large diamonds of various shapes and tints running from the front pair of crossed palms to the back pair of crossed palms, while the basketwork pattern of the two hemispheres are divided by two strips of similar oak leaves and acorns from the two side pairs of palm branches stretching up to the rows of large pearls on their borders. At the center and apex of the central arch is a diamond rosette of twelve petals from which rises a large red spinel, weighing 398.72 carats, one of the seven historic stones of the Russian Diamond Collection, brought to Russia by Nicholas Spafary, the Russian envoy to China from 1675 to 1678.

It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world. This spinel, in turn, is surmounted by a cross of five diamonds, representing the Christian faith of the Sovereign, the God-given power of the monarchy and the supremacy of the divine order over earthly power. Except for the two rows of large white pearls the entire surface of the crown is covered with 4936 diamonds and is quite heavy, weighing nine pounds, it was unfinished in time for Catherine's coronation and the original colored stones were replaced with diamonds for the coronation of Paul I in 1797. It was used at every subsequent coronation until that of Nicholas II in 1896 and was last in imperial period at the State Opening of the Duma in 1906. There was a Lesser Imperial Crown similar in style and workmanship to the Great Imperial Crown, only smaller and set with diamonds, made for Empress Maria Feodorovna, the consort of Paul I, used for the coronation of the Tsarina. At the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896, the smaller crown was worn by Dowager Empress

Noor Hossain

Noor Hossain was a Bangladeshi activist, killed by the Bangladesh Police on November 10, 1987, while protesting against President Hussain Muhammad Ershad near Zero Point in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Zero Point was renamed Noor Hossain Square and the anniversary of his death is commemorated each year as Shohid Noor Hossain Day, he is one of the most known martyrs from Bangladesh's pro-democracy movement. Hossain's ancestral home on his father's side was in the village of Jhatibunia, located in Mathbaria Upazila, Pirojpur District, his father was an autorickshaw operator. His family moved to 79/1 Banagram Road, Dhaka after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Noor Hossain attended Radhasundari Primary School, on Banagram Road; when he was in 8th grade at Graduate High School, Hossain quit school because of poverty. He was received training in driving like his father. Interested in politics, Hossain became the publicity secretary of the Banagram unit committee of Dhaka City Joubo League, he was neither well-off nor educated but he embodied the struggle of common people of the country, has become a public symbol.

On November 10, 1987, political opponents came together for what they called a "Dhaka Siege" to demand an end to the rule of President Hussain Muhammad Ershad based on violations of democracy. Although he had been in power since 1982 through a coup d'état, he won the October 1987 election but opponents charged it was a fraud; the Awami League and Bangladesh National Party united in opposition against Ershad's rule. One opposition demand was an election of the National Assembly under a non-partisan caretaker government; the rally turned violent and several leaders and protester Noor Hossain were killed under riot conditions, as well as several hundred injured at the time. Noor Hossain was among three Jubo League members killed at a protest rally; the other two were Aminul Huda Tito. In the aftermath, the opposition called for a nationwide protest strike on November 11 and 12. Hossain is now associated in Bangladesh with pro-democracy. At the time he was shot, his body carried several slogans in white paint.

He wore the slogan "Down with autocracy" on his chest, on his back, he had written the slogan "Let Democracy Be Free". His death raised the visibility of opposition sentiment directed against the Ershad government. Ershad was removed from office December 6, 1990 as a result of the mass movement that grew from the Dhaka Siege. After Ershad was out of office, Khaleda Zia of the BNP was elected as Bangladesh's first female Prime Minister and a year the government established a national date to commemorate the event, it was first called "Historic November 10 observance" but the Awami League supported the phrase "Noor Hossain Day", by which it is known today. Ershad's Jatiya Party became part of the Awami League coalition after his removal, Ershad apologized for Hossain's death; the Jatiya Party does commemorate the day but refers to it as "Democracy Day". Noor Hossain and the square remained significant for protesters after Hossian's death in 1987 and Ershad's removal in 1990. In 1993, the Awami League led protesters to the square on the occasion of the November 10 anniversary against the BNP government, which provoked a reaction from the police.

In 1996, Ershad apologized for Hossain's death before parliament and to Hossain's father. Ershad maintained his apology but criticized the opposition in using Hossain as a symbol against his government. In 2012, he said, "You came up with dead bodies as they were needed to spark demonstration." Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has given her own account of Hossain's death: "I remember what happened on that day. Noor Hossain was standing beside me. I told him they would kill him for what he had inscribed on his chest, he brought his head near the window of my car and said,'Sister, you just bless me. I will sacrifice my life to free democracy."Hasina said, "Bangladesh got back the rights to vote and food in exchange of Shaheed Nur Hossain’s supreme sacrifice."Marium Bibi, Hossain's mother, has most said, "I still don’t see anything for which my son died." In an earlier interview, she said, "It is hard for any mother to lose her son. But I have no sorrows... I am proud of Noor." The event of his death is honored each year as cultural and political organizations sponsor special programs for observance the day.

The day is commemorated as Shohid Noor Hossain Day in Bangladesh. Photographs of Noor Hossain wearing slogans on his chest taken by Dinu Alam and back taken by Pavel Rahaman were taken shortly before his death and become an important visual icon in Bangladesh representing the struggle for democracy. A postage stamp was issued by Bangladesh in honor of his martyrdom. Hossain is the subject of the Bengali film Buk tar Bangladesher hridoy. A fictional character named "Nur Hossain" appears in Neamat Imam's novel The Black Coat Slideshow of images taken during the 1987 protest on YouTube

List of schools in Waikato

The Waikato Region of the North Island of New Zealand contains numerous small rural primary schools, some small town primary and secondary schools, city schools in Hamilton. Schools in the Waitomo District and Taupo Districts that are located in other regions are listed here. Schools in the Rotorua District that are located in the Waikato region are listed at list of schools in the Bay of Plenty Region. In New Zealand schools, students begin formal education in Year 1 at the age of five. Year 13 is the final year of secondary education. Years 14 and 15 refer to adult education facilities. State schools are those funded by the government and at which no fees for tuition of domestic students can be charged, although a donation is requested. A state integrated school is a former private school with a special character based on a religious or philosophical belief, integrated into the state system. State integrated schools charge "attendance dues" to cover the building and maintenance of school buildings, which are not owned by the government, but otherwise they like state schools cannot charge fees for tuition of domestic students but may request a donation.

Private schools charge fees to its students for tuition, as do state and state integrated schools for tuition of international students. The socioeconomic decile indicates the socioeconomic status of the school's catchment area. A decile of 1 indicates; the decile ratings used here come from the Ministry of Education Te Kete Ipurangi website and from the decile change spreadsheet listed in the references. The deciles of all schools were last revised using information from the 2006 Census, may change for some schools between Censuses as schools open and merge; the roll of each school changes as students start school for the first time, move between schools, graduate. The rolls given here are those provided by the Ministry of Education are based on figures from November 2012; the Ministry of Education institution number links to the Education Counts page for each school. The Coromandel Learning Centre was a private coeducational primary school for years 1-8, in Coromandel. Coromandel Rudolf Steiner School was a small private full primary school.

It closed at the end of 2007. The Church College of New Zealand closed in 2009. Te Kete Ipurangi Ministry of Education website ERO school and early childhood education reports Education Review Office Decile change 2007 to 2008 for state & state integrated schools